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What is working memory? “Information selected for further processing comes to the working memory. At this stage, concepts from long-term memory will be activated for use in making sense of the incoming information.”(Driscoll, p. 87) In order to ensure the information is transferred to your long-term memory, two processes come in to play.
Rehearsal and encoding http://www.education.com/reference/article/inform ation-processing-theory/
REHEARSALRehearsal has been proven to be an effective way of remembering information. Rehearsal is used often to remember phone numbers, definitions, names, songs, and more.On the next slide, please enjoy an example of rehearsal in order to retain certain information(spelling new words).
encoding“Encoding refers to the process of relating incoming information to concepts and ideas already in memory in such a way that the new material is more memorable.”(Driscoll, p. 89)Many people use Mnemonics during the encoding process.
MnemonicsMnemonics is when you use a list of letters to create a sentence structure to help process information.
Examples of mnemonic learningLearning the planets Learning directions“My Very Early “Never Eat Salty Morning Jog Starts Worms.” Up Near Penshnup” North, East, South,Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, West Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
Long term memoryEpisodic memory Semantic memory
Storage of information*Network Models of LTM*Feature Comparison Models of LTM*Propositional Models of LTM*Parallel Distributed Processing Models of LTM*Dual-Code Models of LTM
Retrieval of learned informationDifferent processes may be used to retrieve learned information. These processes may be used by recalling information, recognizing it, or by something called encoding specificity.
Encoding specificity“Have you ever been upstairs, wanted something that is downstairs, gone downstairs and then forgotten what you wanted? In fact, it is only when you go back upstairs again that you remember what it was that you wanted.When you store something in memory, the memory is not just of the item being stored but also of the context in which the memory occurred. Recall and recognition thus may be triggered by elements of the context being present.”(ChangingMinds)
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EXPLANATIONS FOR FORGETTINGFAILURE TO ENCODE FAILURE TO RETRIEVEThis is when a This is when you person cannot have the remember information in something your brain, but because it was are unable to never actually access it. learned.
helpful tips for learners*Read carefully and try to relate information to your personal life.*Review your notes daily.*Listen carefully and pay attention.*Use your own words to understand new informaiton.*Use silly rhymes, songs, or images to help retain information.
References Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson A and B. Encoding specificity principle. Changing minds and persuasion -- How we change what others think, believe, feel and do . Retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://changingminds.org/explanations/memory/encoding_specificity.ht m Forgetting. Forgetting. Retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy6/edpsy6 _forgetting.htmInformation Services. Information Processing Theory | Education.com. Education.com | An Education & Child Development Site for Parents | Parenting & Educational Resource . Retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/information-processing- theory/