2011 Women’s History Theme: Miami-Dade County Public Schools Curriculum and InstructionDivision of Social Sciences and Life Skills
THE SCHOOL BOARD OF MIAMI-DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA Perla Tabares Hantman, Chair Dr. Lawrence S. Feldman, Vice Chair Dr. Dorothy Bendross-Mindingall Carlos L. Curbelo Renier Diaz de la Portilla Dr. Wilbert “Tee” Holloway Dr. Martin Karp Dr. Marta Pérez Raquel A. Regalado Alexandra Garfinkle Student Advisor Alberto M. Carvalho Superintendent of Schools Ms. Milagros R. Fornell Associate Superintendent Curriculum and Instruction Dr. Maria P. de Armas Assistant Superintendent Curriculum and Instruction, K-12 Core Mr. John R. Doyle Administrative Director Curriculum and Instruction Division of Social Sciences and Life Skills
CONTENTSWomen’s History Month 2011 • 2011 National Women’s History Month theme • History of National Women’s History MonthBackground Information on Women’s History MonthWomen’s History Month Web ResourcesWomen’s OrganizationsNational Women’s History Project (NWHP) • Suggested Activities for infusing the 2011 Honorees • National Women’s History Project 2011 Honorees (In their honor) • HONORED WOMEN IN OUR HISTORYLesson Plans/Activities • Test Your Knowledge of Women’s History Questions & Answers • Women’s History Puzzle • Elementary/Secondary Classroom lessons/Activities 1. Two American Entrepreneurs: Madam C.J. Walker and J.C. Penney (lesson plan) 2. Activities for Madam C.J. Walker and J.C. Penney 3. Political Women in the American Revolution (lesson plan) 4. Women Today: An Editorial (lesson plan) 5. Political Women in the White House (lesson plan) 6. Women in the White House (lesson plan) 7. First but not last: Women Who Ran For President (lesson plan) 8. Role Model? Defining Michelle Obama’s Role as First Lady (lesson plan)
2011 Theme - Our History isOur StrengthOur shared history unites families, communities, and nations. Although women’shistory is intertwined with the history shared with men, several factors - social,religious, economic, and biological - have worked to create a unique sphere ofwomens history.The stories of women’s achievements are integral to the fabric our history.Learning about women’s tenacity, courage, and creativity throughout thecenturies is a tremendous source of strength. Until relatively recently, thissphere of womens history was overlooked and undervalued. Women’sachievements were often distorted, disdained, and denied. But, knowingwomen’s stories provides essential role models for everyone. And role modelsare genuinely needed to face the extraordinary changes and unrelentingchallenges of the 21st century.While women’s history is a relatively new field of study, one important scholar isGerda Lerner. She is credited with teaching the first women’s history course,establishing the first graduate program in women’s history, and publishingnumerous books and treatises on women’s history. In recognition of GerdaLerner’s pioneering role in establishing the field of women’s history as well asher generous role in mentoring women’s history scholars, the National Women’sHistory Project is honoring Gerda Lerner by offering her latest book Living withHistory/Making Social Change.Gerda Lerner supported our work even before we were the National Women’sHistory Project. We will always be indebted to her not only for her tenacious,unrelenting, and pioneering work in the field of women’s history, but also for herwell-documented research which demonstrates that Our History is OurStrength.Source: the NWHP.Org website
The BeginningAs recently as the 1970s, womens history was virtually an unknown topic in theK-12 curriculum or in general public consciousness. To address this situation, theEducation Task Force of the Sonoma County (California) Commission on theStatus of Women initiated a "Womens History Week" celebration for 1978. Wechose the week of March 8 to make International Womens Day the focal point ofthe observance. The activities that were held met with enthusiastic response, andwithin a few years dozens of schools planned special programs for WomensHistory Week, over one-hundred community women participated in theCommunity Resource Women Project, an annual "Real Woman" Essay Contestdrew hundreds of entries, and we were staging a marvelous annual parade andprogram in downtown Santa Rosa, California.Local CelebrationsIn 1979, a member of our group was invited to participate in Womens HistoryInstitutes at Sarah Lawrence College, attended by the national leaders oforganizations for women and girls. When they learned about our county-wideWomens History Week celebration, they decided to initiate similar celebrationswithin their own organizations and school districts. They also agreed to supportour efforts to secure a Congressional Resolution declaring a "National WomensHistory Week." Together we succeeded! In 1981, Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) and
Rep. Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) co-sponsored the first Joint CongressionalResolution.Overwhelming ResponseAs word spread rapidly across the nation, state departments of educationencouraged celebrations of National Womens History Week as an effectivemeans to achieving equity goals within classrooms. Maryland, Pennsylvania,New York, Oregon, Alaska, and other states developed and distributedcurriculum materials all of their public schools. Organizations sponsored essaycontests and other special programs in their local areas. Within a few years,thousands of schools and communities were celebrating National WomensHistory Week, supported and encouraged by resolutions from governors, citycouncils, school boards, and the U.S. Congress.The Entire Month of MarchIn 1987, the National Womens History Project petitioned Congress to expand thenational celebration to the entire month of March. Since then, the NationalWomens History Month Resolution has been approved with bipartisan support inboth the House and Senate. Each year, programs and activities in schools,workplaces, and communities have become more extensive as information andprogram ideas have been developed and shared.Growing Interest in Womens HistoryThe popularity of womens history celebrations has sparked a new interest inuncovering womens forgotten heritage. A Presidents Commission on theCelebration of Women in History in America recently sponsored hearings inmany sections of the country. It took reports about effective activities andinstitutions that are promoting womens history awareness and heardrecommendations for programs still needed. The Womens Progress Commissionwill soon begin hearings to ascertain appropriate methods for identifying and thenpreserving sites of importance to American womens history. In many areas, statehistorical societies, womens organizations, and groups such as the Girl Scout ofthe USA have worked together to develop joint programs. Under the guidance ofthe National Womens History Project, educators, workplace program planners,parents and community organizations in thousands of American communitieshave turned National Womens History Month into a major focal celebration, anda springboard for celebrating womens history all year round.Expanding the FocusThe National Womens History Project is involved in many efforts to promotemulticultural womens history. We produce organizing guides, curriculum units,posters and display sets, videos, and a range of delightful celebration supplies.We also coordinate the Womens History Network, conduct teacher trainingconferences, and supply materials to people wherever they live through aWomens History Catalog.
Womens History Month - WebAdditional ResourcesStudying Womens Contributions to HistorySince 1910, March 8 has been observed as International Womens Day bypeople around the world. Thus, March was chosen for National Womens HistoryMonth in the United States.In celebrating Womens History, the goal is not to rewrite history, but rather toadd very different perspectives about what is historically significant. Before the1980s, history focused primarily on political, military, and economic leaders andevents. That approach has virtually excluded women, both leaders and ordinarycitizens, from history books.Here are some resources to help you integrate the celebration of WomensHistory Month into your curriculum. They include Web sites, lesson plans, andactivity ideas.Web SitesThomson-Gale Free ResourcesA brief history of Womens History Month, biographies of significant womenthroughout time, a quiz based on women and their achievements, a time line ofsignificant events in womens history, a downloadable calendar, and someactivities to celebrate womens history.http://www.gale.com/free_resources/whm/index.htm"Votes for Women" Suffrage Pictures, 1850-1920 | Library of CongressVaried resources related to the campaign for woman suffrage in the UnitedStates. The 38 pictures include photographs of suffrage parades, picketingsuffragists, and an anti-suffrage display, as well as cartoons commenting on themovement.http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/vfwhtml/vfwhome.htmlWomens History Resources | Library of CongressDeveloped in conjunction with the chapter on the Prints and PhotographsDivision in American Women: A Library of Congress Guide for the Study ofWomens History and Culture in the United States. It is a starting point forpursuing research in various topic areas that broadly reflect aspects of Americanwomens lives.http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/237_path.html
U.S. Womens History WorkshopThe Womens History Workshop is a collaborative effort of Massachusettsteachers -- middle school through college -- which seeks to make availableprimary sources in pedagogically imaginative formats for teachers who wish touse such materials in their own classrooms.http://www.assumption.edu/whw/Women Pioneers in American Memory | Library of CongressThis feature explores the stories of women who have forged ahead to make abetter life for themselves, their families, and their societies. This presentationincludes womens experiences of the California Gold Rush, issues such assuffrage, the struggle for equality, and women at work.http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/women/women.htmlProfilesWomens Intellectual Contributions to the Study of the Mind and SocietyThis Web site is designed to place women into the history of psychology,sociology, anthropology, and social work. There are dozens of resourcesavailable about the lives of these women, their intellectual contributions, and theunique impact and special problems that being female had on their careers.http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/women.htmlTopical ResourcesNational Womens History MuseumThis sites educational resources include a self-guided tour of the museum,biographies of famous women, lesson plans, quizzes and quotes, and womenshistory events by state.http://www.nmwh.org/Living the Legacy: The Womens Rights Movement 1848-1998Sponsored by the National Womens History Project, this Web site wasconceived in order to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the WomensRights Movement, which began in 1848. Most useful on the site are the fullhistory of the womens rights movement and a detailed time line of the 150 yearsof the movement.http://www.legacy98.org/The National Womens Hall of FameThis Web site from the Seneca Falls, New York, National Womens Hall of Famehouses biographies of famous American women.http://www.greatwomen.org/
Research Tools, Womens History | ScholasticThis site contains student-friendly essays on the history of Womens HistoryMonth, the womens suffrage movement, and women in the U.S. today, andprofiles of civil rights activists, artists, athletes, political women, journalists,scientists, and others.http://teacher.scholastic.com/researchtools/articlearchives/womhst/Not for Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B.Anthony | PBSAn online companion to the PBS documentary, this site includes a collection ofresources that may be used in the classroom. Experience the work of ElizabethCady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Track key events in the suffragemovement, delve into historic documents and essays, and take a look at wherewomen are today.http://www.pbs.org/stantonanthony/Women in Alaskas History | ThinkQuestThis site, developed by students for the ThinkQuest competition, helps studentslearn about a diverse group of women who helped shape the Alaska we knowtoday. On the site, youll find information about these women and their roles inearly Alaskan history, the gold rush, the Iditarod, and other aspects of Alaskanhistory and culture. A search engine and time line allows you to search for aspecific woman or time period in Alaskan history. An activities section includesteaching ideas and fun projects to supplement this site.http://library.thinkquest.org/11313/What Did You Do In The War, Grandma?A community oral history project, the site was produced by students at SouthKingstown High School in Rhode Island and contains 26 oral histories ofwomens memories of World War II, an introduction explaining how Englishteachers might approach oral histories, a WWII time line, a bibliography, and twoscholarly prefaces. http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/tocCS.htmlTrue-Hearted Vixens | PBS: P.O.V.True-Hearted Vixens is the story of two players who make the cut for theWomens Professional Football Leagues (WPFLs) first exhibition tour. JaneBolin is a political consultant turned linebacker, and Kertia Moochie Lofton is asingle mother and a professional womens basketball hopeful. The film alsodocuments the challenges the WPFL faces in developing an audience for a sportthat is traditionally regarded as male terrain. Explore the world of girls andwomens sports, and brush up on your history of U.S. women in team sports.http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2001/trueheartedvixens/Eleanor Roosevelt | PBS: The American ExperienceFor more than thirty years, she was the most powerful woman in America. Nieceof one president and wife of another, Eleanor Roosevelt was at the center of
much of this centurys history -- a charismatic woman of charm and ofcontradictions. Aristocratic in voice and manner, she was also "tough as nails,"says historian Geoffrey Ward. "In fact, she was one of the best politicians of thetwentieth century."http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eleanor/filmmore/index.htmlFly Girls | PBS: The American ExperienceDuring WWII, more than a thousand women signed up to fly with the U.S.military. Wives, mothers, actresses, and debutantes who joined the WomenAirforce Service Pilots (WASPS) test-piloted aircraft, ferried planes and logged60 million miles in the air. Thirty-eight women died in service. But the opportunityto play a critical role in the war effort was abruptly canceled by politics andresentment, and it would be 30 years before women would again break the sexbarrier in the skies.http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/flygirls/index.htmlLesson PlansResources: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony |PBSSubjects: Social Studies, History, Civics, Government, Language ArtsGrades: 6-8, 9-12Write editorials about womens rights around the world today; interview seniorcitizens about how womens roles have changed in the 20th century; investigatewomens legal rights over 200 years of American history through primarydocuments; and explore the connections and conflicts between the suffrage andabolition movements in 19th century America.http://www.pbs.org/stantonanthony/resources/index.htmlLessons include: • Scripting the Past: students employ the screenwriters craft to gain a fresh perspective on historical research. http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=254 • Voting Rights for Women: students discover what attitudes about women and their relationships with men, and the arguments for and against suffrage, that had to be overcome before women could take their rightful place in American society. http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=438 • Who Were the Foremothers of Womens Equality?: Students investigate the sources useful for uncovering the names of the women who contributed to the early Womens Rights Movement in the U.S. http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=435
• Womens Equality: students examine what attitudes and beliefs obstructed the progress of the Womens Rights Movement in its formative years. http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=437Miss America | PBS: The American ExperienceSubjects: History, Economics, Geography, CivicsGrades: 6-8, 9-12"Miss America" offers insights into American history topics including the JazzAge, the Depression, World War II, the Baby Boom, feminist and civil rightsactivism of the 1960s, the womens liberation movement, and more.http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/missamerica/tguide/index.html
Women’s ORGANIZATIONSMiami-Dade County Commission for Women111 NW 1st Street, Suite 660Miami, Florida 33128305-3754967http://www.miamidade.gov/cfw/Women’s History Coalition of Miami-Dade CountyPresident: Betsy KaplanP.O. Box 565307Miami, Florida 33256Florida International UniversityWomen’s Studies CenterDr. Suzanna Rose, DirectorUniversity Park Campus, DM 212Miami, Florida 33199http://www.fiu.edu/~wstudies/The Florida Commission on the Status of WomenNorma White, L.H.D., PresidentClaudia Kirk Barto, Vice-PresidentOffice of the Attorney GeneralPL-01, The CapitolTallahassee, Florida 32399-1050850 414-3300http://www.fcsw.netNational Women’s Hall of FameP.O. Box 335Seneca Falls, NY 13148-0355315 568-2936http://www.greatwomen.org/National Women’s History Project7733 Bell RoadWindsor, CA 95492-8518707 838-6000www.nwhp.org
February is Black History MonthFebruary is Black History Month. This important focal event presents a specialopportunity to recognize the bold and daring achievements of African Americans.2007 is the 50th anniversary of the integration of Central High, a pivotal event inthe Civil Right Movement that challenged racist segregation and moved historyforward for all Americans.Fifty years ago, the doors of Little Rock’s Central High School became gates ofchange, when on September 4, 1957, nine African American students came toschool for class — for the first time. Turned away by Arkansas National Guardsoldiers under orders from the Governor, the students finally entered safely threeweeks later when the President of the United States sent the 101st Airborne toenforce the Supreme Court’s desegregation rulings.The historic events of the integration of Central High School and the re- openingof all of Little Rock’s schools a year after the governor closed them arequintessential women’s history. Women’s bold actions made both eventspossible.Civil Rights activist, Daisy Bates, gave the nine students (two boys and sevengirls) the information, encouragement, and support they needed to enroll inCentral High School. When the governor resorted to closing the schools in LittleRock to prevent integration, it was the women of the “Womens EmergencyCommittee to Open Our Schools” who with daring courage organized the effort toopen the schools and in so doing changed themselves and the community.One of this year’s Honorees, Minnijean Brown Trickey, was only sixteen yearsold when she became involved in the integration of Little Rock’s Central HighSchool. Along with eight other black teenagers who defied death threats, hostilewhite demonstrators, and even the Arkansas National Guard to attend the all-white Central High School in 1957. Rising above the adversity, they took acourageous step that not only changed their lives and education but the lives andeducations of African Americans around the country.African American history is essential to American History and needs to bemerged in the telling of the story. Until that time, we need to use this importantfocal celebration of Black History Month to inform and expand our societysknowledge of African American history.WARRIORS DON’T CRY: Drawn from her diary, the author writes a rivetingaccount of her experience integrating Central High School.
THE LONG SHADOW OF LITTLE ROCK: A MEMOIR BY DAISY BATES: DaisyBates guided and advised the nine students, known as the Little Rock Nine,when they attempted to enroll at Little Rock Central High School in 1957.THE GIANTS WORE WHITE GLOVES video: When racism closed the schools inLittle Rock, a group of respectable, middle-class white women were faced withthe prospect of no schools as well as the further loss of their city’s good name.They turned militant and changed themselves and he community in the process.Celebrating Black History Month Resources.Celebrating 50 Years of Integration: The Memory ProjectCentral High students today are collecting the personal stories of family andneighbors who lived through historic and current civil rights struggles, not only atCentral but across Arkansas, America, and the world. Students are creating thiswebsite, The Little Rock Central High Civil Rights Memory Project, to serve as apermanent online resource for students, teachers, historians and the families ofthose who share their stories. It is the hope of Centrals students that thiswebsite-and these personal narratives-can open a door into history andencourage students today to continue the process of change in race relationsand civil rights in their own lives and communities. The Memory Project.Voices from the Days of SlaveryThe Library of Congresss American Folklife Center online collection: Voices fromthe Days of Slavery: Former Slaves Tell Their Stories, available at LibrarysAmerican Memory. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/voices/Memory ProjectStanding on My Sisters ShouldersAn award-winning documentary about courageous women in Mississippi duringthe Civil Rights Movement. Check out www.sisters-shoulders.org for additionalinformation.
1. Womens history news reports: After reading the brief biographies of the 2011 National Women’s History Month list (partial list provided, for the complete list go to http://nwhp.org/whm/honorees.php) have students research the 2011 Women’s History honorees and write news releases for radio or television to report the facts of a specific, important event in which women were the major players. Pretending that the event has just happened, include all of the important details: who, what, when, where, and why. Dont forget to include a snappy headline or lead-in for the story, too!*Extension Activity: • Reflect on the 2011 Women’s History month honorees, as a class, review the list and allow each student to select one woman as the focus of his or her research. • Then, using all available resources, students identify the answers to the following questions (copied onto a handout for easier student access):*PERSONAL LIFE • What was this womans name at birth? Where and when was she born? • What was her life like as a child and young adult? (Describe important aspects of family life, education, pastimes, etc.) • What aspects of her early life may have led her to the field of study in which she became successful and well-known? • What was her personal life like as an adult? • Did she marry? • Did she have children? • What type of person was she? • If this person is no longer alive, when and where did she die?*ACHIEVEMENTS AND IMPACT • At what point did she decide to go into her chosen field? How did she prepare for this field? • What contributions did she make to this field and to larger society? • Why was this work important? • Detail some of her most significant work and its impact. • In what way or ways did her work and achievements impact American history? Provide specific examples.*PERSONAL REFLECTIONS • What do you think everyone should know about this notable woman?
• What do you think was her most impressive achievement, and why? • How has this woman inspired you? In what ways would you like to be her?2. Research on women and work: After students conduct research on one ofthe following topics, have them report to the class about their findings on womenand work in other time periods of U.S. history. • The varied tasks which were womens responsibilities in the early colonies (be certain to include American Indians, European Americans, African- Americans, and Hispanics). • Immigrant women in the 19th century: Where were they from? Why did they come here? What kinds of work did they do when they got here? What were their living conditions like? • The lives of American Indian women of a tribe that lived near your community 200 years ago. The lives and work of American Indian women today. • The work of migrant women, now and in earlier time periods. • Mexican women of "the West," before Europeans arrived and afterward. • Women workers in the textile and garment industries, from the 1850s to the present. • Womens roles and contributions during a time when our country was at war.3. Poster design contest: Organize a 2009 National Womens History Monthhonoree poster design contest. Display the entries in a public area of the school.Topic ideas: • "Missing Persons," individuals or groups of women whose contributions are often ignored • "Women Then and Now," featuring the social, economic, political and family changes in womens lives. • "Did You Know...," introducing interesting historic facts about women.4. Textbook review: Have students carefully examine the history textbooks usedin your school, listing each woman either mentioned in the text or illustrated byphoto or drawing. How many women are mentioned? What events or activitieswere they associated with? How many sentences are associated with eachwoman? Are women of different ethnicities portrayed? Contrast the findings withthe textbooks treatment of men. Write to the publisher about these findings.Include recommendations of specific women to add to future editions, and ask forthe publishers response.5. Family Histories: Brainstorm with your class to list questions they would liketo ask an aunt, their mother, or the woman who raised them, about her life. Help
them organize the questions into topics or clusters, developing an appropriatequestionnaire. Guide the discussion toward including questions related to theimpact of historic events on the womans life, moves made by her family, familyexpectations for females and males, attitudes about womens public lives, etc.Discuss oral history interviewing strategies to avoid "yes/no" answers, anddifferent forms of biographies for reporting the findings. Use the biographies todiscuss similarities and differences between womens life experiences.6. Political slogans: Numerous bumper-strip/button slogans have beenassociated with the womens movement. What have these messages meant?Who might agree or disagree with each? Are the issues represented new ones orhave they had a long history? Examples: "Every Mother is a Working Mother,""Women Hold up Half the Sky," "Uppity Women Unite," "Sisterhood is Powerful,""A Womans Place is... Everywhere," "Write Women Back into History," "KeepYour Laws Off My Body," "Take Back the Night."
In Their HonorVirginia Woolf wrote that Anonymous was a woman.The NWHP encourages discovering stories about our mothers, grandmothers,and great grandmothers to help us better understand their lives, the challengesthey faced, and ultimately, ourselves and our own times. Recognizing the dignityand accomplishments of women in our own families and those from otherbackgrounds leads to higher self-esteem among girls and greater respect amongboys and men.To ignore the vital role that women’s dreams and accomplishments play in ourown lives would be a great mistake. We draw strength and inspiration from thosewho came before us – and those remarkable women working among us today.They are part of our story, and a truly balanced and inclusive history recognizeshow important women have always been in American society.Roberta (“Bobbie”) W. Francis, a nationally recognized leader and strategistfor the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), is a 30+ year advocate and activist forthe ERA. Honored for her ERA leadership in 2004 by the Business andProfessional Women/ USA and by the Alice Paul Institute in 2008, Bobbie servesas Chair of the ERA Taskforce for the National Council of Women’s each child asense of endless confidence and possibility. Her extraordinary faith sustainedher through the most difficult of times. Her life inspired her youngest child towork to ensure that the life of the so-called common woman, like my mother,would be recognized, honored, and celebrated. Molly Murphy MacGregorLissa McLean’s legacy in addition to being an incredible role model for herfamily, most especially her nieces, and friends, also includes the co-funding ofthe Women’s Sports Foundation Internship Program, the Lissa McLeanCollection at the Delta Township District Library in Lansing MI, and herextraordinarily generous financial and volunteer support for the NationalWomen’s History ProjectGussie Mc Robert lived with a mother and husband who tried to kill her. She notonly overcame, but triumphed over their abuse. She re-married, raised five sons,earned a Masters Degree in Communications, worked in radio/TV and waselected may of Gresham, Oregon, a city of 100,000. She tells her story is herautobiography, From Hell and Back: Survive & Thrivebook.Joan Anderson Meacham’s commitment to advancing women’s history iswidely recognized. On local, state and national levels, she created and ledorganizations that seek to tell the untold story of women’s achievements andcontributions. She is a co-founder of the National Women’s History Museum, theNational Collaborative for Women’s History Sites, and the groundbreakingArizona Women’s Heritage Trail where she serves as the Director.
Ruth Moyer (b. 1920) has never wavered in her commitments to social andeconomic justice, progressive politics, gender equity, and public education. Herlargehearted community service in the many towns in which she has lived hasearned her admiration and the lasting friendship of many.My mother, Dorothy Bloom Pollack, was the center of our family and kept ourtraditions and cultural heritage alive. Her parents escaped Anti-Semitism inRussia in the early 1900s, and she was active in working with Jewish immigrantchildren in the United States. An outstanding folk dance and prolific reader andknitter, she shared her gifts and unconditional love with her family and friends.Linda Pollack ShevitzJessie Mae Perry (1909–2002) was born in St. Matthews, SC and received a BAin Economics from Claflin College. She was involved in the PTA, local politicsand the Girl Scouts and was employed by the NYC Department of HumanResources. She was a member of Mt. Olivet Baptist Church in NYC andbelonged to the AAUW and the Federally Employed Women.Bernice M. Stein (1931-2004) married in the 1950s and was a devoted wife andmother. Her daughters, one an engineer and one a research scientist, are theembodiment of her feminist dreams. Her engineer daughter, Jill Tietjen,coauthored Her Story: A Timeline of the Women Who Changed America.Margaret Zierdt has demonstrated an extraordinary devotion to recognizingwomen’s historic accomplishments through her research, writing, promotion, andactive participation in womens history organizations. She serves on the NationalWomen’s History Project’s Board of Directors and is the organizations mostgenerous donor. She is also the recipient of the "Writing Women Back intoHistory Award" for her consistent attention on the role and condition of womenthroughout history.MEN WHO HONOR WOMENIn their landmark book, Against the Tide "Pro-Feminist Men" in the UnitedStates: 1776- 1990, a Documentary History, editors Michael S. Kimmel andThomas E. Mosmiller document the work of thousands of men who havesupported women. In the tradition of Thomas Payne, Frederick Douglas, andAlan Arkin, these men are also being recognized for their work in honoringwomen.George C. Casey became a supporter of the National Women’s History Project14 years ago. He is one of the most generous supporters of the NationalWomen’s History Project and the American Humane Society. He has served onthe Board of Directors of both organizations. He also supports NorthwesternUniversity‘s Gender Equity Program and the Women’s Sports Foundation.
Robert P. J. Cooney, Jr. is an award-winning editor, writer, and speaker. Hisfocus on America’s activist history of grassroots social change which after 14years of research and writing resulted in his landmark book, “Winning the Vote:The Triumph of the American Woman Suffrage Movement,” He has workwith the National Womens History Project (NWHP) for over 15 years and hasserved on the NWHP Board of Directors for over a decade.Geoffrey N. Irvine played a highly significant, but less visible role in saving thebirthplace of suffragist and ERA author Alice Stokes Paul. When his spouse,Barbara Irvine, explained that she needed to quit her paying job to take on thevolunteer job of saving Alice Paul’s legacy, Geoff never hesitated to supportBarbara in every possible way for over 15 years while she worked to accomplishthe goal. BRAVO!Source: History Project at http://www.nwhp.org/whm/honorees.php. Acomprehensive list of the honorees has been provided on the next page.
1. Who founded Bethune-Cookman College, established the National Council of NegroWomen, and served as an advisor on minority affairs to President Franklin D.Roosevelt?2. What woman was the first African-American woman to win the Nobel Prize forLiterature?3. What Black woman refused to give up her seat to a White man, in Montgomery,Alabama, in 1955, thus sparking the civil rights movement of the following decade?4. Who was the first woman to run for President of the United States (1872)?5. Who opened up social work as a profession for women, and also won the 1931 NobelPeace Prize for her anti-war organizing work?6. Which Mexican-American woman was a leading money winner in the LadiesProfessional Golf Association?7. Who was the first woman Poet Laureate of the United States?8. Who was the first “First Lady” to have developed her own political and mediaidentity?9. Who wrote the first version of the Equal Rights Amendment in 1923?10.Who was the first Black woman elected to Congress?11. What leading suffragist was arrested and convicted of attempting to vote in the1872 election?12. Who was the first Chinese-American woman ever elected to hold a statewideoffice in the United States?13. What journalist traveled around the world in 72 days in 1890?14. What woman was turned down by 29 medical schools before being accepted asa student, graduated at the head of her class, and became the first licensed womandoctor in the U.S.?15. What former slave was a powerful speaker for the rights of women and Black people?16. When was the Equal Rights Amendment first introduced into Congress?17. Who was the last queen of the Hawaiian Islands, deposed because American business interests wanted to annex Hawaii to the U.S.?
18. Which woman was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for holding religious discussion meetings in her home?19. Who spoke out for the advancement of American Indians’ rights from speaker’splatforms nationwide and before Congressional committees in the 1880s?20. Who drove a stagecoach across the roughest part of the West without anyoneknowing until she died that she was a woman?21. Who was the first Hispanic woman to serve as U.S. Treasurer?22. Who was the Shoshone Indian woman who served as guide and interpreter on theLewis and Clark expedition?23. Who was Chair of the Board and publisher of The Washington Post and Newsweekmagazine, and also oversaw six broadcasting stations?24. About 20,000 women shirtwaist workers staged a strike for better workingconditions. Their action was called the “Uprising of the 20,000.” When and where didhis strike occur?25. When did officials of Little League Baseball announce that they would “defer to thechanging social climate” and let girls play on their teams?26. As vice president of the United Farm Workers, what woman has been vital inspeaking for civil and economic rights for farm workers throughout the U.S.?27. When did Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 go into effect, prohibitingdiscrimination on the basis of sex in federally funded school programs and activities?28. What woman was invited to teach nuclear physics at Princeton University, eventhough no female students were allowed to study there?29. What woman served as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, freeinghundreds of southern slaves and leading them to safety in the North? A $40,000 rewardwas offered for her capture.30. What woman is credited with helping free more than 2,000 Chinese women andchildren smuggled into San Francisco to be sold as slaves?31. Who was the first African American woman to have her works published?32. Which mother led a 125–mile march of child workers all the way from the mills ofPennsylvania to President Theodore Roosevelt’s vacation home on Long Island?33.One of the most important Union spies and scouts during the Civil War was a Blackwoman who had escaped from slavery. Can you name her?34. Before the 1960s, farm workers in the U.S. were not paid even the minimum wage,and had no influential representatives to fight for their rights. What part did DoloresHuerta play in changing this situation?
35. The line of beauty products she created for African–American people made her thefirst Black woman millionaire in the United States. Who was she, and when did she dothis?36. She came to the U.S. when she was a teenager to study science and stayed tobecome “the world’s foremost female experimental physicist.” Her most famousexperiment disproved what had been thought to be a fundamental scientific law. Who isthis outstanding Asian–American scientist?37. She took her job as “First Lady” seriously, traveling the country and the world togather information about the problems and concerns of workers, children, minorities, andthe poor. She wrote a daily newspaper column and made frequent radio broadcasts.Who was this active wife of a president?38. When the Mexican Revolution of 1910 reached the Texas border, she and herfriends organized La Cruz Blanca, The White Cross, to take care of the wounded. Theynursed people from both sides of the fighting. She was also known as a journalist andcommunity activist. Who was she and where did she live?39. Who was the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian Islands, deposed whenAmerican business and military interests wanted to annex Hawaii to the U.S.?40. She opened “Hull House” in a run–down Chicago neighborhood, a community centerto improve conditions for poor immigrants. The program of English–language classes,childcare, health education and recreational opportunities soon inspired hundreds ofother settlement houses throughout the country. Her name?41. Daughter and granddaughter of Paiute Indian chiefs from Nevada, she lobbiedCongress, wrote extensively, and traveled across country during the late 1800s lecturingon the hardships brought upon Native Americans by the U.S. Government. Her name?42. Her 1939 Easter Sunday concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial drew a crowdof 75,000. Who was she, and why was she singing there?43. Who printed the first copy of the Declaration of Independence that included thesigners’ names?44. Clara Barton (1821–1912) is best known for founding the American Red Cross, butshe also played a vital role during the Civil War. What did she do?45. She is regarded as the greatest ballerina born in America. Her father was the Chiefof the Osage Indians. Can you name her?46. Why is Rachel Carson (1907–1964) considered the mother of the environmentalmovement?
1. Mary McLeod Bethune (1875–1955)2. Toni Morrison (b. 1931)3. Rosa Parks (b. 1920)4. Victoria Woodhull (1838-1927)5. Jane Addams (1860-1935)6. Nancy Lopez (b. 1957)7. Rita Dove (b. 1952)8. Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)9. Alice Paul (1885-1977)10. Shirley Chisholm (b. 1924)11. Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)12. March Fong Eu (b. 1929)13. Nellie Bly (1867-1922), real name Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman14. Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910)15. Sojourner Truth (C. 1797-1883)16. 192317. Queen Liliuokalani (1838-1917)18. Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643)19. Sarah Winnemucca (1844-1891)20. Charlie Parkhurst21. Romana Bañuelos (b. 1925)22. Sacajawea (c. 1786-1812)23. Katherine Graham (b. 1917-2001)24. 1909, New York City25. 197426. Dolores Huerta (b. 1930)27. 197628. Chien-Shiung Wu (1912-1997)29. Harriet Tubman (c. 1820-1913)30. Donaldina Cameron (1869-1968)31. Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784)32. The feisty labor organizer, Mary Harris Jones (1830–1930), did just that in 1903.Called “Mother” Jones by everyone, her goal for the march was to bring the evils ofchild labor to the attention of the president and the national press33. Harriet Tubman (1820–1913), who also led over 300 people in their escape fromslavery via the system of safe–houses known as the Underground Railroad.34. Dolores Huerta (b. 1930), a long–time Chicana labor activist, co–founded the United Farm Workers union in 1962. She served for over two decades as the union’s vice–president and chief lobbyist, savvy labor contract negotiator, and nationwide speaker.35 In 1905, Madam C.J. Walker (1867–1919) began developing an effective hair lotion, and then a special comb to straighten curly hair. She eventually employed 3,000 people, mostly Black women, to work in her factories and sell her line of products.
36 Chien–Shiung Wu (1912 – 1997) received both the National Science Medal and the internationally respected Wolf prize for her scientific research. Her most famous experiment showed that conservation of parity could be violated in nature.37 Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962) was America’s First Lady for 12 years. Later, she served as U.S. delegate to the United Nations where she was instrumental in securing passage of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.38 Jovita Idar (1885–1946) lived in Laredo, Texas. As a journalist, she wrote articles for Spanish–language newspapers, like El Progreso and El Heraldo Cristiano, which argued for Mexican Americans’ equal rights.39 Queen Liliuokalani (1838–1917). A revolution, encouraged and actively assisted by American interests backed by a U.S. Navy gunboat, established a provisional government in 1893. Among her lasting legacies: she composed over 200 songs, including “Aloha Oe”.40 Jane Addams (1860–1935). One of the first generation of female college graduates at a time when the world was not yet ready to give educated women positions of responsibility, found her own way to lead a useful life. She won the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize for her lifetime dedication to the cause of international peace.41 Sarah Winnemucca (1844–1891), later named a chief in her own right. Her autobiography, Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims, was one of the first books by a Native American.42 Marian Anderson (b. 1902), who had earlier been barred from the singing in the Washington’s Constitution Hall because she was Black. Her open–air concert was a triumph over bigotry for this international star.43 Mary Katherine Goddard (1738–1816), newspaper publisher, had such a strong reputation in the colonies that when Congress fled to Baltimore in 1776 they trusted her with the revolutionary task of printing their treasonous document. Goddard risked arrest by the British when she included her own name as printer.44 No provisions had been made for taking care of Union soldiers. Clara Barton (1821–1912) solicited donated supplies and took them directly onto battlegrounds, to get food, bandages, and medical supplies to the wounded. She also helped document the 22,000 men killed or missing in action so their families could be notified.45 Maria Tallchief (b. 1925), gained international stardom as prima ballerina of the New York City Ballet in a career that spanned 23 years. In 1980, she and her sister, Marjorie, founded the Chicago City Ballet.46 Rachel Carson (1907–1964), a writer and biologist, touched off an international controversy about the environmental effects of pesticides with her 1962 book, The Silent Spring. The book became a best–seller and the foundation of modern ecological awareness.
1. Which mother led a 125–mile march of child workers all the way from the millsof Pennsylvania to President Theodore Roosevelt’s vacation home on LongIsland?2. One of the most important Union spies and scouts during the Civil War was aBlack woman who had escaped from slavery. Can you name her?3. Before the 1960s, farm workers in the U.S. were not paid even the minimumwage, and had no influential representatives to fight for their rights. What part didDolores Huerta play in changing this situation?4. The line of beauty products she created for African–American people madeher the first Black woman millionaire in the United States. Who was she, andwhen did she do this?5. She came to the U.S. when she was a teenager to study science and stayedto become “the world’s foremost female experimental physicist.” Her mostfamous experiment disproved what had been thought to be a fundamentalscientific law. Who is this outstanding Asian–American scientist?6. She took her job as “First Lady” seriously, traveling the country and the worldto gather information about the problems and concerns of workers, children,minorities, and the poor. She wrote a daily newspaper column and madefrequent radio broadcasts. Who was this active wife of a president?7. When the Mexican Revolution of 1910 reached the Texas border, she and herfriends organized La Cruz Blanca, The White Cross, to take care of the wounded.They nursed people from both sides of the fighting. She was also known as ajournalist and community activist. Who was she and where did she live?8. Who was the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian Islands, deposed whenAmerican business and military interests wanted to annex Hawaii to the U.S.?9. She opened “Hull House” in a run–down Chicago neighborhood, a communitycenter to improve conditions for poor immigrants. The program of English–language classes, childcare, health education and recreational opportunitiessoon inspired hundreds of other settlement houses throughout the country. Hername?10. Daughter and granddaughter of Paiute Indian chiefs from Nevada, shelobbied Congress, wrote extensively, and traveled across country during the late1800s lecturing on the hardships brought upon Native Americans by the U.S.Government. Her name?
11. Her 1939 Easter Sunday concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial drew acrowd of 75,000. Who was she, and why was she singing there?12. Who printed the first copy of the Declaration of Independence that includedthe signers’ names?13. Clara Barton (1821–1912) is best known for founding the American RedCross, but she also played a vital role during the Civil War. What did she do?14. She is regarded as the greatest ballerina born in America. Her father was theChief of the Osage Indians. Can you name her?15. Why is Rachel Carson (1907–1964) considered the mother of theenvironmental movement?
Answers 1. The feisty labor organizer, Mary Harris Jones (1830–1930), did just that in 1903. Called “Mother” Jones by everyone, her goal for the march was to bring the evils of child labor to the attention of the president and the national press 2. Harriet Tubman (1820–1913), who also led over 300 people in their escape from slavery via the system of safe–houses known as the Underground Railroad. 3. Dolores Huerta (b. 1930), a long–time Chicana labor activist, co–founded the United Farm Workers union in 1962. She served for over two decades as the union’s vice–president and chief lobbyist, savvy labor contract negotiator, and nationwide speaker. 4. In 1905, Madam C.J. Walker (1867–1919) began developing an effective hair lotion, and then a special comb to straighten curly hair. She eventually employed 3,000 people, mostly Black women, to work in her factories and sell her line of products. 5. Chien–Shiung Wu (1912 – 1997) received both the National Science Medal and the internationally respected Wolf prize for her scientific research. Her most famous experiment showed that conservation of parity could be violated in nature. 6. Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962) was America’s First Lady for 12 years. Later, she served as U.S. delegate to the United Nations where she was instrumental in securing passage of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 7. Jovita Idar (1885–1946) lived in Laredo, Texas. As a journalist, she wrote articles for Spanish–language newspapers, like El Progreso and El Heraldo Cristiano, which argued for Mexican Americans’ equal rights. 8. Queen Liliuokalani (1838–1917). A revolution, encouraged and actively assisted by American interests backed by a U.S. Navy gunboat, established a provisional government in 1893. Among her lasting legacies: she composed over 200 songs, including “Aloha Oe”. 9. Jane Addams (1860–1935). One of the first generation of female college graduates at a time when the world was not yet ready to give educated women positions of responsibility, found her own way to lead a useful life. She won the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize for her lifetime dedication to the cause of international peace. 10. Sarah Winnemucca (1844–1891), later named a chief in her own right. Her autobiography, Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims, was one of the first books by a Native American. 11. Marian Anderson (b. 1902), who had earlier been barred from the singing in the Washington’s Constitution Hall because she was Black. Her open–air concert was a triumph over bigotry for this international star. 12. Mary Katherine Goddard (1738–1816), newspaper publisher, had such a strong reputation in the colonies that when Congress fled to Baltimore in 1776 they trusted her with the revolutionary task of printing their
treasonous document. Goddard risked arrest by the British when she included her own name as printer.13. No provisions had been made for taking care of Union soldiers. Clara Barton (1821–1912) solicited donated supplies and took them directly onto battlegrounds, to get food, bandages, and medical supplies to the wounded. She also helped document the 22,000 men killed or missing in action so their families could be notified.14. Maria Tallchief (b. 1925), gained international stardom as prima ballerina of the New York City Ballet in a career that spanned 23 years. In 1980, she and her sister, Marjorie, founded the Chicago City Ballet.15. Rachel Carson (1907–1964), a writer and biologist, touched off an international controversy about the environmental effects of pesticides with her 1962 book, The Silent Spring. The book became a best–seller and the foundation of modern ecological awareness.
Two American Entrepreneurs: Madam C.J. Walker and J.C. PenneyGrades: Elementary and SecondaryObjectives: Students will identify the attributes thathelped Walker and Penney to succeed as entrepreneurs.Compare and contrast Walker and Penney for similaritiesand differences in backgrounds and business methodsand consider the role advertising played in the businesssuccess of Walker and Penney.Materials:1) two maps of cities associated with Walker and Penney (provided);2) three readings about the lives of Madam Walker and J.C. Penney (provided);3) two advertisements for Madam Walker beauty preparations and PenneysGolden Rule Store (provided);and4) five photographs and a drawing of Madam Walker, Walker Manufacturingbuildings, and J.C. Penneys early stores (provided).5) Background InformationLesson Plans:Activity 1: Comparing Walker and PenneyHave students discuss the careers of Madam C. J. Walker and J. C. Penney,using the following questions as a guide: • What personality and character traits do Walker and Penney share? • Why do you think both Walker and Penney were successful as business owners? What similarities and differences can you list about how they conducted their enterprises? • In what ways did the Walker and Penney businesses benefit society? • Is it still possible for individuals to achieve such success? Why or why not? (Reflect on the successes of Apple computers, William Gates and the Microsoft Corporation, or Sam Walton who founded Wal-Mart stores.)
Activity 2: Changes in Advertising • Students will have noted that advertisements for the Walker products and the Golden Rule Store are quite different from those that are run in newspapers and magazines today. • Gather up a collection of fairly recent magazines and newspapers (the students can help) and have students work in groups with at least 10 different kinds of ads. • Have them categorize advertisements for beauty products and services and for Penneys or similar stores such as Montgomery Ward. • Students can establish their own categories or you might suggest grouping together advertisements with an emphasis on price, quality, style, convenience, or importance to specific ethnic or age groups. • Have students also make lists of particular design patterns in ads that they find attractive or compelling. Ask them to compare and contrast the recent advertisements with the Walker or Penney ads. • Discuss the findings of each group, and then have each student develop an ad for a product or store to be shown to the class and perhaps displayed on a bulletin board.Activity 3: Starting a Business • Have students work in groups of four or five to brainstorm ideas for a new business that would be successful in todays society. • Have them consider the special needs of different groups of people, the types of products or services that would improve their lives, and the ways in which a new business might be developed in their own community. • Have them consider whether they would develop a new product or a new way of merchandising an existing line of related products. • After the groups have decided on the type of business they would like to start, have them draw up a list of steps they would have to take to make the business successful. • Have each group explain their ideas to the full class.Activity 4: Researching a Local Business • Have students choose a local business that is very successful or a business that is part of a nationwide chain and conduct research into its founding and operation. • Have them first develop a research plan and divide up tasks among class members • Some students can conduct interviews with the owners and workers of the business and with customers. Others can do research on the business
in the local history section of their public library. They can use city or county business directories to see how long the business has operated and at what addresses. Stories in old newspapers will probably describe when the business was opened and what changes have been made over the years. • Students will probably also be able to find newspaper advertisements placed by the company. • After the research has been conducted and discussed by the class, have them compare the information they have found with the origins of both the Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company and the J. C. Penney Company. • Ask them whether any buildings associated with these businesses remain. • If so, do they think it would be important to preserve the buildings as part of their communitys history, like the Walker building in Indianapolis and the Penney buildings in Kemmerer?Have student’s complete the following activities:Source:http://www.nps.gov/history/nR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/walker/WAvisual4.htm
ACTIVITIES FORMadam C.J. Walker And J.C. Penney
Background InformationMadam C.J. Walker and James Cash Penney. Madam C.J. Walker (1867-1919)developed, manufactured, and sold formulas for hair care and other beautyproducts for African-American women. She began selling her homemadeproducts door-to-door in 1905 in Denver, Colorado. She eventually distributedthem nationwide (and even internationally) through mail-order and with the helpof trained door-to-door sales representatives known as "Walker Agents." Thebusiness ultimately helped thousands of African-American women achievefinancial success. In 1910, she headquartered her operation in Indianapolis,Indiana, a city with a thriving African-American community.James Cash Penney (1875-1971) believed that working people in isolatedregions in the West deserved to have dry goods stores nearby that would offerquality products at reasonable prices. He opened his first store, called theGolden Rule, in Kemmerer, Wyoming, in 1902. Soon he began establishingstores in other towns in Wyoming and then throughout the United States. Hebased his business on the principle, "Do unto others as you would have them dounto you." This was unusual at a time when consumers often were faced withpoor quality merchandise, fraudulent claims about quality, and deceptive pricingpractices. Crucial to Penneys success were his associates (as he referred to hisemployees). He even helped many of his store managers become part owners ofnew stores. In 1913, the successful business was incorporated as the J.C.Penney Company. Today, J.C. Penney Company operates more than 1,100stores in all 50 states.Walkers and Penneys desire to provide people with high quality services andaffordable merchandise may well have been based on personal experiences.Both grew up in small towns--Walker in truly poor surroundings in Louisiana andMississippi, Penney in modest financial circumstances in Missouri. Both had tobecome self-reliant at very early ages and learned that hard work alone wouldnot fulfill their aspirations. They both knew that their success depended onmeeting the needs and desires of their customers, men and women much likethemselves. They believed that part of their mission was to help others tosucceed as they had done. Neither Walker nor Penney ever eased up on theprodigious amounts of work they performed. Both were still on the job when theydied: Walker at the relatively early age of 51, and Penney at 95.
Map 1: The United States.The cities marked in all capital letters indicate places where Madam Walker establishedor headquartered her business. The cities in italics indicate places where J.C. Penneyopened his early stores or headquartered his business.Questions for Map 11. Compare the locations of the cities marked on the map. What do they have incommon? How do they differ? Do the various places each person established businessesshow any pattern?2. Both Madam Walker and J.C. Penney established a base of operation in New YorkCity and ultimately made it their permanent home. Why might this have been the case?Questions for Map 11. Compare the locations of the cities marked on the map. What do they have incommon? How do they differ? Do the various places each person establishedbusinesses show any pattern?2. Both Madam Walker and J.C. Penney established a base of operation in NewYork City and ultimately made it their permanent home. Why might this havebeen the case?
Map 2: Indianapolis, Indiana.Madam Walker was so impressed during a visit to Indianapolis in 1910 that shedecided to make it her national headquarters. The city was served by eight majorrailway systems and was home to a substantial African-American community.She built a factory there that employed local African-American men and women.Before her death, Madam Walker planned an ambitious new building for herheadquarters. Completed by her daughter in 1927, the Walker Building housedher company as well as other businesses.
Questions for Map 21. Why would the railway system in Indianapolis have been important to MadamWalkers business?2. Locate Monument Circle, the historic center of the city of Indianapolis. FindNorth, South, East, and West streets, which were the original boundaries of thecity.3. Locate and circle the area around the intersection of Indiana Avenue and WestStreet, which was the heart of Indianapoliss African-American community. It waslined with cafes, offices, and other thriving businesses.4. Find the location of Madam Walkers original manufacturing building (built in1910) on the east side of West Street between North and Walnut streets. Nowfind the present Walker Building (built in 1927), across the street at the northwestcorner of Indiana Avenue and West Street. Why would Walker have decided toestablish her business and subsequently plan a commercial and social building inthis area?.
Reading 1: Meet Madam C.J. WalkerI had to make my own living and my own opportunity! But I made it! Dont sitdown and wait for the opportunities to come. Get up and make them!Born as Sarah Breedlove in December 1867, in Delta, Louisiana, MadameWalker was the third child and second daughter of Minerva and Owen Breedlove.Former slaves, the Breedloves worked as sharecroppers on a cotton plantationand lived in a one-room cabin. By the time she was five, Sarah had learned tocarry water to field hands, drop cotton seed into plowed furrows, and, for a dollara week, wash white peoples clothes with strong lye soap, wooden sticks, andwashboards.In 1874, Sarah was left an orphan, and she moved in with her sister Louvenia. Afew years later, after a failure of the cotton crop, the sisters moved across theriver to Vicksburg, Mississippi, where they worked as washerwomen anddomestic servants. At 14, Sarah married Moses McWilliams. At 17, she bore heronly child, a daughter named Lelia. Her husband died in 1887, when Sarah was19. Not willing to live with her sister again, Sarah set off for St. Louis where, shewas told, laundress jobs were plentiful and fairly well paid.For the next 17 years, Sarah supported herself and her daughter as awasherwoman. She went through a second, brief marriage and became active inthe St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. It was there that sheencountered prosperous, well-educated African Americans, and as a result, shebegan to consider how to improve her appearance. Only in her thirties, she foundher hair was falling out. She experimented with hair products already on themarket, but nothing helped. Finally, as she told a reporter, God "answered myprayer, for one night I had a dream, and in that dream a big black man appearedto me and told me what to mix up for my hair. Some of the remedy was grown inAfrica, but I sent for it, mixed it, put it on my scalp, and in a few weeks my hairwas coming in faster than it had ever fallen out. I tried it on my friends; it helpedthem. I made up my mind I would begin to sell it."Because St. Louis already had several cosmetic companies, Walker decided tomove to another city to set up her own business. She chose Denver because herbrothers widow and four children lived there. Her own daughter was by then atcollege in Tennessee. The one special friend she truly regretted leaving wasCharles Joseph (C.J.) Walker, a sales agent for a local African-Americannewspaper.Arriving in Denver in 1905 with $1.50 savings, she rented an attic room, joinedthe local AME church, and found a job as a cook. She saved her money andbefore long she was able to quit that job and, taking in laundry two days a weekto pay her rent, spend the rest of her time mixing her products and selling themdoor to door. Wonderful Hair Grower, Glossine, and Vegetable Shampoo were
well accepted by the African-American women of Denver. By 1906, C. J. Walkermoved to Denver and the two soon married. From then on, Sarah began callingherself Madam (sometimes spelled Madame) C. J. Walker, a name she thoughtgave her products more appeal.At first, Madam Walker used all her profits for materials and advertising in paperssuch as Denvers Colorado Statesmen. C.J. Walker, familiar with newspaperpromotion campaigns, helped develop a marketing plan, design advertisements,and organize a mail order business for his wifes products, but he was not asambitious as she. As Madam Walker described: "When we began to make $10 aday, he thought that was enough, thought I ought to be satisfied. But I wasconvinced that my hair preparation would fill a long-felt want. And when we foundit impossible to agree, due to his narrowness of vision, I embarked on businessfor myself." She later divorced Walker, putting the 21-year-old Lelia in charge ofthe mail-order branch of the business while she traveled around the countrypromoting the products. Business grew and in 1908, Walker and Lelia settled inPittsburgh where they established Lelia College, a training facility for the WalkerSystem of Hair Culture.Walker continued to tour the country promoting her business and hiringhairdressers and door-to-door sales representatives. She recruited and trained anational sales force that included schoolteachers, housewives, cooks, andwasherwomen. Walkers traveling agents taught these women to set up beautyshops in their homes, keep business records, and make their customers feelpampered and valued.In February 1910, Walker visited Indianapolis, Indiana, and was very impressedwith what she saw. The city had become the countrys largest inlandmanufacturing center because of its access to eight major railway systems. Thiswould be a major asset for a mail-order business. The city also was home to asubstantial African-American community, whose main thoroughfares were linedwith cafes, offices, and other thriving businesses. Madam Walker decided tomove her entire operation there. She built a factory, hair and manicure salon, andanother training school. After intensive training in hair and beauty culture,graduates of the school were ready to give scalp treatments, restyle hair, andgive manicures and massages. She soon had 5,000 agents throughout thecountry and her company was making $7000 per week.In 1913, her daughter, who would later change her name to ALelia, persuadedMadam Walker to buy a house in Harlem as the New York base of the business.The house contained living quarters, a beauty salon, and a school for trainingsalon operators. Walker soon began to spend at least half her time in New Yorkand moved there permanently in 1916. She left the day-to-day management ofher manufacturing operation in Indianapolis to F.B. Ransom, her attorney andgeneral manager, and Alice Kelly, the factory forewoman. Later that year she
built her dream house, a mansion in Irvington-on-Hudson, a wealthy communitynorth of New York City.By 1917, Walker agents were holding yearly conventions, learning newtechniques and sharing experiences. One agent wrote in 1913: "You opened upa trade for hundreds of colored women to make an honest and profitable livingwhere they make as much in one week as a months salary would bring from anyother position that a colored woman can secure. These employed women nowwere able to educate their children, buy homes, and support various charitableorganizations.By the time she died in 1919, the 51-year-old former laundress had become oneof the wealthiest businesswomen of her day. She was mourned by many,including W. E. B. DuBois who wrote an obituary for The Crisis, the magazine ofthe National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). "It isgiven," he said, "to few persons to transform a people in a generation. Yet thiswas done by the late Madam C. J. Walker....[She] made and deserved a fortuneand gave much of it away generously.Walker left one unfulfilled dream. The dream grew out of an experience thatenraged her. After she had been in Indianapolis for some time and was already awealthy woman, she went one afternoon to the Isis Movie Theater and gave theticket seller a dime, standard admission at the time. The agent pushed the coinback across the counter, saying that the price had gone up to 25 cents, but onlyfor "colored persons." Madam Walker, an enthusiastic moviegoer, immediatelyasked her attorney to sue the theater and hired an architect to draw up plans fora new building to house the Walker business. The building, covering a whole cityblock, was also intended to serve as a social and cultural center for the African-American community in Indianapolis. An elegant theater in the new buildingwould welcome African Americans.Madam Walkers business was carried on by her daughter and is still inoperation, although no one in the Walker family is currently associated with thefirm. In 1927, ALelia Walker Robinson completed the Walker Building in memoryof her mother. It is a fitting tribute to a woman who once proclaimed,"Perseverance is my motto!"
Questions for Reading 11. What conditions of her childhood made Sarah Breedlove Walker understandthe value of hard work?2. Why did Walker develop her special hair formula?3. Why did Walker move to Denver? Why did she later establish her company inIndianapolis? Why do you think she might have eventually moved to New York,although her products continued to be manufactured in Indianapolis?4. What factors do you think helped Walkers business be so successful?5. How did Walker benefit the lives of African-American women?
Reading 2: Meet James Cash PenneyWhen I went to Kemmerer in 1902, I had no idea that (in 1921) we would have313 stores...but that didnt prevent me from doing my best and working with allmy might. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. --James CashPenneyJames Cash Penney was born September 16, 1875, to Mary Paxton and JamesCash Penney, Sr., on a farm near Hamilton, Missouri. Shortly after his sons birth,the elder Penney, who combined occupations of stock farmer, Primitive Baptistpreacher, and politician, moved his family to town so that his children couldattend school. Although Penneys father was a figure of some consequence inthe community, he was constantly short of cash. When Jim, as he was called,was eight, his father told him he would be responsible for purchasing his ownclothing. Over the next few years, young Penney worked on surrounding farms,raising pigs, trading horses, and growing watermelons.In 1895, two years after his high school graduation, Penney discovered whatwould prove to be his lifes calling when he began working part-time as a salesclerk at a general store in Hamilton. He worked extremely hard and provedhimself so adept at merchandising that he advanced rapidly. Although his firstyears salary was only $25, by 1897, he was making $300 a year, and his futureappeared bright. Then he was given shattering news; his family doctor diagnosedPenneys recurring health problems as the early stages of tuberculosis, and saidthat unless he moved to a dryer climate, he would likely die.In June 1897, Penney went west in search of health and fortune. After workingbriefly in Denver as a dry goods clerk, he moved to Longmont, Colorado, wherehe bought a butcher shop. That business failed, however, reportedly becausePenney refused to furnish free liquor to the chef of the local hotel, his largestclient. Penney decided to return to the dry goods business, taking temporaryemployment as a clerk in Callahan and Johnsons store in Longmont. Early in1899, the owners offered Penney a permanent clerkship in their Evanston,Wyoming, store at a monthly salary of $50. He readily accepted. He did so wellthat a few years later, when he was 26, the owners offered to make him a partnerin a new store they planned to open in 1902. Although they had intended tolocate the store in Ogden, Utah, Penney objected on the grounds that Ogdenwas too large. He proposed that a smaller town like Kemmerer, Wyoming, wouldbe better. Kemmerer was a mining town with about 1,000 residents and acompany store that operated on credit. Penney opened the Kemmerer store onApril 14, 1902. He used his $500 savings and borrowed the rest of the $2000necessary to become a one-third partner in the venture.Penney called his store the "Golden Rule," because his idea was "to makemoney and build business through serving the community with fair and honestvalue."1 Many in Kemmerer thought Penneys business would fail. The local bankcashier strongly advised Penney against opening a "cash only" store because
three other merchants had failed to compete successfully with the stores of themining companies, which offered credit. Convinced that hard work could bringsuccess, however, Penney and his partners decided to go ahead with theKemmerer store.Business was brisk on opening day, and Penney brought in an impressive$466.59. By the end of the year, he had sold $28,898.11 worth of goods andshowed a substantial profit. His store carried mens, womens and childrensclothing, shoes, notions, and fabric for sewing. Penney increased his profits eachyear. In 1907 he bought out Callahan and Johnson and became sole owner ofthe Kemmerer store. In the same year he purchased two additional stores inRock Springs and Cumberland, Wyoming.Several things made Penneys success possible. His stores were all located ininexpensive locations in small communities. He did not pay for elaborate fixturesand displays. He conducted business on a cash-only basis and treated hisemployees well. Perhaps most importantly, he carried merchandise that hiscustomers wanted, ensuring a rapid inventory turnover. When one of his storemanagers had saved enough money, Penney would help him open a new storeas part owner. The manager was responsible for investing one-third the amountnecessary and Penney provided the remaining two-thirds. The manager agreedto train someone to take his place at the existing store. In turn, the new managerwould train others until they started up their own stores as one-third partners.This arrangement allowed for rapid expansion in the early years of the business.By 1909, Penney moved away from Kemmerer, leaving the store there to anassociate. He went to Salt Lake City, Utah, approximately 125 miles southwest ofKemmerer, where he established the headquarters for the growing chain andconsolidated his buying and accounting operations. Over the next three years heestablished 28 new stores in Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, andColorado. In 1913, Penney and his many partners incorporated the firm in Utahas J. C. Penney and Company, Inc. He had decided to abandon the name"Golden Rule," which had been adopted by some of his less scrupulouscompetitors. Not long after the business was incorporated, Penney moved thefirms headquarters to New York City where he would be closer to his majorsuppliers of merchandise.Expansion became a regular program for Penney. Between 1920 and 1930,more than 1,250 new stores opened, most of them on Main Streets in smalltowns across America. Even the Great Depression did little to halt the Penneyexpansion program. By 1932, the number of stores had increased to 1,473.Although seven stores had to be closed in 1933, the companys total profits werealmost double those of 1932. Penney himself was not so fortunate. Through badinvestments in Florida real estate and banking, he lost almost his entire fortune of$40 million. He met that crisis by going back to work full time for the company,and eventually he recouped most of his losses. When the day of modern
shopping centers arrived in the late 1950s, Penneys chain was so strongfinancially that it succeeded in suburbia too. By the 1960s, the companyabandoned its cash-only policy by adopting its own credit cards and updating itsmerchandise (much of it manufactured under the Penney label). The companyalso opened its own catalog business.Penney served the company as chairman of the board until 1958 and as adirector until his death in New York City on February 12, 1971. When thebusiness celebrated its 90th anniversary in Kemmerer in 1992, 21 years afterPenneys death, it had become a firm surpassing $15 billion in sales, andemploying approximately 190,000 associates with more than l,300 storesscattered throughout the U. S. and Puerto Rico. This large national retailbusiness continues to reflect the hard work and vision of James Cash Penney.Questions for Reading 2 • What experiences did Penney have in his early life that helped him to become a successful businessman? • Why did Penney choose to open a store in Kemmerer, Wyoming? • Why do you think Penneys first store was so successful? • How was Penney able to rapidly expand his chain of stores? • How did the company change to meet competitive challenges that arose in the 1950s and 1960s?
Reading 3: The Philosophies of Madam Walker and J.C. PenneyBoth Walker and Penney had strongly embedded principles they thoughtimportant in the conduct of their businesses and their daily lives. Each had well-defined philosophies about their goals in life. The following selections show boththeir determination and their dedication to meet those goals. Madam Walker Startles a ConventionAt the Thirteenth Annual Convention of the National Negro Business League in1912, no women were included on the schedule of speakers. Madam Walkershocked the participants when she walked up and claimed the podium frommoderator Booker T. Washington:Surely you are not going to shut the door in my face. I feel that I am in a businessthat is a credit to the womanhood of our race. I am a woman who started inbusiness seven years ago with only $1.50. . . .this year (up to the 19th day of thismonth . . .) I had taken in $18,000. (Prolonged applause). This makes a grandtotal of $63,049 made in my hair business in Indianapolis. (Applause.) I havebeen trying to get before you business people to tell you what I am doing. I am awoman that came from the cotton fields of the South; I was promoted from thereto the wash-tub (laughter); then I was promoted to the cook kitchen, and fromthere I promoted myself into the business of manufacturing hair goods andpreparations. . . . I am not ashamed of my past; I am not ashamed of my humblebeginning. Dont think that because you have to go down in the wash-tub that youare any less a lady! (prolonged applause.)At the Fourteenth Annual Convention, Madam Walker was on the schedule,explaining to the audience how she had succeeded in the business world:In the first place I found, by experience, that it pays to be honest andstraightforward in all your dealings. (Applause.) In the second place, the girls andwomen of our race must not be afraid to take hold of business endeavor and, bypatient industry, close economy, determined effort, and close application tobusiness, wring success out of a number of business opportunities that lie at theirdoors. . . . I have made it possible for many colored women to abandon thewash-tub for more pleasant and profitable occupation. (Hearty applause.) Now Irealize that in the so-called higher walks of life, many were prone to look downupon "hair dressers" as they called us; they didnt have a very high opinion of ourcalling, so I had to go down and dignify this work, so much so that many of thebest women of our race are now engaged in this line of business, and many ofthem are now in my employ.
J. C. Penney Speaks to Associates in the Kemmerer Store, ca. 1902My Newly Acquired Associates:My talk to you this evening is to be very brief and very much to the point. Thename of our store is "The Golden Rule Stores." The policy upon which we expectto build is just what the name implies. Do unto others as you would have them dounto you. I think I need say no more, because in those few words, I have saidmuch. If a business can be built on the principles of the Golden Rule, and I firmlybelieve it can, we shall go forward and some day we shall add to this one unitanother store and another store, and some day we might have as many as tenstores. Right here I want to emphasize this: treat our customers all alike and treatthem as we would like to be treated as a customer. We will sell for cash only,thereby avoiding losses through credit; we will have no delivery system, so wecan pass this saving on to our customers. We will have no expensive fixtures forwhich we would have to go in debt; we will pay cash for all our merchandise sowe can take advantage of all discounts and not have to pay interest. We will buyonly good merchandise to sell to our customers. Because of all the advantagesthat will be ours, we will sell for less and never will we sacrifice quality for anunreasonably low price.This is my brief story in a simple and plain language. Now as you go forwardtomorrow serving our customers, and the opportunity presents itself, tell themwhat I have said and tell them in such a way that they will understand we haveopened a new kind of store, planned and designed to render serviceunprecedented in the history of merchandising. Solicit their continued patronageon the Golden Rule Motto.The Penney IdeaFollowing is a copy of "The Penney Idea," a declaration of ethics and purposeadopted by the J.C. Penney Company in 1913. The seven principles continue toguide the company today. • To serve the public, as nearly as we can, to its complete satisfaction. • To expect for the service we render a fair remuneration and not all the profit the traffic will bear. • To do all in our power to pack the customers dollar full of value, quality, and satisfaction. • To continue to train ourselves and our associates so that the service we give will be more and more intelligently performed. • To improve constantly the human factor in our business. • To reward men and women in our organization through participation in what the business produces. • To test our every policy, method, and act in this wise: "Does it square with what is right and just?"
Questions for Reading 31. How did Walker show her energy and belief in herself in her speech in 1912?in 1913?2. How did Walker show her commitment to helping other African-Americanwomen achieve the success that would bring independence and self-respect?3. How did Penney indicate that following the Golden Rule would help businessand benefit customers? Do you agree? Why or why not?4. What business principles does Penney suggest will benefit his customers?5. Why do you think "The Penney Idea" continues to be part of the companysmission statement today?
Document 1: Advertisement for Madam Walkers Beauty Preparations, 1930s.Questions for Document 11. What products are advertised?2. What language does the ad use to entice women to purchase the products?3. Is this ad effective? Why or why not?
Document 2: Advertisement for the Golden Rule Store, 1908.
Partial transcript of advertisementWe are at home here. We are here to stay; we like the country—its people; webelieve in selling you good dependable goods on a Small Margin of Profit Only.We will supply you with durable and comfortable wearing apparel cheaper thanever before. You will get BIG VALUES for your money at this store. Letcompetition say what she will. A comparison of values is all we ask. We havegrown—Are growing, like no other store in the country. For your own sake weshould have your business.A WORD ABOUT PRICES: Our reputation for good value giving is knownthroughout the West where are located 12 of our stores, each being aphenomenal business. Our system about which you are familiar consists ofbuying goods right. With the experience of men of 20 years of successfulmerchandising to give us, all guess work is eliminated. They Know How to Buy.When to Buy. Where to Buy. We offer you the benefit of their wide experience inselecting Fall Clothes.Our reputation as a house for giving values has become a national one. Manyfactories knowing the immense outlet we have are anxious for our business.They know they must give us the Right Price or they cannot expect our business.Our customers know the advantages we enjoy, for every article in our storeshows the result of careful and painstaking buying. The people appreciate ourefforts as is evidenced in ours being the Busiest Store in this locality.We absolutely defy any competitor to offer better values than those by quoted byus.The facts herein stated can not be disputed. There are reasons for everything.Our growth has not been chance. It is the result of an adopted policy of givingmore for the money than can be had elsewhere. "Cheap Goods" are dear at anyprice. Our aim is to sell you Reliable, Staple, Dependable Merchandise at a lessprice than any other house in the country.ISNT RIGHT NOW a time when you simply cannot afford to miss a chance toSAVE.
Questions for Document 2Study the advertisement and then refer to the partial transcript to answer thefollowing questions.1. Who did Penney expect to read this ad? What did he mean when he wrote,"You are invited to become a member of our large Golden Rule family." Whatadjectives can you use to describe this section of the advertisement?2. What did Penney mean by saying that "cheap goods" are expensive at anyprice? How did he assure the customer that there were no "cheap goods" atPenney stores?3. How would you compare Penneys advertisement with contemporary ads?
Drawing 1: Artists conception of the opening of the first Golden Rule Store in 1902. Photo 1: The Golden Rule Store, 1904.(J.C. Penney Archives)By 1904 the Golden Rule Store (no longer standing) had outgrown its one-roomframe building off the main business district of the town. On August 1, 1904,Penney moved the store into the left side of the stone building shown in Photo 1.He occupied a 25-by-140 foot section. It became a J.C. Penney store in 1913,and the Penney Company continued to operate a store here until moving to anew location in 1929.
Questions for Drawing 1 and Photo 11. Compare and contrast the two images in terms of the appearance of thebuildings, the activities of the people, the surrounding landscape, the generallook of the street, and the vehicles.2. Does the artists conception of the first store seem idealized? If so, how? Whatdo you think he is trying to convey to the viewer?3. What other uses did the building serve at the time Photo 1 was taken?4. If there was no date attached to the photo, what clues might help you figureout when it was taken?
Photo 2:Madam C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company building.(ALelia Bundles/Walker Family Collection)This is the first building constructed in Indianapolis to house themanufacturing operations of the Madam C.J. WalkerManufacturing Company. Part of the building contained theIndianapolis branch of Lelia College as well as the MadamWalker Beauty Parlor.Questions for Photo 21. How would you describe this building?2. Why would Madam Walker have needed a large building likethis to manufacture her products by 1910?3. Why would it have been beneficial to house the college andbeauty parlor in this building?
Photo 3: The Walker Building today.(Indiana Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology)This building was planned by Madam Walker but built by herdaughter after her mothers death. In addition to the headquartersof the Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company, the buildingalso housed the Walker Theater, Walker Drug Store, WalkerCasino, Walker Beauty Shop, a ballroom, and a coffee shop.African-American doctors, lawyers, and other professionals whohad difficulty finding office space in buildings owned by whitesrented space in the building as well. The building served as acenter for the African-American community. It was restored in thelate 1980s. Although the Walker Manufacturing Company is nolonger located there, the building continues to house variouscommercial businesses, including a beauty salon.
Questions for Photo 31. How would you describe this building? How does it compare tothe building depicted in Photo 2?2. Why do you think Madam Walker would have wanted toinclude all these facilities in the building she planned?3. Why would it have been important to the company to rentoffice space in the building to African Americans?
AdditionalLesson Plans & ActivitiesWomen’s History Month
Grades: SecondaryObjective: Students will analyze documents and create their own perspectivesbased on the historical context.Background Information and Historical Context:During the Revolutionary period, some women colonists became politicallyactive. They formed organizations and engaged in a variety of activities to lendtheir support to the cause of American independence. The Ladies Association ofPhiladelphia became the strongest and most well-known of these femaleorganizations.Lesson Plan: • Students will use the information that has been provided and test their knowledge of United States history. • Allow students to answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Students will write an essay in Part B, in which they will be asked to: • Identify two ways women supported revolutionary efforts through political activism. • For each form of activism use specific details to explain how the women organized themselves and their efforts. • Evaluate the effects of these forms of political activism. Source: http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/teacher/DBQamrevB.htm
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions thatfollow each document in the space provided. Political Women in the American Revolution Document 1The following poem protested British measures, including the Sugar Act (1764)and Townsend Duties (1767): Since the Men from a Party, on fear of a Frown, Are kept by a Sugar-Plumb, quietly down. Supinely asleep, & deprivd of their Sight Are stripd of their Freedom, and robd of their Right. If the Sons (so degenerate) the Blessing despise [hate], Let the Daughters of Liberty, nobly arise, And tho weve no Voice, but a negative here. The use of the Taxables, let us forebear [boycott], (Then Merchants import till yr. Stores are all full May the Buyers be few & yr. Traffick [sales] be dull.) Stand firmly resolved & bid Grenville to see That rather than Freedom, well part with our Tea -- Excerpt from Hannah Griffitts,"The Female Patriots," 17681. Why were the colonists opposed to the Sugar Act and the Townsend Duties?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. What did Hannah Griffitts suggest women do to protest these acts?______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Political Women in the American Revolution Document 2In the decade before the Revolution, women throughout the colonies signedpublic boycott agreements against English goods: . . . We join with the very respectable Body of Merchants and other Inhabitants of this Town, who met in Faneuil-Hall the 23d of this Instant, in their Resolutions, totally to abstain from the Use of TEA: And as the greatest Part of the Revenue arising by Virtue of the late Acts, is produced from the Duty [tax] paid upon Tea which Revenue is wholly expended to support the American Board of Commissioners: We the subscribers do strictly engage, that we will totally abstain from the Use of that Article . . . This Agreement we cheerfully come into, as we believe the very distressed Situation of our Country requires it, and we do hereby oblige ourselves religiously to observe it, till the late Revenue Acts are repealed. -- Excerpt from "Boston Ladies Boycott Agreement," 12 February 17703. What specific product did the Boston women boycott?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. What were the women protesting by boycotting this product?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. Why might the boycott have been an effective form of protest?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________