Holocaust Remembrance Days May 1-8, 2011“Justice and Accountability in the Face of Genocide: What Have We Learned?” Miami-Dade County Public Schools Division of Social Sciences and Life Skills
Ms. Perla Tabares Hantman, Chair Dr. Lawrence S. Feldman, Vice-Chair Dr. Dorothy Bendross-Mindingall Mr. Carlos L. Curbelo Mr. Renier Diaz de la Portilla Dr. Wilbert “Tee” Holloway Dr. Martin S. Karp Dr. Marta Pérez Ms. Raquel A. Regalado Ms. Alexandra Garfinkle Student Advisor Alberto M. Carvalho Superintendent of Schools Ms. Milagros R. Fornell Associate Superintendent Curriculum and Instruction Dr. Maria P. de Armas Assistant SuperintendentCurriculum and Instruction, K-12 Core Curriculum Mr. John R. Doyle Administrative Director Division of Social Sciences and Life Skills
Holocaust Remembrance Days Information Packet May 1-8, 2011Holocaust Remembrance Day is a day that has been set aside for remembering the victims of theHolocaust and for reminding Americans of what can happen to civilized people when bigotry,hatred and indifference reign. The United States Holocaust Memorial Council, created by act ofCongress in 1980, was mandated to lead the nation in civic commemorations and to encourageappropriate remembrance observances throughout the country. Observances and remembranceactivities can occur during the week of remembrance that runs from the Sunday before throughthe Sunday after the actual date.While there are obvious religious aspects to such a day, it is not a religious observance as such. thThe internationally recognized date comes from the Hebrew calendar and corresponds to the 27day of Nisan on that calendar. That is the date on which Israel commemorates the victims of theHolocaust. This year, Holocaust Remembrance Day is May 2, 2011and it is called Yom Hashoah.Included in this packet, for classroom teaching and resource purposes, are the following: theFlorida sSatute requiring public school instruction on the history of the Holocaust, local resourcesfor Holocaust education, common student questions about the Holocaust, suggested classroomactivities and a comprehensive webography of resources. All of the resources are from the UnitedStates Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., where further information can be foundby logging on to www.ushmm.org.It is appropriate that all schools observe and support Holocaust Remembrance Day during theweek of May 1-8, 2011 by encouraging and promoting classroom lessons and school widecommemoration activities.
Resources for Holocaust EducationMiami-Dade County Public SchoolsDivision of Social Sciences and Life SkillsMr. John R. Doyle 305-995-1982Administrative DirectorDr. Miriam Klein Kassenoff 305-995-1201Curriculum Support Specialist/Holocaust Studiesmkassenoff@dadeschools.netCommunity ResourcesHolocaust Memorial, Miami Beach, Florida 305-538-1663To schedule student tours – up to 50 students per daywww.Holocaustmmb.orgSouth Florida Holocaust Education and 954-929-5690Documentation CenterRositta Kenigsberg, Executive Vice President/Executive DirectorFor a survivor visit contact: Merle Safersteinmerle@hdec.orgwww.hdec.orgNational ResourcesU.S. Holocaust Museum Bookstore 800-259-9998www.holocaustbooks.org or www.ushmm.org
Required Public School Instruction on the History of the Holocaust FLORIDA STATUTE 1003.42(2) Members of the instructional staff of the public schools, subject to the rules and regulations ofthe commissioner, the state board, and the school board, shall teach efficiently and faithfully,using the books and materials required, following the prescribed courses of study, and employingapproved methods of instruction, the following:(f) The history of the Holocaust (1933-1945), the systematic, planned annihilation of EuropeanJews and other groups by Nazi Germany, a watershed event in the history of humanity, to betaught in a manner that leads to an investigation of human behavior, an understanding of theramifications of prejudice, racism, and stereotyping, and an examination of what it means to be aresponsible and respectful person, for the purposes of encouraging tolerance of diversity in apluralistic society and for nurturing and protecting democratic values and institutions.
Common Student Questions about the Holocaust (Source: USHMM.org)1. How could Hitler make the Holocaust happen by himself? Hitler did not make the Holocaust happen himself. Many, many Germans and non-Germans were involved in the so-called Final Solution. Besides the SS, German government, Nazi party officials who helped to plan and carry out the deportation, concentration, and murder of European Jews, many other ―ordinary‖ people – such as civil servants, doctors, lawyers, judges, soldiers, and railroad workers – played a role in the Holocaust.2. Why didn’t they all leave? Frequently this question refers to German Jews before the start of 1939. Consider what is involved in leaving ones homeland as well as what sacrifices must be made. German Jews were in most cases patriotic citizens. Over 10,000 died fighting for Germany in World War I, and countless others were wounded and received medals for their valor and service. Jews, whether in the lower, middle, or upper classes, had lived in Germany for centuries and were well assimilated in the early twentieth century. It is important to consider how the oppressive measures targeting Jews in the pre-war period were passed and enforced gradually. These types of pre-war measures and laws had been experienced throughout the history of the Jewish people in earlier periods and in other countries as well. No one at the time could foresee or predict killing squads and killing centers. Once the difficult decision was made to try to leave the country, a prospective emigrant had to find a country willing to admit them and their family. This was very difficult, considering world immigration policies, as demonstrated by the results of the Evian Conference of 1938. If a haven could be found, consider other things that would be needed to get there.3. Why wasn’t there more resistance? The impression that Jews did not fight back against the Nazis is a myth. Jews carried out acts of resistance in every country of Europe that the Germans occupied, as well as in satellite states. They even resisted in ghettos, concentration camps and killing centers, under the most harrowing of circumstances. Why is it then that the myth endures? Period photographs and contemporary feature films may serve to perpetuate it because they often depict large numbers of Jews boarding trains under the watchful eyes of a few lightly armed guards. Not seen in these images, yet key to understanding Jewish response to Nazi terror, are the obstacles to resistance.
4. How did they know who was Jewish? Eventually Jews in Germany were locatable through census records. In other countries, Jews might be found via synagogue membership lists, municipal lists or more likely through mandatory registration and information from neighbors or local civilians and officials.5. What happened if you disobeyed an order to participate? Contrary to popular assumption, those who decided to stop or not participate in atrocities were usually given other responsibilities, such as guard duty or crowd control. Quiet non-compliance was widely tolerated, but public denunciation of Nazi anti-Jewish policy was not.6. Wasn’t one of Hitler’s relatives Jewish? There is no historical evidence to suggest that Hitler was Jewish. Recent scholarship suggests that the rumors about Hitler’s ancestry were circulated by political opponents as a way of discrediting the leader of an anti-Semitic party. These rumors persist primarily because the identity of Hitler’s paternal grandfather is unknown; rumors that this grandfather was Jewish have never been proven.7. Why were the Jews singled out for extermination? The explanation of the Nazis’ hatred of Jews rests on their distorted worldview, which saw history as a racial struggle. They considered the Jews a race whose goal was world domination and who, therefore, were an obstruction to ―Aryan‖ dominance. They believed that all of history was a fight between races, which should culminate in the triumph of the superior ―Aryan‖ race. Therefore, they considered it their duty to eliminate the Jews, whom they regarded as a threat. In their eyes, the Jews’ racial origin made them habitual criminals who could never be rehabilitated and were hopelessly corrupt and inferior. There is no doubt that other factors contributed toward Nazi hatred of Jews and their distorted image of the Jewish people. These included the centuries-old tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, which propagated a negative stereotype of Jews as murderers of Christ, agents of the devil, and practitioners of witchcraft. Also significant was the political anti-Semitism of the latter half of the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries, which singled out Jews as a threat to the established order of society. These combined to point to Jews as a target for persecution and ultimate destruction by the Nazis. More information can be found in several Holocaust Encyclopedia articles. Start with the overview of anti-Semitism, and then read the related articles on anti-Semitism through the centuries.8. What did the United States know and do? Despite a history of providing sanctuary to persecuted peoples, the United States grappled with many issues during the 1930s that made staying true to this legacy difficult, among them wide-spread anti-Semitism, xenophobia, isolationism, and a sustained economic depression.
Unfortunate for those fleeing from Nazi persecution, these issues greatly impacted this nationsrefugee policy, resulting in tighter restrictions and limited quotas at a time when open doorsmight have saved lives.Over the years, scholarly investigation into the American reaction to the Holocaust has raiseda number of questions, such as: What did America know? What did government officials andcivilians do with this knowledge? Could more have been done? Scholars have gaugedAmericas culpability through the governments restrictive immigration measures, itsindifference to reported atrocities, and its sluggish efforts to save European Jews. Debateshave sparked over key events, including the St. Louis tragedy, the establishment of the WarRefugee Board, the role of the American Jewish community, the medias coverage of Naziviolence, and the proposed, but abandoned, bombing of Auschwitz. The topic continues toevolve with the introduction of new documentation and revised hypotheses.
2011 DAYS OF REMEMBRANCE THEMEMay 1–8, 2011Justice and Accountability in the Face of Genocide: What Have We Learned?“That four great nations, flushed with victory and stung with injury stay the hand of vengeance andvoluntarily submit their captive enemies to the judgment of the law is one of the most significanttributes that Power has ever paid to Reason.” - Justice Robert Jackson, Chief U.S. Counsel to theInternational Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, Germany, November 21, 1945Congress established the Days of Remembrance as the nation’s annual commemoration of theHolocaust and created the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as a permanent livingmemorial to the victims. This years Holocaust remembrance week is May 1–8, 2011. The themedesignated by the Museum for the 2011 observance is Justice and Accountability in the Faceof Genocide: What Have We Learned?In the immediate aftermath of the massive death and destruction of World War II, revenge mighthave satisfied the shock and anger of the moment. But many believed that justice under the ruleof law rather than vengeance would better serve humanity. In support of this principle, theMuseum is marking the 65th anniversary of the verdicts at the first Nuremberg trial, a watershedmoment in international justice, and the 50th anniversary of the trial of Adolf Eichmann, one of themost high-profile postwar recountings of the Nazi genocide and a landmark in public awareness ofthe Holocaust.The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1945 held 22 top Nazi leaders accountable foratrocities they commanded and perpetrated. Subsequent proceedings between 1946 and 1949prosecuted another 183 persons. This total represented only a tiny fraction of those responsiblefor the Holocaust, but established important precedents. Who was prosecuted was more tellingthan how many stood trial. No one, regardless of official position, was above the law. Theargument that someone had just been following orders was no longer considered a valid defense.Not only were the shooters at mass executions and the guards at gas chambers tried, butphysicians and business leaders, government officials and civil servants also were required to
take responsibility for their actions—for as noted historian Raul Hilberg wrote, ―The annihilation ofJewry required the implementation of systematic administrative measures in successive steps.‖After Nuremberg, a new understanding of international responsibility for human rights emerged, asthe world began to fully understand the events we now call the Holocaust, spurring on a processto create a new legal vehicle that criminalized attempts to destroy any entire group of people—the1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.Fifteen years after the first Nuremberg convictions, a single individual would come to personifythese crimes—Adolf Eichmann. A midlevel SS officer central to the planning and implementationof the ―Final Solution,‖ Eichmann was captured by Israeli agents while hiding in Argentina in 1960and brought to Israel for what would become known then as the ―trial of the century.‖In an event televised around the world, the Eichmann trial refocused attention on the murder ofthe Jews of Europe. Unlike the Nuremberg trials, which relied heavily on documentary evidence,the Eichmann trial featured eyewitness testimony by Holocaust survivors, speaking out in a waythey never had before, enabling the world to put a face not only on the perpetrators, such asEichmann, but on the millions of victims and survivors.The Nuremberg and Eichmann trials strove for justice, but what can justice really mean in the faceof a crime like genocide? While the trials were an act of public accountability owed to the victims,justice to a great extent was aspirational.These anniversaries come at a time when some of the last living Nazis are on trial andperpetrators of recent genocides and crimes against humanity are being prosecuted. Precedentsset in trials against Holocaust perpetrators have guided a new understanding of justice as a toolfor seeking accountability, providing affirmation to victims, warning perpetrators, and reflectingsociety’s highest ideals about truth and justice. These trials are also a harsh reminder that whileaccountability is necessary in the aftermath of genocide, early intervention is vital to saving lives.Whether it is prevention, response, or accountability, the Holocaust teaches us that inaction canbe deadly; actions, even small ones, can make all the difference for those whose lives are at risk,now and in the future.
Research & ActivitiesRESEARCH: Using the Internet and other resources, research and respond to the following: 1. Research and define the Holocaust and its aftermath in a concise paragraph. How do you think that this year’s theme, Justice and Accountability in the Face of Genocide: What Have We Learned? applies to your knowledge of the Holocaust? Why is it important to know about the ―aftermath‖ of the Holocaust? 2. What were the Nuremberg trials? When and where did they begin? Use your research to highlight what you consider are the most important points of the Nuremberg trials on a poster board to display in your class. 3. Research to discover the symbolism in choosing the city of Nuremberg as the site for the trials. Use your research to have a class discussion about the selection of Nuremberg for the trials, including whether or not you feel another location would have had greater symbolism and why. 4. Research the term genocide. What are its origins? Keeping this year’s theme in mind, Justice and Accountability in the Face of Genocide: What Have We Learned?, why is this term and how it came into being important? Did the creation of the term genocide help to set the stage for the Nuremberg trials? 5. What were the findings of the Nuremberg trial? Do you feel the various verdicts and sentences bring accountability and justice?? How have these verdicts affected later policies? Write an essay explaining your answers and present it to the class. Be certain to do thorough research to support your position. 6. Who were the people selected to prosecute and preside over the trial? Using your research, write a 5-page summary explaining the background and importance of the people chosen, and the proceeding itself. 7. Research the roles of the perpetrators, victims and bystanders of the Holocaust. Who would you consider most responsible for Nazi crimes: those who made the laws of persecution, those who carried them out, or those who did not interfere? Decide on your answer then write a well-researched paper about it. Be prepared to present that answer to the class for discussion. 8. Research the legal phrase, crimes against humanity. What is the meaning of the term? Where did it originate? Why is it important to have a term such as this? Using your research, write a research paper highlighting what you have learned. 9. Since the Nuremberg trial there have been others being accused of crimes against humanity. Research this topic and write a summary of one such instance and why you think it is important, especially in relation to the theme, Justice and Accountability in the Face of Genocide: What Have We Learned?. Share your research and opinion in small groups for discussion. Share enough information so that classmates can ask questions and actively discuss your research.
10. Research to discover more about Simon Wiesenthal. Who is Simon Wiesenthal? What is the purpose of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, and why is it so important to the history of the Holocaust and its aftermath? Use your research to write a short essay paper answering these questions. 11. Were there other trials in post-war Europe besides the Nuremberg trials that dealt with crimes against humanity? Research to find out. If you find others, choose one trial to do more in-depth research on. Learn as much as you can, then share your findings with the class. 12. After doing your research, write an opinion paper based on everything you have learned, either supporting the Nuremberg trials and their outcome in relation to more recent international events and trials, or supporting a call for broader and more stringent justice to be served. If you choose to support the call for justice, outline why you feel it is necessary and how you think it would be best implemented.REFLECT, WRITE, CREATE: The following activities are based on the research completedregarding the history of the Holocaust of 1933-1945 and its aftermath: 1. What do you believe is the most significant legacy of the Nuremberg trials? Using your research from earlier, discuss this question with your class. 2. Imagine that you were a reporter at the time of the Nuremberg trial. Write an editorial that reflects your opinion concerning the significance of the trial to later generations. Print out and use photos from the trials to illustrate your editorial, and then place it around the room for viewing by the class. 3. Samuel Pisar, a Holocaust survivor says, ―The Holocaust teaches us that nature, even in its cruelest moments, is benign in comparison with man when he loses his moral compass and his reason.‖ How does what this survivor says relate to this year’s theme, Justice and Accountability in the Face of Genocide: What Have We Learned?, and the research you have done? In pairs or small groups, discuss and write a paper exploring this topic. Use your earlier research in the paper and present your thoughts to the class. 4. Based on your knowledge of the Holocaust and the proceedings of the Nuremberg trials, write a paper to explore the principle of individual responsibility. Share your paper with the class. 5. Hold a school-wide assembly where a history of the Holocaust and presentation of the Nuremberg trials is given by your class. Also, invite a Holocaust survivor and if there is one available, a local lawyer, to come and speak to the school about law and the Holocaust and the important lesson of the trials. 6. Explore the concept of ―man’s inhumanity to man.‖ What, in your understanding, does this actually mean? In small groups, discuss and write down the meaning of this statement, then share some of your conclusions with the class.
7. Watch the film, Judgment at Nuremberg (1961, by director Stanley Kramer). Discuss how this film affected your ideas about guilt and responsibility. Did film show ―justice and accountability‖ served?8. How does the film explore the concepts of human rights, justice, ethics, and fairness, in addition to guilt and responsibility? Have a class discussion about the film and these concepts.9. Create an essay, poem, or artistic design in reaction to the following statement concerning the guilt and responsibility of the people of Europe during the Holocaust: ―Some are guilty, all are responsible.‖ Share it with the class.10. The defense of the Nazi leaders during the Nuremberg Trials was that they were ―only following orders.‖ Hold a class debate about the concept of blindly following orders without weighing the moral consequences.11. Create a poster board with facts about the Holocaust and its aftermath, including the Nuremberg trials. Use photos, drawings and poetry to illustrate the questions of justice, morality, and human rights that are brought up through your study. Write a short summary about the significance of Holocaust awareness and the subjects of accountability and justice. Display the poster boards in a hallway of your school.12. How will the lessons of the Holocaust impact your life? What have you learned? What will you try to change? What message will you pass on to others?
Webographyhttp://www.ushmm.org/outreach(For the Student Outreach Site - authorization required)The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Homepage. Includes information about:background history and statistics of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, how to plan a visit tothe museum, museum membership, community programs, films and lectures, conferences foreducators, guidelines for teaching about the Holocaust, historical summaries, a videography forteachers, answers to five frequently asked questions about the Holocaust, Holocaust ResourceCenters nationwide, and a searchable database of the Research Institutes archives and library.www.holocaust-trc.orgHolocaust Education Foundation includes lesson plans, guest lecturer lists, and curriculumresources.http://www.yadvashem.org.ilYad Vashem Homepage for Israels Museum and Memorial to the victims of the Holocaust,primarily contains general information, some photographs and excerpts from survivor testimonytranscripts. There are educational materials available in Hebrew.http://www.wiesenthal.comThe Simon Wiesenthal Center Homepage. Headquartered in Los Angeles, the Simon WiesenthalCenter is an international center for Holocaust remembrance, and the defense of human rightsand the Jewish people. Contains answers to thirty-six frequently asked questions about theHolocaust, biographies of children who experienced the Holocaust, updates on current events,information on hate groups on the Internet and information about the center and the Museum ofTolerance. Much of this information is available in several languages including English, Spanish,German and Italian.http://www.facinghistory.orgFacing History and Ourselves Homepage. Facing History and Ourselves is a national educationaland professional development organization whose mission is to engage students of diversebackgrounds in an examination of racism, prejudice, and anti-Semitism in order to promote thedevelopment of a more humane and informed citizenry. At the present time, their homepageoffers basic information about their programs and resources.http://www.remember.orgHomepage of the Cybrary of the Holocaust. The Cybrary is probably the largest web site on theHolocaust. It contains a collection of encyclopedic information, answers to frequently askedquestions, curriculum outlines (including a lesson plan on Anne Frank), excerpts from survivortestimony, transcripts of Nazi speeches and official documents, artifact photos, historical photos,
artwork, poetry, books written by survivors, links to other Holocaust sites, and more. Both audioclips and transcripts of survivor testimony and interviews with scholars are available. Some of therecent additions to this site include photo tours of Auschwitz, genealogy tracing information, andonline chats with scholars.http://www.vhf.orgSurvivors of the Shoah: The Visual History Foundation created by Steven Spielberg has recordedmore than 25,000 videotaped interviews with Holocaust survivors. These are being recordedelectronically for computer d CD-ROMs to be distributed for museums and other Holocausteducation sites.http://www.annefrank.comAnne Frank On-line. This site is dedicated to everything about the Nazi’s most famous victim.http://www.hatewatch.orgHate Watch is a web-based organization that monitors the growing and evolving threat of hategroup activity on the Internet.http://www.hrusa.orgHuman Rights USA suggests ideas and tools for advocating and protecting human rights. The siteencourages community-based actions.http://www.adl.orgThe Anti-Defamation League was founded in 1913 to fight anti-Semitism through programs andservices that counteract hatred, prejudice and bigotry. The mission of the ADL is "to stop thedefamation of Jewish people, to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike."http://www.historychannel.comHistory Channel - Good resources for Holocaust film documentaries.http://www.ellisisland.orgEllis Island Homepage. Information on refugee immigrants arriving into the United States from allcountries and cultures.http://www.socialstudies.comSocial Studies School Service. An on-line catalog of Holocaust videos and resources.
http://www.iearn.org/hgpiearn Holocaust/Genocide Project. This is an international nonprofit telecommunications projectfocusing on the study of the Holocaust and other genocides and involves participating schoolsaround the world.http://www.library.yale.edu/testimonies/homepage.htmlFortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies. Contains general information about thearchive and how to use it as well as audio and video clips of several testimonies from survivors,liberators, rescuers and bystanders.
The School Board of Miami-Dade County, Florida, adheres to a policy of nondiscrimination in employmentand educational programs/activities and programs/activities receiving Federal financial assistance from theDepartment of Education, and strives affirmatively to provide equal opportunity for all as required by: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 - prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended - prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 - prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), as amended - prohibits discrimination on the basis of age with respect to individuals who are at least 40. The Equal Pay Act of 1963, as amended - prohibits sex discrimination in payment of wages to women and men performing substantially equal work in the same establishment. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - prohibits discrimination against the disabled. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) - prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment, public service, public accommodations and telecommunications. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) - requires covered employers to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave to "eligible" employees for certain family and medical reasons. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 - prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. Florida Educational Equity Act (FEEA) - prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, gender, national origin, marital status, or handicap against a student or employee. Florida Civil Rights Act of 1992 - secures for all individuals within the state freedom from discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicap, or marital status. School Board Rules 6Gx13- 4A-1.01, 6Gx13- 4A-1.32, and 6Gx13- 5D-1.10 - prohibit harassment and/or discrimination against a student or employee on the basis of gender, race, color, religion, ethnic or national origin, political beliefs, marital status, age, sexual orientation, social and family background, linguistic preference, pregnancy, or disability.Veterans are provided re-employment rights in accordance with P.L. 93-508 (Federal Law) and Section295.07 (Florida Statutes), which stipulate categorical preferences for employment.