Presentation for jci april 2011


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Presentation for SK Leaders during JCI Week, April 11, 2011, Iloilo City

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  • Our forest Host one of the world’s richest plant and animal species; global biodiversity rankings: 2 nd (fishes), 5 th (plants, trees, and mammals), and 8 th (reptiles) 3,000 species of plants which are endemic to the Philippines While the rest of the whole world discovers 1 specie per Taxa (family) per year, the Philippines discovers 5 or 6 specie per taxa per year one of the world’s 25 leading biodiversity hotspots, These 25 hotspots, although comprising only 1.4% of the earth’s land area, contain 44% of the world’s plant species and 35% of all terrestrial vertebrate species.
  • Less than 100 years ago this was still 70 %! The destruction of Philippine forests has been described as the most rapid and most massive in the world. We need 54% forest cover to remain ecologically stable Critical: Hottest of the Hotspot 374 threatened species listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) ‏ 416 wildlife species listed in the IUCN Red List (endangered, close to extinction ) ‏ Causes : Legal Commercial Logging, Illegal logging, Massive forest conversion .
  • During the start of Spanish colonization in the 1500’s natural forest cover was estimated at around 27M hectares. Over a 400 year period there was an estimated decline to 21Mhectares at the start of the 20 th century. The 1970’s recorded an all-time high of deforestation at a rate of about 300,000hectares per year. By the end of the decade, several islands were almost completely deforested or had less than 5% forest cover left. At the beginning of this year it is estimated that our natural forests declined further to about 7% of the 1900 benchmark.
  • 95% OF OUR LAND IS MINERALIZED Estimated to provide more than enough materials to industrialize the country WORTH 840 BILLION TO 1 TRILLION DOLLARS TheMGB in 1996 estimated that the country has 7.1 billion tons of metallic mineralreserves and 51 billion tons of nonmetallics, primarily limestone and marble. TheForeign Chambers of Commerce of the (consisting of theAmerican, Australia-New Zealand, Canadian, European, Japanese, and Koreanchambers), and the Philippine Association of Multinational CompaniesRegional Headquarters, have projected the following benefits of mining to thePhilippine economy: five-year capital investments of US$3.2 billion, exportearnings of US$1.2 billion/year, tax revenues of PhP21 billion/year, directemployment for 6,000 and indirect employment for 24,000 people, and communitydevelopment worth PhP312 million/ year.
  • These mining agreements cover around 600,000 hectares of highly mineralized lands, which has increased by roughly 17% from just 514,948 (2006)hectares since January 2007. IN 2007, mineral export value increased to $2.548 from $2.06 billion from 2006 and $820 million in 2005 Mining contribution to GDP remain small -- 1.3%
  • Philippines is richest in marine biodiversity with around 2,500 fish species. Coral reef area, the breeding ground of marine life, is identified to be the richest in the world with 488 species of corals in 78 genera. Philippine archipelago has the longest discontinuous coastline in the world, has 24 major fishing bays and gulfs, half of these have annual yield levels of 50 metric tons 421 rivers, roughly 59 natural lakes, more than 100,000 hectares of freshwater swamps. Estimated water resource potential is 226,430 million cubic meters, 91% comes from surface water and 9% from ground water Storage capacity of 1.22 million cubic meters Ranks 59th in the world in terms of water availability and 55th for water withdrawal BUT INSPITE OF THESE RICHNESS MAJORITY OF OUR PEOPLE LIVES IN EXTREME POVERTY
  • 24 major fishing bays and gulfs, half of these have annual yield levels of 50 metric tons Coastline: 36,289 km
  • Presentation for jci april 2011

    1. 1. Facing the Challenges of the Environmental Situation (The National and Local Scenario) Prepared for Sangguniang Kabataan-Iloilo City during the JCI-Iloilo Week April 10, 2011
    2. 2. Outline: <ul><li>The science of global warming </li></ul><ul><li>The national environmental situation (an overview) </li></ul><ul><li>The local environment situation </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Taking the tasks for environmental protection and preservation </li></ul><ul><li>- Gearing towards disaster risk reduction </li></ul><ul><li>6. Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: maximum 1 hour input </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Center for Environmental Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Kalikasan People’s Network for the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of DR. ALICIA L. LUSTICA, Regional Technical Director for Research, DENR, R-6 (September 24, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of Noel Hechanova, CENR Officer during the Environmental Summit of Iloilo City (January 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Local daily newspapers </li></ul>
    4. 4. One of the major tribulations today is climate change
    5. 5. PFCs HFCs SF 6 Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap heat from the sun to keep the Earth warm. Water vapor Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide The Greenhouse Effect H 2 O CO 2 CH 4 NO 2 CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O HFCs PFCs SF 6 CO 2 CO 2 CH 4 CO 2 N 2 O CH 4 HFCs SF 6 SF 6 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O Increasing levels of GHGs in the atmosphere make for a warmer world leading to abrupt changes in climate!
    6. 6. <ul><li>Increasing global air and ocean Temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Rising global average sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Reductions of snow and ice </li></ul>The evidence
    7. 7. “ Warming of the Climate System ….. is unequivocal” (IPCC-AR4, 2007)
    8. 9. <ul><li>Burning of fossil fuels like oil, coal, gas and others in transportation, manufacturing processes and industry among others, and land-use changes contribute to the increase of carbon dioxide emissions. </li></ul>
    9. 10. Climate change is considered one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources and physical infrastructure. Scientists agree that rising concentrations of anthropogenically-produced greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere are leading to changes in the climate. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the effects of climate change have already been observed, and scientific findings indicate that precautionary and prompt action is necessary. Earth Negotiations Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 354, Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
    10. 12. Rich industrialized countries are responsible for the lion’s share of GHG emissions
    11. 13. Rich industrialized countries are responsible for the lion’s share of GHG emissions
    12. 14. <ul><li>During the pre-industrial revolution , levels of Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere was 280 parts per million (ppm) by volume . </li></ul>So are the greenhouse gases really increasing?
    13. 15. <ul><li>By the end of 2005, levels had increased to 379 ppm. Carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG accounting for 60% of the enhanced greenhouse effect or global warming. It is produced by burning of oil, coal and natural gas, land use and land use change including steel, cement and lime production. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Human activities that lead to the increase in concentration of greenhouse gasses include: <ul><li>Burning of fossil fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing industrial activity </li></ul><ul><li>Motor vehicle emission </li></ul><ul><li>Improper waste management practices </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive agriculture </li></ul>
    15. 17. Conference of Parties 16, Cancun Mexico November 29 to December 10, 2010
    16. 18. What’s it all about? To summarize… <ul><li>World has gotten warmer. </li></ul><ul><li>It will continue to get hotter in this century and beyond. </li></ul><ul><li>We are causing this dangerous trend, both through emitting GHGs and air pollutants. </li></ul>
    17. 19. But the poor majority suffer the worst consequences of CC <ul><li>75–250 million people across Africa could face more severe water shortages by 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural production and access to food will be severely compromised in many African countries: agricultural land will be lost, and there will be shorter growing seasons and lower yields. In some countries, yields from rain-fed crops could be halved by 2020. In Central and South Asia, crop yields could fall by up to 30 per cent </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 50 million more people will be at risk of hunger by 2020 plus another 132 million by the middle of the century. </li></ul><ul><li>Rising sea levels will cause more flooding in low-lying areas, and warmer sea waters will diminish fish stocks. </li></ul>
    18. 20. But the poor majority suffer the worst consequences of CC <ul><li>Rising sea levels and increased storm surge will threaten the homes and livelihoods of communities especially in small island nations, forcing some to migrate permanently. </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC suggested that environmental refugees will increase to 150 million by 2050 largely due to coastal flooding, shoreline erosion and agricultural displacement. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 150,000 people are currently estimated to die due to diarrhea, malaria and malnutrition caused by climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>96% of people who die of natural disasters are in poor developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Most affected are indigenous peoples, small agri producers, fishers, coastal communities, rural women and children, urban slumdwellers, displaced workers, other marginalized sectors </li></ul>
    19. 21. Vulnerability in Southeast Asia A January 2009 mapping study done by Dr. Arief Anshory Yusuf and Dr. Herminia Francisco of the Singapore-based Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia shows the vulnerability of Southeast Asia alone shows alarming trends .
    20. 26. <ul><li>The Climate Change Commission (CCC) warned that around 8,647 hectares of Iloilo province will be vulnerable to a possible one-meter sea level rise with the continued melting of glaciers because of global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Citing a study of the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB), CCC Secretary Heherson Alvarez said Iloilo ranks third among the provinces in the country that are most susceptible to a one-meter sea level rise. </li></ul><ul><li>The study identified Cagayan province as the top-most vulnerable, followed by Palawan. </li></ul>
    21. 28. <ul><li>As we are bracing for the impacts of climate change in our locality, let us also take a look at the situation of our environment... </li></ul>
    22. 29. <ul><li>Biodiversity superstar </li></ul><ul><li>Richest among the Rich in terms of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Enough resources to provide for domestic needs and development </li></ul>
    23. 30. <ul><ul><li>Source: Heaney, 2002 </li></ul></ul>300,780 49% 558 1139 Philippines 8,511,965 25% 788 3131 Brazil 451,171 6% 25 435 Spain Land Area (km2) ‏ % Endemic Endemic Species Total species COUNTRY
    24. 31. Forest cover as percentage of land area. In 2001 less than 8 % of the country was covered by original tropical rainforest. As of 2003, our forest cover is 23%. 6% 2010 23% 1988 70% 1900s
    25. 32. Forest Degradation <ul><li>In 1999, the Philippines had 5.5 million hectares (55,000 km2) or 18.3% of forest cover. </li></ul>Disappearing Natural Forests - Estimates place natural forest cover in 1900 at 21 million has. (210,000 km2) or 70% of the total land area. <ul><li>At the beginning of 2007, natural forest cover declined further to 7% (1.47 million hectares) </li></ul>1900
    26. 33. AKLAN Forest Cover : (26.54%) ANTIQUE Forest Cover: (28.56%) ILOILO Forest Cover: (8.73%) NEGROS OCC. Forest Cover: (8.69%) LAND CLASSIFICATION (in hectare) Total Land Area : 2,022,311 ha Forest Cover of Region 6 : 260,642.72 or 12.89% Source: LEP-FMS, DENR R6 CAPIZ Cover: (11.47%) GUIMARAS Forest Cover: (0.18%) Forest are disappearing at an alarming rate 1950 – 1978 - 204,000 ha/y   1978- 1988 - 19,000 ha/y   1989 – 1995 - 116,321ha/y
    27. 34. In Iloilo City.. <ul><li>No major forest except mangroves which is classified as protection forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39.5 ha. located sporadically along the coastal barangays, Iloilo and Batiano Rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lumber producing and fuit trees are planted in private lands, parks and open spaces </li></ul>
    28. 35. <ul><li>The state of the Western Visayas environment is viewed by environmental experts as CRITICAL </li></ul><ul><li>Though it may not suffer the predicted ecological disasters, the region has been experiencing symptoms of environmental stresses such as drought, pollution, flooding and outbreak of diseases which are leading to global ecological crises like climate change, loss of forest, siltation of rivers, loss of biodiversity, among others. </li></ul>STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT
    29. 36. Causes of Deforestation <ul><li>Corporate, large-scale logging </li></ul><ul><li>Massive forest conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal logging </li></ul><ul><li>Unsustainable forest management </li></ul><ul><li>Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production 75.0% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection 11.0% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation 12.0% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Services (%) - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Services (%) - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of Unknown 2.0% </li></ul></ul>
    30. 37. <ul><li>Wide range of mineral resources </li></ul><ul><li>5th mineralized country in the world </li></ul>
    31. 38. 2007 2008 2009 July 2010 EP 89,828.76 NA NA 345,974 MPSA 373, 201 NA NA 587,340 FTAA 41,199 87,249 90,341 109,217 TOTAL 514,948 600,000 + 782, 187 1,042,531
    32. 39. <ul><li>700,000 hectares of land have been approved for large scale mining operations since the implementation of the Mining Act of 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Mining Act of 1995: allows and favors foreign mining companies to explore, control and utilize our mineral resources. </li></ul>
    33. 41. <ul><li>MARINE and FRESH WATER RESOURCES </li></ul>
    34. 42. <ul><li>Philippines is richest in marine biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Has the longest discontinuous coastline and one of the richest coral reefs in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Overflowing water resources </li></ul>
    35. 43. <ul><li>RP regarded as &quot;Center of Marine Biodiversity&quot; in the world, surpassing the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 2,500 fish species </li></ul><ul><li>Rich coral reefs, with 488 out of 800 known species worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Longest discontinuous coastline worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines is among the largest fish producers in the world </li></ul><ul><li>62 per cent of the population lives in the coastal zone </li></ul>
    36. 44. <ul><li>MARINE RESOURCES DEPLETION </li></ul><ul><li>Overfishing: 90% fish stocks depleted in 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation of marine environment: only 4% of coral reefs in good condition </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly control of fishery resources </li></ul><ul><li>Open access policies </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization of municipal fisheries </li></ul>If declining trend in fish production continue, only 10 kilogram of fish will be available per Filipino per year by 2010, as opposed to 28.5 kilogram per year in 2003.
    37. 45. Bodies of Water in Iloilo City 1. Iloilo River (15 km) Tributaries: Jibao-an River, Cabaluan River, mambiog Creek, Calajunan Creek, Dungon Creek 2. Jaro River (20 km) Tributaries: Tigum and Aganan Rivers 3. Batiano River 4. Creeks – Bo. Obrero, Rizal, Ingore
    38. 46. Coastal Areas: <ul><li>Coastline: 20-km from Brgy Sto Nino Sur to Brgy Balabago </li></ul><ul><li>Adjoining body of water: Iloilo Strait </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Barangays: 26 </li></ul><ul><li>Beaches can be found in 9 barngays out of 26 coastal barangays </li></ul>
    39. 47. <ul><li>Presence of fish and crustraceans </li></ul><ul><li>Mangroves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregate 10 hectares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 species, 10 families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes 1 rare specie (Sonneratia Ovata) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively high bio diversity based on Shannon Index </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coastal areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65 fish species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 invertebrate species </li></ul></ul>
    40. 48. <ul><li>Mangroves found in 15 of 26 coastal barangays </li></ul><ul><li>Resource use: fishery, recreation,, residential, commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Iloilo river serves as habitat and nursery to many fish species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports growth of 22 species out of 35 national mangrove species </li></ul></ul>
    41. 49. <ul><li>State of Land </li></ul>
    42. 50. <ul><li>Low irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigated land (% of cropland) 14.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erratic production trends, heavily dependent on the serendipitous weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent drought has degraded semi-arid parts of food producing regions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An average of 2,227 has. of irrigated rice lands are converted to settlements and industrial plants annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as of 1991: 11,337 has. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as of 2001: 600,000 has </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Land degradation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine gross erosion rate is at 2,046 million metric tons per year – 5.2 million hectares of total land area are severely eroded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Croplands are also threatened by industrial and chemical pollution, such as mine tailings spills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounding the problem is the continued shift to production of export crops using high yielding varieties (HYVs). </li></ul></ul>
    43. 51. <ul><li>Erosion: </li></ul><ul><li>27 barangays along rivers prone to bank erosions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Land pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>Solid waste generation.. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 300 tons daily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.60 kg per day per person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>46% are kitchen and yard wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>37% are papers and plastics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 156 tons or more ends up at the landfill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>69% of wastes are generated by household </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>28% from commercial establishments and markets </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 52. <ul><li>All of our rivers is not safe for drinking in its natural flowing state; more that 51 rivers are biologically dead </li></ul><ul><li>The availability of freshwater in the Philippines ranks 2 nd to the lowest in Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater availability decreases at an average of 1.4% per year (>2,500MCM/year) </li></ul><ul><li>total groundwater demand increase at an average of 5.3 per year while water replenishment is only 3.7% per year. </li></ul><ul><li>16% forest cover and 45% of our land is eroded </li></ul>
    45. 53. <ul><li>69% of households have access to basic sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater generated by household enter bodies of water without tretment </li></ul><ul><li>Haphazard septic tank practices. A survey of 2 coastal barangays revealed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of sceptic tanks not connected to public drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>48% not bottom-sealed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases of intestinal parasitism in children is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidence of gastro-enteritis is high among adults </li></ul></ul>
    46. 54. <ul><li>Iloilo River: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives sewage discharges from 121 barangays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of solid wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent siltation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of informal settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low dissolve oxygen for the past 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iloilo City’s coastline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high coliform level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beaches at Molo-Arevalo foreshore not safe for swimming </li></ul></ul>
    47. 55. <ul><li>WATER SHORTAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Water privatization </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – 2002: Water permit rights increased by 14%, commercialization of bottled water up by 63% </li></ul><ul><li>March 2004: Clean Water Act </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge permits </li></ul><ul><li>WATER POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>50 rivers biologically dead, 60% of groundwater sources depleted 26% and contaminated with coliform </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: waste dumping, large-scale extractive activities ex. 2003: 9 large dams operational, 14 dams by 2005 </li></ul>At the national level...
    48. 57. <ul><li>Average daily travel in Metro Iloilo & the Corresponding Emission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emission: 10 kg of organic gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80 kg of CO2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 kg of Nox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Vehicles (diesel-fed, 2-stroke) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Power plants (diesel, barge, coal) </li></ul>
    49. 58. Year Pollutants (Tons) Mobile (Vehicles) Stationary (Power plants, factories) Area Source (restaurants, generator sets) 2006 13, 707 72% 26% 2% 2007 14, 476 70% 29% 1% 2008 13,160 54% 45% 1%
    50. 60. Figure 6. Disaster Affected Population 2008, 2009. Source: CDRC Database, 2009. Figure 5. Number of Reported Disasters per Country in 2009 Source: CRED, 2010
    51. 61. <ul><li>Direct result of rapid, unchecked appropriation of natural resources for the benefit of a few. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid destruction of the environment and massive pollution </li></ul>Environmental destruction Depletion of our Resources Widespread Poverty Neo-liberalization Sell-out of our natural resources
    52. 62. <ul><li>Environment is the lifeblood of a peaceful and progressive nation. It enhances human welfare and economic productivity. Everyone demands an equitable share in the bounty of the earth’s resources </li></ul>
    53. 63. <ul><li>The current environmental degradation (both at the national and local level) must be seriously addressed to. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities must now gear towards disaster risk reduction efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change; disaster-preparedness programs </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental advocacy work must be integrated in various program of actions in partnership with the local government units </li></ul>
    54. 64. Basic principles <ul><li>Human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Social Justice and historical responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for the environment & commitment to sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>People’s sovereignty & stewardship </li></ul>
    55. 65. <ul><li>The local government has been and is currently into numerous initiatives addressing the problem of environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>(clean water initiatives, clean land initiative) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Various bodies have come to appreciate the need for environmental protection </li></ul>
    56. 66. What are the specific actions you can contribute for environmental protection in your community? <ul><li>WORKSHOP </li></ul><ul><li>REPORTING </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested task for JCI: </li></ul><ul><li>Collate group reports for presentation to the Iloilo City Government </li></ul>