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  1. 1. Stroke by Rebecca Lang
  2. 2. What is a stroke? <ul><li>“ A stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel or artery, or when a blood vessel breaks and interrupts blood flow to an and bleeding occurs into an area of the brain. “ </li></ul><ul><li>The blood supply to the brain is disrupted and thus causing the brain to shut down. </li></ul><ul><li>It may also be known as cerebrovascular disease. </li></ul><ul><li>people need to be aware that when a mini-stroke occurs it can be a warning sign of a more serious stroke. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There are to main types of strokes: </li></ul><ul><li>Ischaemic (blocked artery) - this is when a artery to the brain becomes blocked and does not allow blood to flow to the brain. The tissue around the centre of the clot will started to die and if oxygen does not reach the brain within a few minutes the rest of the blocked area will start to die. This is the most common type of stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>Haemorrhagic stroke (brain bleed) - this is when a blood vessel ruptures in the brain. The blood spurts under high pressure causing a tear in the soft tissue. The brain is then squashed by a blood clot which is formed because of the rupture. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Signs <ul><li>There are a few signs which can be identified as a result of a person having a stroke. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drooping of one side of the mouth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty swallowing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty speaking or understanding what people are saying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trouble seeing (blurred vision) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pupils are unequal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced level of either consciousness or unconsciousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pale skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trouble walking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of balance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Signs cont. <ul><li>There is an easy way to remember the signs of a stroke. The acronym FAST is used to distinguish whether or not a person has suffered a stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>F acial weakness- has their mouth or eye/s drooped? It also involves observing whether the person is able to smile </li></ul><ul><li>A rm weakness- can the person raise their arms </li></ul><ul><li>S peech difficulty- are they able to speak or understand what people are saying </li></ul><ul><li>T ime to act- call an ambulance or seek urgent medical aid </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symptoms <ul><li>There are several symptoms of a stroke that may appear suddenly. These symptoms may include some of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headache (this may be severe with fast onset) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numbness in the limbs or face </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness, numbness or paralysis on one or both sides of the body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Management <ul><li>If the person is conscious: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An ambulance needs to be called urgently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always reassure the victim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place them in a comfortable position (one that suits them) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide oxygen, only if it is available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If the person is unconscious: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Call an ambulance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct a primary survey (i.e. DRABCD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide oxygen, only if it is available </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Prevention <ul><li>It is important that if stroke runs in the family that extra care should be taken to avoid the chance of having one. </li></ul><ul><li>Both lifestyle chances and checks by the doctor can prevent a stroke from occurring. </li></ul><ul><li>Things that may be done to reduce the risk of a stroke are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go for regular check-ups at the doctors- check blood pressure, cholesterol, the heart beat and for diabetes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate and balanced diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular exercise and manage weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce stress levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try not to smoke </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Bibliography <ul><li>Better Health Chanel (2008) Stroke- signs and symptoms (online). retrieved 27.07.08 </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke Foundation (2007) What is a Stroke? (online). retrieved 27.07.08 </li></ul><ul><li>Lippmann, J & Natoli, D (2006) “First Aid” J.L Publications: Ashburton, Victoria </li></ul>