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Heart Attack


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Student presentation for PDHPE class.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
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Heart Attack

  1. 1. Heart Attacks By Lauren O’Dea
  2. 2. The Heart <ul><li>The Heart is an extremely important muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>The Heart sends blood around the body, this then supplies the body with nutrients such as oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>The heart is split into 4 chambers: Left atrium, Right Atrium, Left Ventricle and Right Ventricle. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The heart acts as a pump, the right side of the heart receives blood from the body, and then pumps it to the lungs. Whilst the left side receives blood from the lungs, and pumps it out to the body.” </li></ul><ul><li>The heart fills with blood, before each beat, then the muscle contracts and squirts the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The left Atrium fills with blood then passes it onto the left ventricle. From here the blood is removed from the heart. The atrium fills with blood for the next contraction. Whilst the ventricles squeeze. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The nature of a Heart Attack <ul><li>A heart attack is also known as a Myocardial Infarction. “A condition that occurs when a coronary artery becomes critically narrowed or blocked and part of the heart becomes starved of oxygen. This can lead to a clot which may develop on the lining of the coronary artery, preventing blood flow beyond the clot.” The most common reason for a heart attack to occur is due to the blockage of a coronary artery after an unstable collection of white blood cells and lipids (including cholesterol) has been located to the wall of an artery. Therefore leading to a heart attack. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Nature of a Heart Attack <ul><li>If there is no early recognition or medical support, the heart attack may cause heart rhythm disturbances and lead to sudden cardiac arrest. </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis is a disease, that causes a heart attack. It is when plaque builds up on the insides of you arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances.” Overtime this becomes hard and begins to narrow the arteries. This therefore reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to organs. This can result in a heart attack or death. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symptoms and Signs of a Heart Attack <ul><li>“ A sign is a perceptible indication of something not immediately apparent”. </li></ul><ul><li>Whilst a symptom is any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient”. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom of heart attack include: </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Pale, cold and sweaty skin </li></ul>
  6. 6. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Chest pain or tightness (often described as heavy, dull or crushing). </li></ul><ul><li>Distress </li></ul><ul><li>Pain spreading- from chest to neck to throat, jaw, shoulders, the back even both arms, wrists or hands </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul>
  7. 7. How to Manage a person having a Heart Attack <ul><li>If responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Call for an ambulance urgently </li></ul><ul><li>Help victim in position of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage victim to rest and reassure them </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow them to move around if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Loosen any tight clothing if possible, this will assist with breathing </li></ul><ul><li>If victim has their own medication assist them in taking it </li></ul><ul><li>Provide supplementary oxygen if it is avaliable </li></ul><ul><li>Do not leave the victim unattended </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared for possible unconsciousness </li></ul>
  8. 8. Management <ul><li>If Responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Call an ambulance </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a DRABCD </li></ul><ul><li>Danger- to yourself, bystanders and victims. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness-check the Airway and signs of life, providing rescue Breathing and chest Compressions, and providing Defibrillation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide supplemental oxygen if available. </li></ul><ul><li>Danger-Check for dangers to yourself, bystanders and casualty. Examples include: fire, traffic or chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Response- Check for a response- Can you hear me?, Open your eyes, What’s you name?, Squeeze my hand? </li></ul><ul><li>Airways- Check and clear airways. Position casualty on their back support the head, whilst tilting it, check and clear the mouth of any objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing- If no signs of life- give 2 rescue breaths, whilst the victim is in head tilt, to open the airway. If signs of life-Position casualty on their side ensure the airway remains clear </li></ul><ul><li>Compression- If still no signs of life begin CPR.2 breaths, 30 compressions in 20 seconds. Compress to 1/3 rd of chest depth. Continue till signs of life return. (this CPR performed on adult differs with children and infants) </li></ul><ul><li>Defibrillation- If trained early defibrillation increases a casualties chances o survival. Follow all its prompts. If not trained in this area, continue CPR til medical help arrives . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bibliography <ul><li>Heart Foundation (date unknown) Heart Attack (online) retrieved 23/08/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Google Definitions (date unknown) Sign (online) = retrieved 23/08/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Google Definitions (date unknown) Symptom (online) retrieved 23/08/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Kids Health (1995) Your Heart and circulatory system (online) retrieved 24/08/08 </li></ul><ul><li>Lippmann J. and Natoli D. (2006) First Aid . J.L Publications: New South Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Able Publishing (2003) First Aid. Melbourne, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>National heart and blood institute (2007) Atherosclerosis (online) retrieved 24/08/08 </li></ul>