Introducation to metadata
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3.7. Introduction to educational metadata and metadata-based searching

3.7. Introduction to educational metadata and metadata-based searching

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  • 23/04/10

Introducation to metadata Introducation to metadata Presentation Transcript

  • Co-funded by the European Union , through the Comenius Programme Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Metadata
  • Structure
    • Definition of Metadata & Examples
    • Metadata Types
    • Schemas
    • Specifications
    • Standards
    • Application Profiles
    • Dublin Core & IEEE LTSC LOM
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching View slide
  • Definition
    • “ Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource” *
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching * NISO (2004) Understanding Metadata. Bethesda, NISO Press View slide
  • Example
    • E.g. Books
      • Title
      • Author
      • Year
      • Subject (Math, History, etc)
      • No of pages
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Example / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Title Abstract Keywords
  • Metadata is everywhere
    • We can have metadata on:
      • HTML documents, digital images, books, museum objects, metadata themselves
      • Collections, services, physical places, people, institutions, abstract “works”, concepts, events
      • And more…
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Metadata Types (1/2)
    • Descriptive : Facilitates discovery and describes intellectual content
    • Administrative : Facilitates management of digital and analog resources
    • Technical : Describes the technical aspects of the digital object
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching http://www.lib.umd.edu/dcr/publications/best_practice.pdf
  • Metadata Types (2/2)
    • Structural : Describes the relationships within a digital object
    • Preservation : Supports long-term retention of the digital object and may overlap with technical, administrative, and structural metadata
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching http://www.lib.umd.edu/dcr/publications/best_practice.pdf
  • Purpose
    • R esource discovery,
    • O rganize electronic resources ,
    • F acilitate interoperability & legacy , resource integration ,
    • P rovide digital identification ,
    • S upport archiving & preservation
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching * NISO (2004) Understanding Metadata. Bethesda, NISO Press
  • Metadata Elements
    • Each information resource is described by using specific data items
    • These data items are called Elements
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Metadata Schemas
    • “ A metadata scheme is a sets of metadata elements designed for a specific purpose, such as describing a particular type of information resource” *
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching * NISO (2004) Understanding Metadata. Bethesda, NISO Press
  • Metadata Specifications
    • Stable and widely adopted Metadata Schemas can evolve into Metadata Specifications
    • The majority of implementers in a particular domain or industry adopts them
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Metadata Standards
    • If a standardization organization recognizes a Metadata Specification , then it may become a Metadata Standard
    • Dublic Core for Educational resources (DC-ed) and IEEE LOM are dominant examples for educational purposes
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Application Profiles
    • Metadata Standards or Specifications can be adapted or “profiled” to meet community context-specific needs
    • Then, they are called Metadata Application Profiles
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Adaptation
    • By imposing restrictions and modifying vocabularies, definitions or elements of the original (base) standard
    • Aim : Increase interoperability with base standard and not to break interoperability with existing applications
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Evolution / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching element element element element element Metadata Scheme Used by one publishing house Used by many publishing houses Metadata Specification Metadata Standard Adopted by Standards’ Organization
  • Evolution / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Profiled Refined Adapted Used in specific community E.g. Publishing houses of medical books Metadata Application Profile Metadata Standard Metadata Specification
  • Application Domains
    • Libraries
    • Agriculture
    • Museums
    • Education
    • Environment
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Dublin Core
    • Initiative to improve resource discovery on Web
      • Develop s and maintain s international standards for describing resources
      • Support s a worldwide community of users and developers
      • Promot es widespread use of Dublin Core solution s
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Element Set
    • 15 elements
      • All elements are optional and repeatable
      • Elements can be refined using qualifiers
      • Any syntax may be used to record the metadata
      • Favours text-based resources
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Title Subject Creator Description Publisher Date Contributor Rights Dublin Core Element Set
  • Application Profiles (Dublin Core)
    • DC Government AP
      • Metadata for governmental resources
    • FAO DC AP
      • Developed by FAO to describe learning resources
    • SWAP DC AP
      • Describing scholarly works
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • IEEE LTSC LOM
    • Tries to define the attributes required to fully/adequately describe a Learning Object
    • Learning Objects are defined as any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching * http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/
  • Element Set
    • 9 categories of elements
      • E lements may be repeated either individually or as a group
      • V alue space and D atatype is defined for each element
      • Can be profiled to meet context-specific needs
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Value Spaces & Datatypes
    • Value space : Restrictions on elements
      • E.g. Unicode or controlled vocabularies
    • Datatypes :
      • LangString
      • Vocabulary
      • DateTime 
      • Duration
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching IEEE LOM Categories Life Cycle Meta-metadata Technical Educational Rights Relation Annotation General Classification
  • Application Profiles (IEEE LOM)
    • UK LOM Core
      • Further and Higher Education in UK
    • ANZ-LOM
      • Education in Australia and New Zealand
    • NORLOM
      • Norwegian LOM Application Profile
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Application Profiles (IEEE LOM)
    • ISRACore
      • Israeli LOM Application Profile
    • Vetadata
      • Australian Vocational Training and Education Sector
    • Organic.Edunet Application Profile
      • Learning resources on Organic Agriculture and Agroecology
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Application Profiles (IEEE LOM)
    • CG LOM Core
      • Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
    • TW LOM
      • Education in Taiwan
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Learning Objects
  • Structure
    • Definition of Learning Objects
    • Examples
    • Granularity of LOs
    • Quality of LOs
    • Reusable LOs
    • Online Sources
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Learning Object
    • “ E ducational resources that can be employed in technology supported learning ” 1
    • “ Any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used and referenced during technology-supported learning” 2
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching 1 Learning Objects: A Practical Definition, Rory McGreal 2 http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/s_p.html
  • Learning Object
    • With appropriate metadata descriptions, they can be modular units that can be assembled together to form lessons and courses
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Learning Objects: A Practical Definition, Rory McGreal Lesson that is compiled from audio, video, text, images, etc
  • Learning Object
    • A LO can be based on :
      • E lectronic text ,
      • Web site ,
      • I mage,
      • M ovie ,
      • Java applets
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Learning Objects: A Practical Definition, Rory McGreal
  • Video
    • Video of a presentation on economics
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Screenshot from Youtube
  • Text
    • To be used when talking about learning objects
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Learning Objects: A Practical Definition, Rory McGreal
  • Image
    • To be used in teaching of food chains in nature
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching   www.srd.gov.ab.ca
  • Granularity Levels
    • C ontent, information or knowledge object
    • Lesson
      • Contains many objects
    • Module
      • Contains many lessons
    • Course
      • Contains many modules
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Granularity Levels / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Course Module 1 Module 2 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Objects
  • LO Sources
    • MERLOT - Multimedia Educational Resource for Online Learning and Teaching ( www.merlot.org )
    • Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction ( http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/ )
    • Careo - Campus Alberta Repository of Educational Objects ( http://www.careo.org/ )
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • LO Sources
    • Education Network Australia - http:// edna.edu.au
    • WISC Online Resource Center - www.wisc-online.com/
    • EcoLearnIT - http://ecolearnit.ifas.ufl.edu/
    • LeMill - http://lemill.net/
    • Connexions - http://cnx.org/
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • LO Sources
    • MIT Opencourseware - http://ocw.mit.edu/
    • Open Learning Initiative - http://oli.web.cmu.edu/openlearning/
    • Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) - http://www.thegateway.org/
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • LO Reuse
    • Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) defines standards for the description and exchange of aggregations of Web resources
    • In this way, the reuse of LOs is facilitated
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • LO Reuse
    • Learning objects, may combine resources with media types such as text, images and video
    • OAI-ORE standards expose the se combinations to applications that support authoring, deposit, exchange, visualization, reuse, and preservation of learning objects
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Learning Repositories
  • Structure
    • Learning Object Repository
    • Examples
    • Types of Repositories
    • Functionalities
    • Legal Issues
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Learning Object Repository (LOR)
    • “ A collection of digital assets and/or meta-data accessible without prior knowledge of the repository’s structure through a interoperable functions via a network” *
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *IMS Digital Repositories Interoperability Specification
  • Learning Object Repository (LOR)
    • “ LORs are databases used for storing and/or enabling the interoperability of LOs” *
    • Do LORs store LOs or simply the metadata describing them with associated links?
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *R. McGreal, A Typology of Learning Object Repositories , 2007
    • Content repositories ( Type 1 );
      • MIT Open Courseware , SOFIA
    • Linking or metadata repositories ( Type 2 );
      • MERLOT, CITIDEL
    • Hybrid repositories ( Type 3 )
      • ARIADNE, COLLOR
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Type 3 LORs Links to LOs & locally stored content Type 1 LORs Only locally stored content Type 2 LORs Only links to LOs
  • Examples / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • Digital Repositories
    • Institutional
      • educational or research parent body controlled
    • Discipline-Base d
      • Aka Subject or Research repositor ies
      • B ased around a specific discipline
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Digital Repositories: Issues and Challenges, a Literature Review, A. Luarte Rmit, 2006
  • Digital Repositories
    • Consortia Repositories
      • Founded by a consortium of institutions
    • Learning Objects
      • Repository with learning objects used in teaching and training
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Digital Repositories: Issues and Challenges, a Literature Review, A. Luarte Rmit, 2006
  • The Australian Way
    • See the object without contractual obligations;
    • Simple, non-intimidating design and structure;
    • Being able to get the object straight away;
    • Being able to store the object
      • On your own computer or
      • On personal online space (protected with login)
    • Simple versus advanced
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Flexible Learning Advisory Group, 2003
  • LOR Functionalities
    • search/find
      • the ability to locate an appropriate learning object
    • quality control
      • ensure that learning objects meet technical, educational and metadata requirements
    • request
      • a learning object that has been located in the database
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Higgs, 2003
  • LOR Functionalities
    • maintain
      • appropriate version control
    • retrieve
      • receive an object that has been requested
    • submit
      • provide an object to a repository for storage
    • publish
      • provide metadata to other repositories
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Higgs, 2003
  • LOR Functionalities
    • store
      • place a submitted object into a data store with unique, registered identifiers that allow it to be located
    • gather (push/pull)
      • obtain metadata about objects in other repositories for wider searches and information via a clearing house function
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Higgs, 2003
  • Interoperability
    • Supported and promoted by the Open Archive Initiative , Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH)
    • E nables the sharing of metadata between services
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
  • OAI – PMH
    • The Open Archives Initiative develops and promotes interoperability standards to facilitate the efficient dissemination of content
    • OAI has its roots in the open access movements
    • P romote s broad access to resources for eScholarship, eLearning, and eScience
    / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • Dear user,
    • please take the time (5 minutes) to help us improve METASCHOOL modules!
    • Find the Module Questionnaire here:
      • METASCHOOL Portal: http://lreforschools.eun.org/metaschool
      • Find present module (ask your workshop leader, if you are unsure)
      • Scroll to the end of the module description
      • Fill in the Module Questionnaire
    • If you took part in a METASCHOOL Workshop and this is the last module of your workshop, please ALSO help us improve our METASCHOOL Workshops by completing the Workshop Questionnaire (10 minutes):
      • METASCHOOL Portal: http://lreforschools.eun.org/metaschool
      •  Click on a language:
    Evaluation
  • Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Informatics Laboratory Agricultural University of Athens http://infolab-dev.aua.gr/