How to treat a heart attack


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How to treat a heart attack

  1. 1. How to treat a heart attack<br />Michael Lewis<br />AofA Membership Number: DID604SID646830688<br />
  2. 2. Aim & Objectives<br />Aim:<br />To explain the current First Aid procedures for treating a casualty who is (or may be) experiencing a heart attack.<br />Objectives:<br />By the end of this session you will be able to:<br />Recognise the common signs & symptoms of a heart attack.<br />Provide initial assistance prior to the arrival of professional medical help.<br />
  3. 3. How the heart works<br />The heart is made up of 4 chambers. <br />Each chamber has a valve that allows blood to pass through the heart to the lungs, other organs and tissue’s of the body.<br />The left ventricle chamber is the most important.<br />
  4. 4. What is a heart attack?<br />What is the difference between a heart attack and a cardiac arrest?<br />
  5. 5. What is a heart attack?<br />Heart attacks happen when a coronary artery carrying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle is blocked. <br />If the blood supply is cut off, a part of the heart muscle dies - or infarcts. <br />A heart attack is also known as a myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary thrombosis. <br />
  6. 6. The common signs and symptoms<br />Heart disease kills more people in the UK than any other condition.<br />Around 275,000 people will have a heart attack this year (approx 753 every day).<br />110,000 will die from the heart attack.<br />How would you know if someone was having a heart attack at your work place?<br />
  7. 7. The common signs and symptoms<br />Crushing pain in the chest<br />Pain in the left arm<br />Shortness of breath<br />Greyness, Cyanosis<br />Cold, Clammy skin<br />Generally feeling un-well<br />Often mistaken for indigestion<br />Plus signs and symptoms of cardiogenic shock<br />
  8. 8. The common signs and symptoms<br />
  9. 9. Primary Survey<br />D = Danger <br />to you, the casualty, and others<br />R = Response <br />Alert – Voice – Pain - Unresponsive (Scale)<br />S = shout for help (if on your own)<br />A = Airway<br />B = Breathing <br />Triage: Breathing,Bleeding, Severe Burns & Bones<br />
  10. 10. Treatment<br />Primary Survey (D-R-s-A-B)<br />Help the casualty down to the ground<br />Sit the casualty in the ‘W’ position (shown)<br />Loosen any tight clothing around their upper chest and neck<br />Call 999 or 112<br />Reassure casualty<br />Help them take any medication they may have<br />Be prepared to perform CPR<br />
  11. 11. Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation<br />Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is the name given to the process by which oxygen can be circulated around a persons body when they have suffered respiratory and cardiac arrest. <br />The term Basic Life Support (BLS) is also used. <br />INFANT:0-1 YR.<br />CHILD:1 YR.-PUBERTY<br />ADULT:PUBERTY ONWARDS<br />
  12. 12. Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation<br />PLACE HANDS IN THE CENTRE OF THE CHEST<br />
  13. 13. Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation<br />STERNUM<br />(BREAST-BONE)<br />RIBCAGE<br />HEART<br />SPINE<br />
  14. 14. Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation<br />Chest compressions to breaths ratio’s<br />Adult<br />30 compressions : 2 breaths (100per min) 4-5 cm<br />Child, Infant<br />5 initial breaths, 30 compressions, 2 breaths (100per min) 1/3 of chest<br />Drowned Casualty<br />5 initial breaths, 30 compressions, 2 breaths (100per min) 1/3 of chest if child or infant, 4-5 cm if adult<br />Compression only CPR<br />100per min, until the casualty makes a recovery<br />
  15. 15. Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation<br />Practical workshop – CPR on Adult Manikin.<br />When performing CPR you need to continue until:<br />The casualty makes a recovery<br />Paramedics take over from you<br />Another First Aider arrives <br />You are too exhausted to carry on<br />
  16. 16. Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation<br />‘The Chain of Survival’<br />Early Access<br />Early CPR<br />Early Defibrillation<br />Early Advanced Life Support<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />
  17. 17. Plenary<br />Summary of session<br />Any questions?<br />Handouts & Face shields<br />