It is an offshoot of philosophy.
Etymologically the very word psychology
means the study of the soul.
Greek word psyche, meaning soul and logos
signifying a rational course of study.
What is mind how it can be studied. Then it
In 1890 William James in his book Principles
of Psychology as “the description and
explanation of state of consciousness as
He established first psychology laboratory at
the university of Leipzig in Germany.
William McDougall a British Psychologist
defined psychology as a science of behavior.
Behavior is the activities of a human being.
It is motor or cognitive or affective activities.
Concept and principles of Growth and
Various aspects of human developments
3.affective. these are the areas we wanted to
The concept and principles of learning and
development also to be noted.
The four units are.
1. understanding the development of the
2. understanding the learner as a unique
3.understanding the learning process
4. facilitating learning and development.
It is dynamic from conception to death
The concept of growth.
It is quantitative change in size which
includes physical change in height, weight,
size, internal organs, etc.,
Hair, teeth, sex, shyness, etc.,
Body steadily becomes larger, taller, and
The term growth indicates an increase in
The rate of growth differ from one person to
It is qualitative change taking place
simultaneously with quantitative change of
It is defined as a progressive series of
orderly, coherent changes.
Progressive means it is directional, that they
lead forward rather than backward.
Orderly and coherent suggest that there is a
definite relationship between the changes
taking places and those that precede or will
Overall changes in an individual due to the
emergence of modified structures and
functions that are the outcome of the
interactions and exchanges between the
organism and its environment.
It is for both scientific and practical reason .
A knowledge of the pattern of development
will help you know what to expect from the
It will help you know approximately at what
stage behavioral changes take place and
when these pattern are generally replaced by
more mature patterns
If too much is expected from the children
they develop a feeling of inadequacy.
If too little is expected they do not have an
incentive to realise their potential.
It will help the parent and teacher to guide
the children properly.
Birth to 2 infancy
2 years to 6 years. early childhood- pre-
6 to 12 years. Later child hood- primary
12 to 18 years. Adolescence – secondary and
18 to 40 years young adulthood
40 to 65 years- mature adulthood
Over 65 years- aged adulthood
Infants during the first two weeks are called
Observe a child and write their bodily
movements and language expressions.
It is preschool period.
The scope of behavior is enlarged here.
Love and affection are shown.
They need socialization groups.
Rapid expansion of cognitive abilities.
Child seeks information's, questions etc.,
An effort for gender identification (biology
and environment influences)
Physical growth is initially slow.
Intellectual, social and moral development is
Understands the meaning of laws.
Friendship is restricted to one or two.
They climb trees, walls etc.,
Period of transition from childhood to
adulthood is called adolescence.
1. Growth Spurt.
A rapid increase in height and weight. The
growth of girls are faster than boys. By the
age of 17 and 18 girls and boys will come to
the final stage of growth.
Rapid development of reproductive organs
that signals the sexual maturity.
The style of thought, imagination judgment
Rapid accumulation of knowledge.
To plan and think. Develops the thinking
The adolescence when it is completed.
The goal and aspirations are developed here.
Middle life of transition.
In women hormonal changes of menopause
generate anxiety and depression.
Aging is a process which causes loss of
They are concerned more about health and
Some turns to God, social work etc.,
Development is a product of maturity and
The first principle of human development
form conception to death it is a continuous
It is orderly. A pattern of development is there.
1.from head to foot.
2.from central axis to the extrimeities of the
Generality to specificity.
Even you may observe the language
Boys and girls have different development
Development is both mental and physcial
In facilitating growth and development.
What to expect form the child what one
needed physical, mental, social and
Teacher is the one who guides the nation.
Physical, socio emotional and moral
Physical development is the psychomotor
For teaching learning process the children have
categorized into two groups
2.secondary/ senior secondary.13-17.
Children from 5 to 8/9.years show relatively
slow physical development.
Period of adolescence starts here.
Variability in onset and rate of puberty
Reaction to puberty
Early and late maturing.
Upper primary school children.
First – parents and family.
Second – peer group
Third- is the school experience.
Here the children prove that they can do
something . “ I can do it by myself”
In pre- adolescents generally they are happy
They have the fear.
Not having a best friend.
Being punished by their parents.
Not doing well at school
1.emotions are intense
2. emotions appear frequently
3. emotions are transitory
4. responses reflect individuality
5. emotions change in strength.
6. emotions can be detected by behaviour
Who am I
This will be there in their personality.
Sense of identity
Drug and alcohol abuse
1. Anomy 1-5 age the stage with out law. this
period to them is amoral.
They controls the behavior only from pain
The moral development is controlled by
external authority. Rewards and punishments
regulate moral development.
3. Heteronomy 9-13 – reciprocity. There is
the morality of cooperation with peers or
Should not do what is offensive to others.
The individual at this stage is fully
responsible for his/her behavior.
Regular health education programmes.
Practical education about physical growth
Educational implication of emotional
Cognitive and Language development.
Here child’s thinking and cognition is
So cognitive development means how
knowledge is acquired and developed
through successive stages and at various age
Theory of cognition is also called genetic
Piaget’s concept of cognitive development.
Assimilation= taking in or absorbing.
Accommodation = making room for incoming
Asks disturbing questions
Argues for the view points
Propose alternative solution
Risk taking mentality
Self concept is high
More tolerant of ambiguity
Curiosity and independent judgment
Give divergent questions
Encourage all the answers
Develop sprit of inquiry
Encourage the creative efforts
Give inter disciplinary activities
Use the teaching aids to foster imagination.
Avoid premature evaluation.
It is the progressive gain of maturity.
Mother – Ma- Amma is easy than master
Because sequence of developing language.
(WEIL) 1985. ref. page 42.
Factors Influencing Development of
Totality of an individual.
It is the dynamic organization within the
individual of those both Psycho-Physical
systems that determine his unique
adjustment to his environment. Allport.(1961)
2.development of personality structure
3. potentiality for change
IQ= mental age
It is the set of abilities essential for acquiring
knowledge and skills specific to an area of
Specialized activity is performed by it.
It is the intellectual process of relation.
They are memory process, restructuring
symbols and ideas, perception of relation and
pattern between ideas, spatial
comprehension, reasoning, problem solving,
1.encourage unusual or odd questions
2. provide activities to promote creative
3. organize brainstorming sessions
4. Use synectics.
5.provide students situation to evaluate their
own ideas and thinking.
6 extra credit for creative thinking.
It is the mark scored in subject or subjects.
(it is the value of the knowledge and
Schema= knowledge structure created by
student in their memory.
Knowledge structure is the internal
representation of the external realities.
Progressive difference in knowledge
attainment leads to cumulative difference in
knowledge attainment this form of difference
is called Mathew Effect. It means academically
rich get richer and those who are poor
continue to be poor.
Provide appropriate pre-requisites to
organize and learn information.
Use visual aids.
Use analogy, example and illustration.
Ensure learner’s active involvement in
Individual difference affective Domain.
The success of the teacher is on the extend
she can make her students what they are
expected to do.
What a child want to do and will not do.
It has an influence on human behaviour.
It has both subjective and objective aspect.
Subjective is feeling components.
It is the motor behaviour of the individual.
It is a personality trait which indicates
individuals like or dislikes.
Nature and development of value.
Every individual is different but the nation is
same, value never chanes.
Those who are having social skills will adjust
with the socity.
To judge that whether the student is socially
adjusted or not.
1 overt performance
2 adjustment to different group
3 social attitudes
It is the total view by oneself.
I orME . What is your self concept.
Physiological need- need of food, drink, sleep
Need for safety- desire of security, family
Need for love and belongingness- need for
Need for self- esteem
Need for self-actualization
Need to know
Differences in intelligence and the more
narrowly defined intellectual process such as
memory, judgment, and problem solving
On the basis of caste, age, socio economic
Difference in terms of age
Difference in terms of cast
Difference in terms of socio economic status
Difference in terms of personality.