Principles and Practices in Continuous Deployment at Etsy

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Presented at ALM Forum 2014. …

Presented at ALM Forum 2014.

Like what you've read? We're frequently hiring for a variety of engineering roles at Etsy. If you're interested, drop me a line or send me your resume: mike@etsy.com.

http://www.etsy.com/careers

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  • 1. Principles and Practices in Continuous Deployment Mike Brittain Engineering Director, Etsy @mikebrittain mikebrittain.com/talks
  • 2. “Continuous Deployment” Process by which our team deploys software changes to production services over 30 times per day.
  • 3. Where we started Principles for our Engineering team Continuous Deployment Business case
  • 4. Five years ago… 2-3 weeks of code changes Release and rollback plans Traffic and infrastructure management (Ops) 6-14 hours
  • 5. Five years ago… “Deployment Army” Stressful, especially when things go wrong Long days and late nights Scheduled downtime
  • 6. pro·duc·tion [pruh-duhk-shuhn] (n) 1. This complex system of application code, distributed services, servers, networking gear, etc., upon which we’re going to try to carefully apply a complicated set of changes and hope that nothing goes wrong. Cross your fingers… here goes.
  • 7. Software for large-scale web sites has been traditionally written by one group of people, then released and operated by a different group. These two groups have very different levels of visibility into how the software works.
  • 8. Stagnation
  • 9. “…frequent and prolonged outages.” 2010 CAPACITY PLAN
  • 10. First, Principles.
  • 11. Innovate or die
  • 12. Innovate or die Resolve scaling hurdles
  • 13. Innovate or die Resolve scaling hurdles Mean-time-to-recovery
  • 14. “Quality is not just testing pre-release. It also includes our adaptability and response time.” - Jeff Sussna at ALM Forum, 2014
  • 15. Innovate or die Resolve scaling hurdles Mean-time-to-recovery
  • 16. Innovate or die Resolve scaling hurdles Mean-time-to-recovery Healthy and talented engineering team
  • 17. Autonomy, Mastery, Purpose. “Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us.” ~Dan Pink, at RSA http://youtu.be/u6XAPnuFjJc
  • 18. Innovate or die Resolve scaling hurdles Mean-time-to-recovery Healthy and talented engineering team Stop stressing about releases
  • 19. First, Principles.
  • 20. http://timothyfitz.com/2009/02/10/continuous-deployment-at-imvu-doing-the-impossible-fifty-times-a-day/ In a software release process Fail Fast means releasing undeployed code as fast as possible, instead of waiting for a weekly release to break.
  • 21. http://youtu.be/LdOe18KhtT4
  • 22. SECRET WEAPON:
 Hired as VP, Tech-Ops at Etsy
  • 23. Continuous Deployment Continuous Delivery ~ vs ~
  • 24. Frequent check-ins directly to mainline. Continuous Deployment Continuous Delivery ✓ ✓
  • 25. Continuous Integration and Automated tests. Continuous Deployment Continuous Delivery ✓ ✓
  • 26. Keep the build green. We’re always ready to release. Continuous Deployment Continuous Delivery ✓ ✓
  • 27. “One button” deploys. Continuous Deployment Continuous Delivery ✓ ✓
  • 28. Business dictates when a build is deployed. Continuous Deployment Continuous Delivery ✓
  • 29. Every passing build is deployed to production. Continuous Deployment Continuous Delivery ✓
  • 30. All enhancements are gated by Config Flags. (“Branch in code”) Continuous Deployment Continuous Delivery ✓ ?
  • 31. Most of the builds we deploy are “dark” changes.
  • 32. CSS rules and properties Copy in templates (e.g. typos) New, un-referenced code (e.g. classes, funcs, templates) Code paths behind disabled config flags etc…
  • 33. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Feedback Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuous_delivery Continuous Delivery release pipeline
  • 34. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Feedback Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuous_delivery Continuous Delivery release pipeline
  • 35. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Feedback Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Approval ApprovalFeedback Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuous_delivery Continuous Delivery release pipeline
  • 36. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Feedback Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Approval ApprovalFeedback Continuous Delivery release pipeline Dev / Integration Staging Production
  • 37. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Feedback Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Approval ApprovalFeedback Continuous Delivery release pipeline Dev / Integration Staging Production Assumptions: Staging is a perfect reflection of Production, with respect to hardware, configurations, data, overall load, capacity, etc. Deploy process is infallible.
  • 38. “What do you mean, ‘it’s not working in production?’ I TESTED IT BEFORE WE RELEASED!”
  • 39. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Continuous Delivery release pipeline Dev / Integration Staging Production Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval
  • 40. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Continuous Delivery release pipeline Dev / Integration Staging Production Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Feedback
  • 41. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Continuous Delivery release pipeline Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Feedback "Because you’re integrating so frequently, there is significantly less back- tracking to discover where things went wrong , so you can spend more time building features.” ! —ThoughtWorks ! ! http://www.thoughtworks.com/continuous-integration Dev / Integration Staging Production
  • 42. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Continuous Delivery release pipeline Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Feedback Dev / Integration Staging Production Where’s the bug? ! In one of the numerous check-ins? Missing unit tests? Missing automated UA tests? Missing manual UA tests?
  • 43. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Continuous Delivery release pipeline Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Feedback Dev / Integration Staging Production Where’s the bug? ! In one of the numerous check-ins? Missing unit tests? Missing automated UA tests? Missing manual UA tests? ! Data out of sync? Server configurations out of sync? Capacity vs. current load? Deployment script?
  • 44. Dev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Release Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Continuous Delivery release pipeline Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Approval Check in Trigger Trigger Approval Feedback Dev / Integration Staging Production How will we know when something is wrong in production? ! How long will it take to resolve the issue? Check in Trigger
  • 45. We aim to reduce fundamental surprise in every release.
  • 46. Furthermore, we optimize for detecting and recovering from failures quickly.
  • 47. Pre-production validation Code deployed to de-pooled application (web) servers touching prod services and databases. Smoke tests Integration tests Functional tests User-Acceptance (ad hoc)
  • 48. Production validation Exactly the same server configs, services and data as pre-prod, but this is where we introduce application code to live traffic.
  • 49. Production validation Exactly the same server configs, services and data as pre-prod, but this is where we introduce application code to live traffic. Smoke tests (esp. over public hostnames) User-Acceptance testing behind config flags Gratuitous monitoring Customer support and forums
  • 50. Single release Many releases 50K LOC/month Few opportunities for failure
 Wide surface area (50,000 LOC) High MTTR ! All of the bugs we’ve written More opportunities for failure Narrow surface area (< 100 LOC) Low MTTR ! A fraction of the bugs we’ve
 written per release Imagine that we’ll write
  • 51. Monitoring
  • 52. Monitoring PHP Warnings Bug Reports and Help Requests
  • 53. Deploy logs
  • 54. Post-Mortems
  • 55. Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Approval Approval Smoke Tests User Acceptance! Tests ReleaseDev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Deploy (Prod) Monitoring and Automated Alerts Continuous Deployment release pipeline Feedback
  • 56. Dev Pre-Production (“Princess”) Production Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Approval ApprovalFeedback Smoke Tests User Acceptance! Tests ReleaseDev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Deploy (Prod) Monitoring and Automated Alerts Continuous Deployment release pipeline CI
  • 57. Dev Pre-Production (“Princess”) Production Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Approval ApprovalFeedback Smoke Tests User Acceptance! Tests ReleaseDev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Deploy (Prod) Monitoring and Automated Alerts Continuous Deployment release pipeline CI Approval Approval Feedback Feedback Feedback
  • 58. Dev Pre-Production (“Princess”) Production Check in Trigger Feedback Trigger Feedback Approval ApprovalFeedback Smoke Tests User Acceptance! Tests ReleaseDev Team Version Control Build & Unit Tests Automated Acceptance Tests User Acceptance Tests Deploy (Prod) Monitoring and Automated Alerts Continuous Deployment release pipeline CI Approval Approval Feedback Feedback Feedback Approval Feedback Approval Feedback
  • 59. “Allow buttons properly to inherit color from their parent node.”
  • 60. Five years ago… 2-3 weeks of code changes Release and rollback plans Traffic and infrastructure management (Ops) 6-14 hours
  • 61. Five years ago… “Deployment Army” Stressful, especially when things go wrong Long days and late nights Scheduled downtime
  • 62. Why do we do this?
  • 63. Innovate or die. Resolve scaling hurdles. Mean-time-to-recovery. Healthy and talented engineering team. Stop stressing about releases.
  • 64. Innovate or die. Resolve scaling hurdles. Mean-time-to-recovery. Healthy and talented engineering team. Stop stressing about releases.
  • 65. Admin-launch and whitelist Ramp-up public traffic
  • 66. mainline header_redesign search_filter_custom_orders checkout_blue_button listing_css_refactor
  • 67. www.etsy.com beta01.etsy.com beta02.etsy.com beta03.etsy.com
  • 68. www.etsy.com beta01.etsy.com beta02.etsy.com beta03.etsy.com
  • 69. US","region":"US","detected_currency_code":"USD","detected_language":"en- US","detected_region":"US","accept-languages":"en-US","cdn- provider":"","isMobileDevice":"0","isMobileSupported":"0","isMobileRequestIgnoreCookie":"0" ,"isTabletSupported":"0","isTouch":"0","isEtsyApp":"0","isPreviewRequest":"0","isChromeInst antRequest":"0","isMozPrefetchRequest":"0","listing_ids": [104073511,130604774,159651433,155451607,160523743,124025232,95186610,82967340,114692884,11 4767467,117266897,157579748],"scheduled_modules_content_ids": [10808052776,10256029946],"primary_event":"1",".event_source":"web",".event_logger":"fronte nd","php_ab_test_names":"translation_profiler.profiling;translation_profiler.logging;transl ation_profiler.backend_event_logging;footer_redesign_20131201;international.languages.el;in ternational.languages.ja;international.languages.no;international.languages.pl;internationa l.languages.ro;international.languages.tr;simplified_locale_experience;full_site_ssl;admin_ toolbar;enabled_locale_subdirectories;affiliates.publishing.user_publishers;buyer_invites_r ecipients;home_improvement;home_improvement.new_homepage;authoritative_items;refactored_foo ter;conversations.rejuvination;contextual_homepage_recs.global;css_from_www;shrinkray.css;c srf_nonce_refactor.allow_colon;csrf_nonce_refactor.reverse_order;csrf_nonce_refactor.no_enc Analytics connected to config names
  • 70. Catapult
  • 71. Observed impact Time series data for duration of the experiment
  • 72. Observed impact Time series data for duration of the experiment
  • 73. Frank Product Manager
  • 74. “I want to find out whether buyers will favor a single price for the product that includes shipping.” https://www.etsy.com/shop/lucra
  • 75. Eligibility requirements: - Must be first page of visit - Buyer & seller in same region - etc…
  • 76. Time: < 8 hours Staff: One ! Design, config flag (disabled), eligibility code in controller, template code, CSS, code review, automated tests, deployed code, config flag enabled.
  • 77. We do not bundle the item price and shipping cost together today. ! https://www.etsy.com/shop/lucra
  • 78. Ambitious Product Goal
  • 79. Ambitious Product Goal Monolithic Building and measuring many things at once.
  • 80. Ambitious Product Goal Monolithic Building and measuring many things at once. Iterative One thing at a time, our design goal is always in sight.
  • 81. Time: < 8 hours Staff: One ! Design, config flag (disabled), eligibility code in controller, template code, CSS, code review, automated tests, deployed code, config flag enabled. Deployed Deployed
  • 82. Is this for me?
  • 83. http://timothyfitz.com/2009/02/10/continuous-deployment-at-imvu-doing-the-impossible-fifty-times-a-day/ “Maybe this is just viable for a single developer … your site will be down. A lot.”
  • 84. etsystatus.com
  • 85. @mikebrittain Very end of 2009 Today DEPLOYMENTSPERDAY APPCODE CONFIGFILES
  • 86. $1.35 Billion Goods sold in 2013 60+ Million Unique visitors per month ! 175+ Committers, everyone deploys http://www.etsy.com/blog/news/2013/etsy-statistics-december-2012-weather-report/Items by anjaysdesigns, betwixxt, OneStarLeatherGoods, mediumcontrol, TheDesignPallet
  • 87. Thank you. Mike Brittain Engineering Director, Etsy @mikebrittain mikebrittain.com/talks