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2012 05-01 vator tv -science of gamification v01b-slideshare

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Gamification made it into Gartner’s Hype Cycle as an Emergent Technology in 2011. But what is gamification? It is certainly not about social games like FarmVille, or the blind application of badges ...

Gamification made it into Gartner’s Hype Cycle as an Emergent Technology in 2011. But what is gamification? It is certainly not about social games like FarmVille, or the blind application of badges like FourSquare. More importantly, why does it work? What’s the magic behind gamification that can apparently make people do something that they normally don’t? This session not only addresses these questions, it will do so through the lens of behavioral economics and psychology. It will provide you with a framework, which you may use to evaluate the effectiveness of any future gamification strategies. Moreover, you can use it as a design paradigm to create your own gamification.

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2012 05-01 vator tv -science of gamification v01b-slideshare 2012 05-01 vator tv -science of gamification v01b-slideshare Presentation Transcript

  • The Science of GamificationMichael Wu, PhD (mich8elwu)Principal Scientist of AnalyticsVator SparkMay 1st, 2012
  • Most images in thisdeck have active links to related resources. Explore! twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 2
  • agenda▪ Gamification basics • What is gamification? What is it not? • What does gamification mean to your business?▪ Why gamification works? The behavioral perspective • Motivation: the motivational psychology • Ability: the access to resources • Trigger: the proper call to action▪ Applications + advance topics in gamification • Overjustification + sustainable gamification strategies • The evaluative framework + design paradigm for gamification (with examples) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 3
  • what is gamification? twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 4
  • what is gamification?▪ Gamification: • The use of game attributes to drive game-like player behavior in a non-game context with predictability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 5
  • what is gamification?▪ Gamification: • The use of game attributes to drive game-like player behavior in a non-game context with predictability • game attributes • game mechanics, game dynamics, game design principles, gaming psychology, player journey, narratives, incentives, etc. twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 6
  • what is gamification?▪ Gamification: • The use of game attributes to drive game-like player behavior in a non-game context with predictability • game attributes • game mechanics, game dynamics, game design principles, gaming psychology, player journey, narratives, incentives, etc. • game-like player behavior • engagement, interaction, competition, collaboration, awareness, learning, obsession, and/or any other observed player behavior during game play twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 7
  • what is gamification?▪ Gamification: • The use of game attributes to drive game-like player behavior in a non-game context with predictability • game attributes • game mechanics, game dynamics, game design principles, gaming psychology, player journey, narratives, incentives, etc. • game-like player behavior • engagement, interaction, competition, collaboration, awareness, learning, obsession, and/or any other observed player behavior during game play • non-game context • work, education, health & fitness, sale & marketing, community participation, civic engagement, volunteerism, goodwill, etc. (anything but a game) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 8
  • what does gamification mean to your business?▪ Understanding connection vs. interaction (engagement)▪ Social networks connects people • It determines who connects to whom • But it doesn’t determine who interacts with whom▪ A connection is required but not sufficient to guarantee interaction▪ Connection is easy to maintain, interaction is much harder • Connection: only takes 1 action, no subsequent actions are required: Once connected, you’ll always be a connection • Interaction: requires persistent actions over time twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 9
  • realizing the value of your connections▪ The potential value of a connection is huge • That is why Facebook received ~$40 billion valuation twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 10
  • realizing the value of your connections▪ Potential value through influence • Connection to other fans, customers, or consumers  can potentially influence them through WOM  business gain value through customer acquisition & accelerated adoption • But w/o interaction, there is no way to spread WOM▪ Potential value through loyalty • Connection to brands  can potentially build stronger/deeper customer-brand relationship  business gain value through persistent consumption of product & service • But w/o interaction, you can’t build any relationship twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 11
  • realizing the value of your connections▪ The latent value of a connection (a fan / friend) is the potential to interact • When people actually interact, they can realize this value • If fans (connections to brands) don’t interact, they cannot realize their latent value (e.g. WOM influence, loyalty, etc.)▪ Nevertheless, connections do have value, interactions simply create greater value▪ Gamification is great at driving action, interaction, adoption, etc. twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 12
  • what can gamification do for your business?▪ 3 of the most common commercial use case of gamification • Deepens engagement • Internally: collaboration between teams + employees • Externally: collaboration between customers • Sustains loyalty • Onboards new users (employees, customers)▪ So what? customer spending average customer 2.5x community user superfan 10x twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 13
  • agenda▪ Gamification basics • What is gamification? What is it not? • What does gamification mean to your business?▪ Why gamification works? The behavioral perspective • Motivation: the motivational psychology • Ability: the access to resources • Trigger: the proper call to action▪ Applications + advance topics in gamification • Overjustification + sustainable gamification strategies • The evaluative framework + design paradigm for gamification (with examples) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 14
  • what’s the magic behind gamification? CommunalResponse Collection Countdown Discovery Variable Ratio Fun Once, Cross SituationalCollaboration Delayed Lottery Reward ScheduleReputation Fun Always Leader-boards Mechanics Fixed Ratio Status Free Lunch Serendipity Points Moral Hazard SocialShell Game Communal Reward Schedule Modifiers of Game PlayCohesion Interval Discovery LoyaltyRank Leader-boards Avoidance Reinforcement Reinforcer Appointment Schedules Virtual Items Reward Schedules Urgent Privacy Envy Optimism Dynamic Chain SchedulesSet Completion Companion Epic MeaningMicro Leader-boardsLoss Aversion Cascading Rolling Social Fabric of Games Gaming ContingencyViral Game Mechanics Free Lunch Information Physical Level Up Virality Pride Achievement Theory Goods Behavioral Contrast Endless Infinite Gameplay Combos Games Disincentives Ownership Variable Interval Reward Schedules Progression Dynamic Fixed Interval Behavioral Momentum Blissful Ratio Reward Real-time Reward Schedules Extinction Productivitytwitter: mich8elwu Schedules Quest Mechanics linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 15
  • behavior model▪ Fogg Behavior Model (FBM): • 3 Factors underlying human behavior • Temporal convergence of 3 factors MotivationAction Ability Trigger wants can told to twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 16
  • behavior model▪ Fogg Behavior Model (FBM): Trigger • 3 Factors underlying human behavior • Temporal convergence of 3 factors Motivation activation threshold Action Ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 17
  • what motivates people▪ Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) Game mechanics/dynamicsbeing-needs(meta-needs) status, achievements, ranks, reputation, etc.deficiency social cohesion, virality &needs most communal/community dynamics security, money (gambling) food, water, etc twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 18
  • what motivates people ▪ Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) Game mechanics/dynamics being-needs (meta-needs)Maslow’s meta-motivators: twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 19
  • what motivates people ▪ Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) Dan Pink’s intrinsic Game mechanics/dynamics motivators (2009) DRiVEMaslow’s meta-motivators: twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 20
  • what motivates people ▪ Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) Dan Pink’s intrinsic Game mechanics/dynamics motivators (2009) ownership, blissful productivity, DRiVE autonomyMaslow’s meta-motivators: serendipity, etc. mastery points, progression, level up, set completion, etc. purpose epic meaning, quest, discovery, justice, save the world, etc. twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 21
  • Watson & Skinner: Learning & Conditioning▪ Human behaviors are learned through conditioning • Radical: disregard innate needs, only use external conditions & reinforcement • The conditioned reinforcers (which are usually some kind of points) are learned and they become the motivator • However, points themselves are not inherently rewarding▪ Proper use of points depends on the reward schedule • When, how many, and at what rate the points are given (or taken away) • Progression and level up dynamics twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 22
  • Watson & Skinner: Learning & Conditioning▪ Fixed-interval (FI) schedule • Drives activity near deadline Reward Schedules • Count down & appointment dynamic▪ Fix-interval (FI) and fixed-ratio (FR) • Learning new behaviors (e.g. training)▪ Variable-interval (VI) • Reinforcing established behaviors▪ Variable-ratio (VR) • Maintaining a behavior  game addiction • Serendipity + surprise  lottery mechanic (anticipatory motivators) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 23
  • Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: Flow▪ Flow: an optimal state of intrinsic motivation • Forget about physical feelings (e.g. hunger, sleep), passage of time, and their ego▪ Skill ~ Challenge  Flow▪ Certainty vs. Uncertainty • People love the control state • People hate the boredom state • People like arousal • People dislike worry twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 24
  • Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: Flow▪ People acquire skills over time  move into the relaxation/boredom state steep learning curve to get back to flow • We are motivated by challenges, shallow surprises, and varieties, to avoid way too hard learning boredom curve • IRL, matching challenge to a bit too hard people’s skills exactly is hard • They are either too easy (boring) or too hard (frustrating) too easy▪ In good gamification, we can control the level of difficulty twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 25
  • what empowers people with greater ability?▪ Ability ≠ skill▪ Ability is a measure of your access to the resources at the moment when you need to perform the behavior • Effort resources: physical effort + mental effort • Scarce resources: time, money, authority/permission, attention, rare skills, etc. • Adaptability resources: capacity to break norms, which may be personal (routines), social, behavioral, cultural, etc.▪ Ability is context dependent • Depends on individual: different people have access to different resources • Depends on context: access to resources can be lost and regained twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 26
  • ability = simplicity▪ 2 perspectives on ability • User perspective: ability (reality) activation • Task perspective: simplicity (perceptual) threshold Motivation▪ 2 ways to push a user beyond his activation threshold • Hard way: Increase his real ability by motivating him to train & practice • Easier way: Increase the task’s perceived simplicity (or user’s perceived ability) Ability▪ Simplicity empowers users  endows them w/ greater ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 27
  • perceived ability (simplicity)▪ A task is perceived simple if you can complete it with fewer resources than you expect • You expect the task to be harder▪ Some game mechanics/dynamics designed to increase perceived ability (simplicity) • Divide and conquer • Cascading information theory • Chaining reward schedules • Behavioral momentum (people’s tendency to follow personal norms, routines) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 28
  • what is a trigger and why is it needed▪ Anything that asks the user to perform a behavior now • User must aware of the trigger. • Must understand what the trigger means.▪ Why are triggers necessary? • Unaware of his ability (e.g. resources needed) • Hesitant (e.g. question his motivation) • Distracted (e.g. engaged in another routine)▪ Trigger is all about timing! • Poorly timed trigger: spam mails + pop ups ads • Good triggers are carefully timed to activate when users have the motivation and the ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 29
  • trigger depends on behavioral trajectory▪ Has ability but not motivated: Spark • built-in as part of the motivation mechanism▪ Motivated, but lack ability (or perceived ability): Facilitator Motivation activation • highlights the task’s simplicity threshold • often used with the progress bar dynamics to create anticipation as user improve towards his goal▪ Has ability and motivated: Signal • should only serve as a reminder Ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 30
  • trigger effectiveness depends on gamer archetype twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 31
  • trigger effectiveness depends on gamer archetypeBartle type Characteristics Effective triggerKiller (<1%) highly competitive challenge themSocializer hate confrontation, followers, value show that their friends are~80% relationship doing itAchiever spark trigger associated driven by status (i.e. special access, etc.)~10% with an status increaseExplorer driven by discovery & uniqueness of their call upon their unique skill,~10% contributions, hate spatial & temporal limits no time pressure twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 32
  • agenda▪ Gamification basics • What is gamification? What is it not? • What does gamification mean to your business?▪ Why gamification works? The behavioral perspective • Motivation: the motivational psychology • Ability: the access to resources • Trigger: the proper call to action▪ Applications + advance topics in gamification • Overjustification + sustainable gamification strategies • The evaluative framework + design paradigm for gamification (with examples) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 33
  • beware of the moral hazard of game play▪ Recall: Skinnerian operant conditioning • The reward can be learned & become the motivator instead of the behavior▪ Gamify flossing: reward with perks, say a toy • What happens when the rewards can’t keep up? • They lose ALL the motivation to perform the desired task twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 34
  • the overjustification effect▪ Rewarding people with extrinsic rewards will decrease the person’s intrinsic motivation for the gamified behavior▪ Most commercial gamification : • Perks moderate • Cash scale • Points large • Badges scale▪ These are all extrinsic rewards. • Can gamification work in the long run? twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 35
  • 2 sustainable gamification strategies▪ Bad news: gamification by itself is not sustainable long term (especially those that uses extrinsic rewards)▪ But it is very effective (in the short term) to get people start doing something (e.g. foursquare)▪ Use gamification to jumpstart some gamified activities that: • Has long term intrinsic value • Leaves enough data behind for the system to infer, reinforce, and reward the users intrinsic motivation▪ Gamification (i.e. the extrinsic rewards) then becomes a secondary reinforcement for the primary value driver twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 36
  • 2 sustainable gamification strategies▪ Value vs. motivation mechanism 2. track all activities gamification 3. infer intrinsic motivation intrinsic/ intrinsic long term 1. Variety of motivation value motivating activities/behaviors extrinsic rewards extrinsic rewards▪ Good news: gamification don’t have to work long term. It just has to work long enough for: • The user to realize the value of the gamified behavior • The system to discover and reward the user’s intrinsic motivation twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 37
  • an evaluative framework + a design paradigm▪ If we know why gamification works, then… • We can evaluate the effectiveness of any future gamification strategies twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 38
  • speed camera lottery ▪ Desired behavior: • obey the speed limit ▪ Motivation: • win $ lottery ▪ Ability: • the player is driving, and has the ability to slow down ▪ Trigger: • lottery sign on camera fixture • this is a spark trigger twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 39
  • Gap gamify store check-in▪ Desire action: Motivation • FB Places check-in▪ Single appointment Trigger: appointment dynamic – time’s up trigger • No reward for repeating & maintaining the action▪ Moral hazard of gameplay Ability: not everyone uses • People want the reward FB Places. If target (free jeans) much more demographic use it, then than they want to check-in OK. They can check-in▪ When 10,000th pair of jean is gone, people stop checking in twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 40
  • gamification of work ≠ mixing games with work▪ Sales execs fail to assign leads regularly▪ Create an iPad/iPhone golf game for lead assignment = desired behavior • Motivation: new, fun, sales people love golf • Ability: this actually reduces ability, b/c it’s less efficient, and takes more time • Trigger: leads notification▪ No convergence of 3 factors  bad idea! • People may use it for a while due to novelty, but it won’t last long▪ Don’t take it too literally, or you’re missing the point of gamification twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 41
  • an evaluative framework + a design paradigm▪ If we know why gamification works, then… • We can evaluate the effectiveness of any future gamification strategies • We can design and create new gamification that drives a specific action • It’s all about driving players above the activation threshold by temporal convergence of 1. Motivating them by positive feedback & positive, motivational psychology 2. Increasing their ability (or perceived ability) by simplifying the behavior (provide users with the necessary resources to perform the behavior) 3. And then applying the proper trigger at the right time▪ The magic formula of gamification • Place the proper triggers in the behavioral trajectory of motivated players, at the moment when they feel the greatest excess in their ability▪ Design is iterative: what happen when it doesn’t work? twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 42
  • the key to successful gamification▪ Understand what actions you are trying to drive: what are you trying to gamify▪ Know your target audience: who are you trying to gamify▪ Deep behavior metrics and analytics • Gamification is very data intensive and metric driven • Rewarding the players fairly • Infer user motivation from data • Gamification effectiveness: needs feedback loop data for design iterations twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 43
  • Thank youQ&A + discussion @mich8elwu twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 44