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Introducation to metadata

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3.7. Introduction to educational metadata and metadata-based searching

3.7. Introduction to educational metadata and metadata-based searching

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  • niraj kumar sng
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  • I AM LEARNING METADATA
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  • 23/04/10
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    • 1. Co-funded by the European Union , through the Comenius Programme Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 2. Metadata
    • 3. Structure
      • Definition of Metadata & Examples
      • Metadata Types
      • Schemas
      • Specifications
      • Standards
      • Application Profiles
      • Dublin Core & IEEE LTSC LOM
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 4. Definition
      • “ Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource” *
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching * NISO (2004) Understanding Metadata. Bethesda, NISO Press
    • 5. Example
      • E.g. Books
        • Title
        • Author
        • Year
        • Subject (Math, History, etc)
        • No of pages
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 6. Example / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Title Abstract Keywords
    • 7. Metadata is everywhere
      • We can have metadata on:
        • HTML documents, digital images, books, museum objects, metadata themselves
        • Collections, services, physical places, people, institutions, abstract “works”, concepts, events
        • And more…
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 8. Metadata Types (1/2)
      • Descriptive : Facilitates discovery and describes intellectual content
      • Administrative : Facilitates management of digital and analog resources
      • Technical : Describes the technical aspects of the digital object
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching http://www.lib.umd.edu/dcr/publications/best_practice.pdf
    • 9. Metadata Types (2/2)
      • Structural : Describes the relationships within a digital object
      • Preservation : Supports long-term retention of the digital object and may overlap with technical, administrative, and structural metadata
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching http://www.lib.umd.edu/dcr/publications/best_practice.pdf
    • 10. Purpose
      • R esource discovery,
      • O rganize electronic resources ,
      • F acilitate interoperability & legacy , resource integration ,
      • P rovide digital identification ,
      • S upport archiving & preservation
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching * NISO (2004) Understanding Metadata. Bethesda, NISO Press
    • 11. Metadata Elements
      • Each information resource is described by using specific data items
      • These data items are called Elements
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 12. Metadata Schemas
      • “ A metadata scheme is a sets of metadata elements designed for a specific purpose, such as describing a particular type of information resource” *
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching * NISO (2004) Understanding Metadata. Bethesda, NISO Press
    • 13. Metadata Specifications
      • Stable and widely adopted Metadata Schemas can evolve into Metadata Specifications
      • The majority of implementers in a particular domain or industry adopts them
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 14. Metadata Standards
      • If a standardization organization recognizes a Metadata Specification , then it may become a Metadata Standard
      • Dublic Core for Educational resources (DC-ed) and IEEE LOM are dominant examples for educational purposes
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 15. Application Profiles
      • Metadata Standards or Specifications can be adapted or “profiled” to meet community context-specific needs
      • Then, they are called Metadata Application Profiles
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 16. Adaptation
      • By imposing restrictions and modifying vocabularies, definitions or elements of the original (base) standard
      • Aim : Increase interoperability with base standard and not to break interoperability with existing applications
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 17. Evolution / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching element element element element element Metadata Scheme Used by one publishing house Used by many publishing houses Metadata Specification Metadata Standard Adopted by Standards’ Organization
    • 18. Evolution / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Profiled Refined Adapted Used in specific community E.g. Publishing houses of medical books Metadata Application Profile Metadata Standard Metadata Specification
    • 19. Application Domains
      • Libraries
      • Agriculture
      • Museums
      • Education
      • Environment
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 20. Dublin Core
      • Initiative to improve resource discovery on Web
        • Develop s and maintain s international standards for describing resources
        • Support s a worldwide community of users and developers
        • Promot es widespread use of Dublin Core solution s
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 21. Element Set
      • 15 elements
        • All elements are optional and repeatable
        • Elements can be refined using qualifiers
        • Any syntax may be used to record the metadata
        • Favours text-based resources
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 22. / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Title Subject Creator Description Publisher Date Contributor Rights Dublin Core Element Set
    • 23. Application Profiles (Dublin Core)
      • DC Government AP
        • Metadata for governmental resources
      • FAO DC AP
        • Developed by FAO to describe learning resources
      • SWAP DC AP
        • Describing scholarly works
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 24. IEEE LTSC LOM
      • Tries to define the attributes required to fully/adequately describe a Learning Object
      • Learning Objects are defined as any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching * http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/
    • 25. Element Set
      • 9 categories of elements
        • E lements may be repeated either individually or as a group
        • V alue space and D atatype is defined for each element
        • Can be profiled to meet context-specific needs
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 26. Value Spaces & Datatypes
      • Value space : Restrictions on elements
        • E.g. Unicode or controlled vocabularies
      • Datatypes :
        • LangString
        • Vocabulary
        • DateTime 
        • Duration
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 27. / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching IEEE LOM Categories Life Cycle Meta-metadata Technical Educational Rights Relation Annotation General Classification
    • 28. Application Profiles (IEEE LOM)
      • UK LOM Core
        • Further and Higher Education in UK
      • ANZ-LOM
        • Education in Australia and New Zealand
      • NORLOM
        • Norwegian LOM Application Profile
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 29. Application Profiles (IEEE LOM)
      • ISRACore
        • Israeli LOM Application Profile
      • Vetadata
        • Australian Vocational Training and Education Sector
      • Organic.Edunet Application Profile
        • Learning resources on Organic Agriculture and Agroecology
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 30. Application Profiles (IEEE LOM)
      • CG LOM Core
        • Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
      • TW LOM
        • Education in Taiwan
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 31. Learning Objects
    • 32. Structure
      • Definition of Learning Objects
      • Examples
      • Granularity of LOs
      • Quality of LOs
      • Reusable LOs
      • Online Sources
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 33. Learning Object
      • “ E ducational resources that can be employed in technology supported learning ” 1
      • “ Any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used and referenced during technology-supported learning” 2
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching 1 Learning Objects: A Practical Definition, Rory McGreal 2 http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/s_p.html
    • 34. Learning Object
      • With appropriate metadata descriptions, they can be modular units that can be assembled together to form lessons and courses
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Learning Objects: A Practical Definition, Rory McGreal Lesson that is compiled from audio, video, text, images, etc
    • 35. Learning Object
      • A LO can be based on :
        • E lectronic text ,
        • Web site ,
        • I mage,
        • M ovie ,
        • Java applets
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Learning Objects: A Practical Definition, Rory McGreal
    • 36. Video
      • Video of a presentation on economics
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Screenshot from Youtube
    • 37. Text
      • To be used when talking about learning objects
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Learning Objects: A Practical Definition, Rory McGreal
    • 38. Image
      • To be used in teaching of food chains in nature
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching   www.srd.gov.ab.ca
    • 39. Granularity Levels
      • C ontent, information or knowledge object
      • Lesson
        • Contains many objects
      • Module
        • Contains many lessons
      • Course
        • Contains many modules
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 40. Granularity Levels / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Course Module 1 Module 2 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Objects
    • 41. LO Sources
      • MERLOT - Multimedia Educational Resource for Online Learning and Teaching ( www.merlot.org )
      • Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction ( http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/ )
      • Careo - Campus Alberta Repository of Educational Objects ( http://www.careo.org/ )
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 42. LO Sources
      • Education Network Australia - http:// edna.edu.au
      • WISC Online Resource Center - www.wisc-online.com/
      • EcoLearnIT - http://ecolearnit.ifas.ufl.edu/
      • LeMill - http://lemill.net/
      • Connexions - http://cnx.org/
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 43. LO Sources
      • MIT Opencourseware - http://ocw.mit.edu/
      • Open Learning Initiative - http://oli.web.cmu.edu/openlearning/
      • Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) - http://www.thegateway.org/
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 44. LO Reuse
      • Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) defines standards for the description and exchange of aggregations of Web resources
      • In this way, the reuse of LOs is facilitated
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 45. LO Reuse
      • Learning objects, may combine resources with media types such as text, images and video
      • OAI-ORE standards expose the se combinations to applications that support authoring, deposit, exchange, visualization, reuse, and preservation of learning objects
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 46. Learning Repositories
    • 47. Structure
      • Learning Object Repository
      • Examples
      • Types of Repositories
      • Functionalities
      • Legal Issues
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 48. Learning Object Repository (LOR)
      • “ A collection of digital assets and/or meta-data accessible without prior knowledge of the repository’s structure through a interoperable functions via a network” *
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *IMS Digital Repositories Interoperability Specification
    • 49. Learning Object Repository (LOR)
      • “ LORs are databases used for storing and/or enabling the interoperability of LOs” *
      • Do LORs store LOs or simply the metadata describing them with associated links?
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *R. McGreal, A Typology of Learning Object Repositories , 2007
    • 50.
      • Content repositories ( Type 1 );
        • MIT Open Courseware , SOFIA
      • Linking or metadata repositories ( Type 2 );
        • MERLOT, CITIDEL
      • Hybrid repositories ( Type 3 )
        • ARIADNE, COLLOR
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Type 3 LORs Links to LOs & locally stored content Type 1 LORs Only locally stored content Type 2 LORs Only links to LOs
    • 51. Examples / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 52. / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 53. Digital Repositories
      • Institutional
        • educational or research parent body controlled
      • Discipline-Base d
        • Aka Subject or Research repositor ies
        • B ased around a specific discipline
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Digital Repositories: Issues and Challenges, a Literature Review, A. Luarte Rmit, 2006
    • 54. Digital Repositories
      • Consortia Repositories
        • Founded by a consortium of institutions
      • Learning Objects
        • Repository with learning objects used in teaching and training
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Digital Repositories: Issues and Challenges, a Literature Review, A. Luarte Rmit, 2006
    • 55. The Australian Way
      • See the object without contractual obligations;
      • Simple, non-intimidating design and structure;
      • Being able to get the object straight away;
      • Being able to store the object
        • On your own computer or
        • On personal online space (protected with login)
      • Simple versus advanced
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Flexible Learning Advisory Group, 2003
    • 56. LOR Functionalities
      • search/find
        • the ability to locate an appropriate learning object
      • quality control
        • ensure that learning objects meet technical, educational and metadata requirements
      • request
        • a learning object that has been located in the database
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Higgs, 2003
    • 57. LOR Functionalities
      • maintain
        • appropriate version control
      • retrieve
        • receive an object that has been requested
      • submit
        • provide an object to a repository for storage
      • publish
        • provide metadata to other repositories
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Higgs, 2003
    • 58. LOR Functionalities
      • store
        • place a submitted object into a data store with unique, registered identifiers that allow it to be located
      • gather (push/pull)
        • obtain metadata about objects in other repositories for wider searches and information via a clearing house function
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching *Higgs, 2003
    • 59. Interoperability
      • Supported and promoted by the Open Archive Initiative , Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH)
      • E nables the sharing of metadata between services
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 60. OAI – PMH
      • The Open Archives Initiative develops and promotes interoperability standards to facilitate the efficient dissemination of content
      • OAI has its roots in the open access movements
      • P romote s broad access to resources for eScholarship, eLearning, and eScience
      / 61 Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching
    • 61.
      • Dear user,
      • please take the time (5 minutes) to help us improve METASCHOOL modules!
      • Find the Module Questionnaire here:
        • METASCHOOL Portal: http://lreforschools.eun.org/metaschool
        • Find present module (ask your workshop leader, if you are unsure)
        • Scroll to the end of the module description
        • Fill in the Module Questionnaire
      • If you took part in a METASCHOOL Workshop and this is the last module of your workshop, please ALSO help us improve our METASCHOOL Workshops by completing the Workshop Questionnaire (10 minutes):
        • METASCHOOL Portal: http://lreforschools.eun.org/metaschool
        •  Click on a language:
      Evaluation
    • 62. Intro to metadata, educational metadata, and metadata-based searching Informatics Laboratory Agricultural University of Athens http://infolab-dev.aua.gr/