Our forest Host one of the world’s richest plant and animal species; global biodiversity rankings: 2 nd (fishes), 5 th (plants, trees, and mammals), and 8 th (reptiles) 3,000 species of plants which are endemic to the Philippines While the rest of the whole world discovers 1 specie per Taxa (family) per year, the Philippines discovers 5 or 6 specie per taxa per year one of the world’s 25 leading biodiversity hotspots, These 25 hotspots, although comprising only 1.4% of the earth’s land area, contain 44% of the world’s plant species and 35% of all terrestrial vertebrate species.
Less than 100 years ago this was still 70 %! The destruction of Philippine forests has been described as the most rapid and most massive in the world. We need 54% forest cover to remain ecologically stable Critical: Hottest of the Hotspot 374 threatened species listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 416 wildlife species listed in the IUCN Red List (endangered, close to extinction ) Causes : Legal Commercial Logging, Illegal logging, Massive forest conversion .
During the start of Spanish colonization in the 1500’s natural forest cover was estimated at around 27M hectares. Over a 400 year period there was an estimated decline to 21Mhectares at the start of the 20 th century. The 1970’s recorded an all-time high of deforestation at a rate of about 300,000hectares per year. By the end of the decade, several islands were almost completely deforested or had less than 5% forest cover left. At the beginning of this year it is estimated that our natural forests declined further to about 7% of the 1900 benchmark.
95% OF OUR LAND IS MINERALIZED Estimated to provide more than enough materials to industrialize the country WORTH 840 BILLION TO 1 TRILLION DOLLARS TheMGB in 1996 estimated that the country has 7.1 billion tons of metallic mineralreserves and 51 billion tons of nonmetallics, primarily limestone and marble. TheForeign Chambers of Commerce of the (consisting of theAmerican, Australia-New Zealand, Canadian, European, Japanese, and Koreanchambers), and the Philippine Association of Multinational CompaniesRegional Headquarters, have projected the following benefits of mining to thePhilippine economy: five-year capital investments of US$3.2 billion, exportearnings of US$1.2 billion/year, tax revenues of PhP21 billion/year, directemployment for 6,000 and indirect employment for 24,000 people, and communitydevelopment worth PhP312 million/ year.
These mining agreements cover around 600,000 hectares of highly mineralized lands, which has increased by roughly 17% from just 514,948 (2006)hectares since January 2007. IN 2007, mineral export value increased to $2.548 from $2.06 billion from 2006 and $820 million in 2005 Mining contribution to GDP remain small -- 1.3%
Philippines is richest in marine biodiversity with around 2,500 fish species. Coral reef area, the breeding ground of marine life, is identified to be the richest in the world with 488 species of corals in 78 genera. Philippine archipelago has the longest discontinuous coastline in the world, has 24 major fishing bays and gulfs, half of these have annual yield levels of 50 metric tons 421 rivers, roughly 59 natural lakes, more than 100,000 hectares of freshwater swamps. Estimated water resource potential is 226,430 million cubic meters, 91% comes from surface water and 9% from ground water Storage capacity of 1.22 million cubic meters Ranks 59th in the world in terms of water availability and 55th for water withdrawal BUT INSPITE OF THESE RICHNESS MAJORITY OF OUR PEOPLE LIVES IN EXTREME POVERTY
24 major fishing bays and gulfs, half of these have annual yield levels of 50 metric tons http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=3215 Coastline: 36,289 km
Facing the Challenges of the Environmental Situation (The National and Local Scenario) Prepared for Sangguniang Kabataan-Iloilo City during the JCI-Iloilo Week April 10, 2011
Presentation of DR. ALICIA L. LUSTICA, Regional Technical Director for Research, DENR, R-6 (September 24, 2010)
Presentation of Noel Hechanova, CENR Officer during the Environmental Summit of Iloilo City (January 2011)
Local daily newspapers
One of the major tribulations today is climate change
PFCs HFCs SF 6 Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap heat from the sun to keep the Earth warm. Water vapor Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide The Greenhouse Effect H 2 O CO 2 CH 4 NO 2 CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O HFCs PFCs SF 6 CO 2 CO 2 CH 4 CO 2 N 2 O CH 4 HFCs SF 6 SF 6 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O Increasing levels of GHGs in the atmosphere make for a warmer world leading to abrupt changes in climate!
Burning of fossil fuels like oil, coal, gas and others in transportation, manufacturing processes and industry among others, and land-use changes contribute to the increase of carbon dioxide emissions.
Climate change is considered one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources and physical infrastructure. Scientists agree that rising concentrations of anthropogenically-produced greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere are leading to changes in the climate. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the effects of climate change have already been observed, and scientific findings indicate that precautionary and prompt action is necessary. Earth Negotiations Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 354, Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
By the end of 2005, levels had increased to 379 ppm. Carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG accounting for 60% of the enhanced greenhouse effect or global warming. It is produced by burning of oil, coal and natural gas, land use and land use change including steel, cement and lime production.
Human activities that lead to the increase in concentration of greenhouse gasses include:
Burning of fossil fuel
Increasing industrial activity
Motor vehicle emission
Improper waste management practices
Conference of Parties 16, Cancun Mexico November 29 to December 10, 2010
It will continue to get hotter in this century and beyond.
We are causing this dangerous trend, both through emitting GHGs and air pollutants.
But the poor majority suffer the worst consequences of CC
75–250 million people across Africa could face more severe water shortages by 2020.
Agricultural production and access to food will be severely compromised in many African countries: agricultural land will be lost, and there will be shorter growing seasons and lower yields. In some countries, yields from rain-fed crops could be halved by 2020. In Central and South Asia, crop yields could fall by up to 30 per cent
An estimated 50 million more people will be at risk of hunger by 2020 plus another 132 million by the middle of the century.
Rising sea levels will cause more flooding in low-lying areas, and warmer sea waters will diminish fish stocks.
But the poor majority suffer the worst consequences of CC
Rising sea levels and increased storm surge will threaten the homes and livelihoods of communities especially in small island nations, forcing some to migrate permanently.
IPCC suggested that environmental refugees will increase to 150 million by 2050 largely due to coastal flooding, shoreline erosion and agricultural displacement.
Over 150,000 people are currently estimated to die due to diarrhea, malaria and malnutrition caused by climate change.
96% of people who die of natural disasters are in poor developing countries
Most affected are indigenous peoples, small agri producers, fishers, coastal communities, rural women and children, urban slumdwellers, displaced workers, other marginalized sectors
Vulnerability in Southeast Asia A January 2009 mapping study done by Dr. Arief Anshory Yusuf and Dr. Herminia Francisco of the Singapore-based Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia shows the vulnerability of Southeast Asia alone shows alarming trends .
The Climate Change Commission (CCC) warned that around 8,647 hectares of Iloilo province will be vulnerable to a possible one-meter sea level rise with the continued melting of glaciers because of global warming.
Citing a study of the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB), CCC Secretary Heherson Alvarez said Iloilo ranks third among the provinces in the country that are most susceptible to a one-meter sea level rise.
The study identified Cagayan province as the top-most vulnerable, followed by Palawan.
The state of the Western Visayas environment is viewed by environmental experts as CRITICAL
Though it may not suffer the predicted ecological disasters, the region has been experiencing symptoms of environmental stresses such as drought, pollution, flooding and outbreak of diseases which are leading to global ecological crises like climate change, loss of forest, siltation of rivers, loss of biodiversity, among others.
Degradation of marine environment: only 4% of coral reefs in good condition
Monopoly control of fishery resources
Open access policies
Privatization of municipal fisheries
If declining trend in fish production continue, only 10 kilogram of fish will be available per Filipino per year by 2010, as opposed to 28.5 kilogram per year in 2003.
Bodies of Water in Iloilo City 1. Iloilo River (15 km) Tributaries: Jibao-an River, Cabaluan River, mambiog Creek, Calajunan Creek, Dungon Creek 2. Jaro River (20 km) Tributaries: Tigum and Aganan Rivers 3. Batiano River 4. Creeks – Bo. Obrero, Rizal, Ingore