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Psychology of development and learning

Psychology of development and learning

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Psychology of development and learning

  1. 1. ES-332. Psychology of development and learning
  2. 2.  It is an offshoot of philosophy.  Defining psychology.  Etymologically the very word psychology means the study of the soul.  Greek word psyche, meaning soul and logos signifying a rational course of study.
  3. 3.  What is mind how it can be studied. Then it also rejected.
  4. 4.  In 1890 William James in his book Principles of Psychology as “the description and explanation of state of consciousness as such”
  5. 5.  He established first psychology laboratory at the university of Leipzig in Germany.
  6. 6.  William McDougall a British Psychologist defined psychology as a science of behavior.  Behavior is the activities of a human being.  It is motor or cognitive or affective activities.
  7. 7.  Animal, insects, birds and even plants.
  8. 8.  General Psychology  Abnormal psychology  Social psychology  Experimental psychology  Physiological psychology  Parapsychology  Geopsychology  Developmental psychology.
  9. 9.  1.educational psychology  Clinical psychology  Industrial psychology  Legal psychology  Military psychology  Political psychology
  10. 10.  Unit .1. Concept and principles of Growth and development.
  11. 11.  Various aspects of human developments  1.cognitive  2.psychomotor  3.affective. these are the areas we wanted to cover. The concept and principles of learning and development also to be noted.
  12. 12.  The four units are.  1. understanding the development of the learner  2. understanding the learner as a unique individual  3.understanding the learning process  4. facilitating learning and development.
  13. 13.  It is dynamic from conception to death undergoes changes.
  14. 14.  The concept of growth.  It is quantitative change in size which includes physical change in height, weight, size, internal organs, etc.,
  15. 15.  Hair, teeth, sex, shyness, etc.,  Body steadily becomes larger, taller, and heavier.  The term growth indicates an increase in bodily dimensions.  The rate of growth differ from one person to another one.
  16. 16.  It is qualitative change taking place simultaneously with quantitative change of growth.  It is defined as a progressive series of orderly, coherent changes.  Progressive means it is directional, that they lead forward rather than backward.
  17. 17.  Orderly and coherent suggest that there is a definite relationship between the changes taking places and those that precede or will follow them.
  18. 18.  Overall changes in an individual due to the emergence of modified structures and functions that are the outcome of the interactions and exchanges between the organism and its environment.
  19. 19.  It is for both scientific and practical reason .  A knowledge of the pattern of development will help you know what to expect from the children.  It will help you know approximately at what stage behavioral changes take place and when these pattern are generally replaced by more mature patterns
  20. 20.  If too much is expected from the children they develop a feeling of inadequacy.  If too little is expected they do not have an incentive to realise their potential.
  21. 21.  It will help the parent and teacher to guide the children properly.
  22. 22.  Birth to 2 infancy  2 years to 6 years. early childhood- pre- primary  6 to 12 years. Later child hood- primary  12 to 18 years. Adolescence – secondary and senior secondary  18 to 40 years young adulthood
  23. 23.  40 to 65 years- mature adulthood  Over 65 years- aged adulthood
  24. 24.  Infants during the first two weeks are called neonates.  Observe a child and write their bodily movements and language expressions.
  25. 25.  It is preschool period.  The scope of behavior is enlarged here.  Love and affection are shown.  They need socialization groups.  Rapid expansion of cognitive abilities.  Child seeks information's, questions etc.,  An effort for gender identification (biology and environment influences)
  26. 26.  Physical growth is initially slow.  Intellectual, social and moral development is high.  Understands the meaning of laws.  Friendship is restricted to one or two.  They climb trees, walls etc.,
  27. 27.  Period of transition from childhood to adulthood is called adolescence.  Physical development 1. Growth Spurt. A rapid increase in height and weight. The growth of girls are faster than boys. By the age of 17 and 18 girls and boys will come to the final stage of growth.
  28. 28.  Rapid development of reproductive organs that signals the sexual maturity.
  29. 29.  The question “who am I”
  30. 30.  The style of thought, imagination judgment and insight.  Rapid accumulation of knowledge.  To plan and think. Develops the thinking capacity.
  31. 31.  The adolescence when it is completed.  The goal and aspirations are developed here.
  32. 32.  Middle life of transition.  In women hormonal changes of menopause generate anxiety and depression.
  33. 33.  Aging is a process which causes loss of vitality.  They are concerned more about health and death.  Retirement.  Some turns to God, social work etc.,
  34. 34.  Development is a product of maturity and learning.  The first principle of human development  1.continuity. form conception to death it is a continuous process. 2.Sequentiality. It is orderly. A pattern of development is there.
  35. 35.  1.from head to foot.  2.from central axis to the extrimeities of the body.  3ed principle Generality to specificity. Even you may observe the language developments
  36. 36.  Boys and girls have different development rates.  Development is both mental and physcial
  37. 37.  In facilitating growth and development.  What to expect form the child what one needed physical, mental, social and emotional.  Teacher is the one who guides the nation.
  38. 38.  Physical, socio emotional and moral development. Physical development is the psychomotor development. For teaching learning process the children have categorized into two groups 1.Upper primary.10-13. 2.secondary/ senior secondary.13-17.
  39. 39.  Children from 5 to 8/9.years show relatively slow physical development.
  40. 40.  Period of adolescence starts here.  Variability in onset and rate of puberty  Reaction to puberty  Early and late maturing.
  41. 41.  Upper primary school children. First – parents and family. Second – peer group Third- is the school experience. Here the children prove that they can do something . “ I can do it by myself”
  42. 42.  In pre- adolescents generally they are happy and optimistic.  They have the fear.  Not having a best friend.  Being punished by their parents.  Not doing well at school  Getting hurt.
  43. 43.  1.emotions are intense  2. emotions appear frequently  3. emotions are transitory  4. responses reflect individuality  5. emotions change in strength.  6. emotions can be detected by behaviour symtoms
  44. 44.  Who am I  And What  This will be there in their personality.  Sense of identity  Autonomy  Conformity  Interpersonal development
  45. 45.  Intimacy  Peer relations  Dating  Emotional disorder  Drug and alcohol abuse  Pregnancy
  46. 46.  Piaget’s view.  1. Anomy 1-5 age the stage with out law. this period to them is amoral.  They controls the behavior only from pain and pleasure.
  47. 47.  2.heteronomy5-8- authority.  The moral development is controlled by external authority. Rewards and punishments regulate moral development.  3. Heteronomy 9-13 – reciprocity. There is the morality of cooperation with peers or equals.  Should not do what is offensive to others.
  48. 48.  The individual at this stage is fully responsible for his/her behavior.
  49. 49.  Regular health education programmes.  Practical education about physical growth
  50. 50.  Educational implication of emotional development.
  51. 51.  Cognitive and Language development.  Here child’s thinking and cognition is studied.  So cognitive development means how knowledge is acquired and developed through successive stages and at various age levels.
  52. 52.  Theory of cognition is also called genetic epistemology.  Piaget’s concept of cognitive development. Assimilation= taking in or absorbing. Accommodation = making room for incoming information's.
  53. 53.  Take the page 37.
  54. 54.  It is inquiry oriented method- also known as clinical method.
  55. 55.  1.internal readiness.  2.enviornmental experience  3.social experience  4.equilibration.
  56. 56.  It is also known as lateral thinking. Think in unusual, novel and unique ways. It is original way of enquiry.  It will lead to creativity.
  57. 57.  1.flency.  2.flexibility.  3.originality.  4.elaboration.
  58. 58.  Original thought  Asks disturbing questions  Argues for the view points  Propose alternative solution  Risk taking mentality  Self concept is high  More tolerant of ambiguity  Curiosity and independent judgment
  59. 59.  Give divergent questions  Encourage all the answers  Encourage innovation  Develop sprit of inquiry  Encourage the creative efforts  Give inter disciplinary activities  Use the teaching aids to foster imagination.  Avoid premature evaluation.
  60. 60.  It is the progressive gain of maturity. (Chomsky)1968.  Mother – Ma- Amma is easy than master Because sequence of developing language. (WEIL) 1985. ref. page 42.
  61. 61.  Factors Influencing Development of Personality
  62. 62.  Persona= mask.  Totality of an individual. It is the dynamic organization within the individual of those both Psycho-Physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. Allport.(1961)
  63. 63.  1.consistency  2.development of personality structure  3. potentiality for change
  64. 64.  Bio-Physical approach.  Bio-social approach.  Psychoanalytical approach.  Psycho –Social approaches.  Social learning approach.  Personological approach .  Spiritual approach.
  65. 65.  1. Heredity.  2.Envirmental factors. Page 55.
  66. 66.  Films  Television  Radio  Newspaper  Magazines
  67. 67.  Teacher is the one to give the positive regards.  Be a friend, philosopher and a guide.
  68. 68.  Individual difference and cognitive domain.
  69. 69. the concept. Each one is different .some are physically good Mentally good Emotionally good. Influenced personalities of the world.
  70. 70.  Intelligence is the global or aggregate capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the enviornment.
  71. 71.  1.Psychometric Approach. measuring difference in intellectual abilities. Abstract thoughts------------ learning ability------------- adaptability.
  72. 72.  IQ= mental age ------------------ *100 chronological age.
  73. 73.  It is the set of abilities essential for acquiring knowledge and skills specific to an area of performance.  Specialized activity is performed by it.
  74. 74.  It is the intellectual process of relation.  They are memory process, restructuring symbols and ideas, perception of relation and pattern between ideas, spatial comprehension, reasoning, problem solving, judgment etc.,
  75. 75.  How to handle such students. P.13.
  76. 76.  1.encourage unusual or odd questions  2. provide activities to promote creative thinking abilities  3. organize brainstorming sessions  4. Use synectics.  5.provide students situation to evaluate their own ideas and thinking.  6 extra credit for creative thinking.
  77. 77.  It is the mark scored in subject or subjects.  (it is the value of the knowledge and capabilities attained)
  78. 78.  Schema= knowledge structure created by student in their memory.  Knowledge structure is the internal representation of the external realities.
  79. 79.  Progressive difference in knowledge attainment leads to cumulative difference in knowledge attainment this form of difference is called Mathew Effect. It means academically rich get richer and those who are poor continue to be poor.
  80. 80.  Provide appropriate pre-requisites to organize and learn information.  Use visual aids.  Use analogy, example and illustration.  Ensure learner’s active involvement in learning.
  81. 81.  Individual difference affective Domain.  The success of the teacher is on the extend she can make her students what they are expected to do.  What a child want to do and will not do.
  82. 82.  It has an influence on human behaviour.  It has both subjective and objective aspect.  Subjective is feeling components.  It is the motor behaviour of the individual. Page.26.
  83. 83.  It is a personality trait which indicates individuals like or dislikes.
  84. 84.  Nature and development of value.  Every individual is different but the nation is same, value never chanes.
  85. 85.  Those who are having social skills will adjust with the socity.
  86. 86.  To judge that whether the student is socially adjusted or not.  1 overt performance 2 adjustment to different group  3 social attitudes  Personal satisfaction.
  87. 87.  It is the total view by oneself.  I orME . What is your self concept.
  88. 88.  It refers the why of the behavior.
  89. 89.  Physiological need- need of food, drink, sleep  Need for safety- desire of security, family stability.  Need for love and belongingness- need for affection  Need for self- esteem  Need for self-actualization  Need to know  Aesthetic need.
  90. 90.  Differences in intelligence and the more narrowly defined intellectual process such as memory, judgment, and problem solving
  91. 91.  On the basis of caste, age, socio economic status.
  92. 92.  Difference in terms of age  Difference in terms of cast  Difference in terms of socio economic status  Difference in terms of personality.
  93. 93.  To the female child
  94. 94.  Factors producing individual difference.  Heredity and enviornment

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