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2013 Lecture 5: AR Tools and Interaction
 

2013 Lecture 5: AR Tools and Interaction

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Lecture 5 from the COSC 426 Graduate course on Augmented Reality. This lecture talks about AR development tools and interaction styles. Taught by Mark Billinghurst from the HIT Lab NZ at the ...

Lecture 5 from the COSC 426 Graduate course on Augmented Reality. This lecture talks about AR development tools and interaction styles. Taught by Mark Billinghurst from the HIT Lab NZ at the University of Canterbury. August 9th 2013

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    2013 Lecture 5: AR Tools and Interaction 2013 Lecture 5: AR Tools and Interaction Presentation Transcript

    • COSC 426: Augmented Reality Mark Billinghurst mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org August 9th 2013 Lecture 5: AR Tools and Interaction
    • Interaction Design Process
    • Data Gathering Techniques (1)   Questionnaires   Looking for specific information   Qualitative and quantitative results   Good for getting data from a large, dispersed group   Interviews   Good for exploring issues, using props   Structured, unstructured or semi-structured   But are time consuming and difficult to visit everyone
    • Data Gathering Techniques (2)   Workshops or focus groups   Group interviews/activities   Good at gaining a consensus view and/or highlighting areas of conflict   Observations   Spending time with users in day to day tasks   Good for understanding task context   requires time and can result in a huge amount of data   Documentation   Procedures and rules written down in manuals
    • Elaboration and Reduction   Elaborate - generate solutions. These are the opportunities   Reduce - decide on the ones worth pursuing   Repeat - elaborate and reduce again on those solutions Source: Laseau,P. (1980) Graphic Thinking for Architects & Designers. John Wiley and Sons
    • Tools for Effective Design  Personas  Scenarios  Storyboards  Wireframes and Mock-ups  Prototypes
    • Persona Technique •  Personas are a design tool to help visualize who you are designing for and imagine how person will use the product •  A persona is an archetype that represents the behavior and goals of a group of users •  Based on insights and observations from customer research •  Not real people, but synthesised from real user characteristics •  Bring them to life with a name, characteristics, goals, background •  Develop multiple personas
    • Gunther the Ad Guy Gunther is from Germany. He Travels extensively for work and As he is an advertising executive he needs to present concepts to clients quickly and easily. He is a person very well-versed in new technologies and wishes he had easier portable solutions for his presentations…..
    • Scenarios Usage Scenarios are narrative descriptions of how the product meets the needs of a persona Short (2 pages max) Focus on unmet needs of persona Concrete story Set of stories around essential tasks, problems... Use to test ideas
    • Storyboarding Sequence of sketches showing use of system in everyday use context Concrete example Easier (faster) to grasp than text based stories Means of communication with users and system developers Sketches, not drawings... Use to test interaction and make sure design works
    • Sketching is about design Sketching is not about drawing It is about design. Sketching is a tool to help you: -  express -  develop, and -  communicate design ideas Sketching is part of a process: -  idea generation, -  design elaboration -  design choices, -  engineering
    • Sketch vs. Prototype Sketch   Prototype   Invite   A)end   Suggest   Describe   Explore   Refine   Ques;on   Answer   Propose   Test   Provoke   Resolve   Tenta;ve,  non  commi)al   Specific  Depic;on   The primary differences are in the intent
    • Types of Prototypes Low Fidelity – quick and dirty, easy access materials like cardboard and paper. High Fidelity – more involved electronic versions similar in materials to final product.
    • RAPID Prototyping   Fast and inexpensive   Identifies problems before they’re coded   Elicits more and better feedback from users   Helps developers think creatively   Gets users and other stakeholders involved early   Fosters teamwork and communication   Avoids opinion wars   Helps decide design directions
    • Paper Prototyping (Low Fidelity) Quick and simple means of sketching interfaces Use office materials Easier to criticize, quick to change Creative process (develop in team) Can also use for usability test (focus on flow of interaction rather than visuals) Used a lot to test out concepts before real design begins.
    • Paper Prototyping
    • High-fidelity prototyping •  Uses materials that you would expect to be in the final product. •  Prototype looks more like the final system than a low-fidelity version. •  For a high-fidelity software prototype common environments include Macromedia Director,Visual Basic, and Smalltalk. •  Danger that users think they have a full system…….see compromises
    • Rapid Prototyping   Speed development time with quick hardware mockups   handheld device connected to PC   LCD screen, USB phone keypad, Camera   Can use PC development tools for rapid development   Flash, Visual Basic, etc
    • AR Tools
    • experiences applications tools components Sony CSL © 2004 Building Compelling AR Experiences Tracking, Display Authoring
    • AR Authoring Tools   Low Level Software Libraries   osgART, Studierstube, MXRToolKit   Plug-ins to existing software   DART (Macromedia Director), mARx, Unity,   Stand Alone   AMIRE, BuildAR, Metaio Creator etc   Rapid Prototyping Tools   Flash, OpenFrameworks, Processing, Arduino, etc   Next Generation   iaTAR (Tangible AR)
    • ARToolKit (Kato 1998)   Open source – computer vision based AR tracking   http://artoolkit.sourceforge.net/
    • ARToolKit Structure   Three key libraries:   AR32.lib – ARToolKit image processing functions   ARgsub32.lib – ARToolKit graphics functions   ARvideo.lib – DirectShow video capture class DirectShow ARvideo.lib
    • Software   Cross platform   Windows, Mac, Linux, IRIX, Symbian, iPhone, etc   Additional basic libraries   Video capture library (Video4Linux, VisionSDK)   OpenGL, GLUT   Requires a rendering library   Open VRML, Open Inventor, osgART, etc
    • Additional Software   ARToolKit just provides tracking   For an AR application you’ll need more software   High level rendering library   Open VRML, Open Inventor, osgART, etc   Audio Library   Fmod, etc   Peripheral support
    • What does ARToolKit Calculate?   Position of makers in the camera coordinates   Pose of markers in the camera coordinates   Output format   3x4 matrix format to represent the transformation matrix from the marker coordinates to the camera coordinates
    • Coordinate Systems
    • From Marker To Camera   Rotation & Translation TCM : 4x4 transformation matrix from marker coord. to camera coord.
    • An ARToolKit Application   Initialization   Load camera and pattern parameters   Main Loop   Step1. Image capture and display   Step2. Marker detection   Step3. Marker identification   Step4. Getting pose information   Step5. Object Interactions/Simulation   Step6. Display virtual objects   End Application   Camera shut down
    • Sample1.c Main Function main()! {! !init();! !argMainLoop( mouseEvent, ! ! !keyEvent, mainLoop); ! }!
    • Sample1.c - mainLoop Function if( dataPtr = (ARUint8 *) arVideoGetImage()) == NULL ) { arUtilSleep(2); return; } argDrawMode2D(); argDispImage(dataPtr, 0, 0 ); arVideoCapNext(); argSwapBuffers();
    • Ex. 2: Detecting a Marker   Program : sample2.c   Key points   Threshold value   Important external variables   arDebug – keep thresholded image   arImage – pointer for thresholded image   arImageProcMode – use 50% image for image processing -  AR_IMAGE_PROC_IN_FULL -  AR_IMAGE_PROC_IN_HALF
    • Sample2.c – marker detection /* detect the markers in the video frame */ if(arDetectMarker(dataPtr, thresh, &marker_info, &marker_num) < 0 ) { cleanup(); exit(0); } for( i = 0; i < marker_num; i++ ) { argDrawSquare(marker_info[i].vertex,0,0); }
    • Making a pattern template   Use of utility program: mk_patt.exe   Show the pattern   Put the corner of red line segments on the left-top vertex of the marker   Pattern stored as a template in a file   1:2:1 ratio determines the pattern region used
    • Ex. 4 – Getting 3D information   Program : sample4.c   Key points  Definition of a real marker  Transformation matrix -  Rotation component -  Translation component
    • Sample4.c – Transformation matrix double marker_center[2] = {0.0, 0.0}; double marker_width = 80.0; double marker_trans[3][4]; arGetTransMat(&marker_info[i], marker_center, marker_width, marker_trans);
    • Finding the Camera Position This function sets transformation matrix from marker to camera into marker_trans[3][4]." arGetTransMat(&marker_info[k], marker_center, marker_width, marker_trans); You can see the position information in the values of marker_trans[3][4]." " Xpos = marker_trans[0][3]; Ypos = marker_trans[1][3]; Zpos = marker_trans[2][3];
    • ARToolKit Coordinate Frame
    • Ex. 5- Virtual Object Display   Program : sample5.c   Key points  OpenGL parameter setting  Setup of projection matrix  Setup of modelview matrix
    • Appending your own OpenGL code Set the camera parameters to OpenGL Projection matrix. argDrawMode3D(); argDraw3dCamera( 0, 0 ); Set the transformation matrix from the marker to the camera to the OpenGL ModelView matrix. argConvGlpara(marker_trans, gl_para); glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glLoadMatrixd( gl_para ); After calling these functions, your OpenGL objects are drawn in the real marker coordinates.
    • ARToolKit in the World   Hundreds of projects   Large research community
    • ARToolKit Family ARToolKit ARToolKit NFT ARToolKit (Symbian) NyToolKit - Java, C#, - Android, WM JARToolKit (Java) FLARToolKit (Flash) FLARManager (Flash)
    • FLARToolKit   Flash AS3 Version of the ARToolKit (was ported from NyARToolkit the Java Version of the ARToolkit)   enables augmented reality in the Browser   uses Papervision3D for as 3D Engine   available at http://saqoosha.net/   dual license, GPL and commercial license
    • FLARToolkit Papervision 3D Adobe Flash AR Application Components
    • private function mainEnter(e:Event):void { /* Capture video frame*/ capture.draw(vid); /* Detect marker */ if (detector.detectMarkerLite(raster, 80) && detector.getConfidence() > 0.5) { //Get the transfomration matrix for the current marker position detector.getTransformMatrix(trans); //Translates and rotates the mainContainer so it looks right mainContainer.setTransformMatrix(trans); //Render the papervision scene renderer.render(); } }
    • FLARToolKit Examples
    • Papervision 3D   http://www.papervision3d.org/   Flash-based 3D-Engine   Supports   import of 3D Models   texturing   animation   scene graph   alternatives: Away3d, Sandy,…
    • Source Packages   „Original“ FLARToolkit (Libspark, Saqoosha) ( http://www.libspark.org/svn/as3/FLARToolKit/trunk/ )   Start-up-guides   Saqoosha (http://saqoosha.net/en/flartoolkit/start-up-guide/ )   Miko Haapoja (http://www.mikkoh.com/blog/?p=182 )   „Frameworks“   Squidder MultipleMarker – Example ( http://www.squidder.com/2009/03/06/flar-how-to-multiple-instances-of-multiple- markers/ )   FLARManager (http://words.transmote.com/wp/flarmanager/ )
    • Other Languages   NyARToolKit   http://nyatla.jp/nyartoolkit/wp/   AS3, Java, C#, Processing, Unity, etc   openFrameworks   http://www.openframeworks.cc/   https://sites.google.com/site/ofauckland/examples/8-artoolkit-example   Support for other libraries -  Kinect, Audio, Physics, etc
    • void testApp::update(){ //capture video and detect markers mov.update(); if (mov.isFrameNew()) { img.setFromPixels(mov.getPixels(), ofGetWidth(), ofGetHeight()); gray = img; tracker.setFromPixels(gray.getPixels()); } } //-------------------------------------------------------------- void testApp::draw(){ //draw AR objects ofSetColor(0xffffff); mov.draw(0, 0); for (int i=0; i<tracker.markers.size(); i++) { ARMarkerInfo &m = tracker.markers[i]; tracker.loadMarkerModelViewMatrix(m); ofSetColor(255, 255, 0, 100); ofCircle(0,0,25); ofSetColor(0); ofDrawBitmapString(ofToString(m.id),0,0); } }
    • Low Level Mobile AR Tools   Vuforia Tracking Library (Qualcomm)   Vuforia.com   iOS, Android   Computer vision based tracking   Marker tracking, 3D objects, frame markers   Integration with Unity   Interaction, model loading
    • OSGART Programming Library   Integration of ARToolKit with a High-Level Rendering Engine (OpenSceneGraph) OSGART= OpenSceneGraph + ARToolKit   Supporting Geometric + Photometric Registration
    • osgART:Features   C++ (but also Python, Lua, etc).   Multiple Video Input supports:   Direct (Firewire/USB Camera), Files, Network by ARvideo, PtGrey, CVCam, VideoWrapper, etc.   Benefits of Open Scene Graph   Rendering Engine, Plug-ins, etc
    • mARx Plug-in   3D Studio Max Plug-in   Can model and view AR content at the same time
    • BuildAR   http://www.buildar.co.nz/   Stand alone application   Visual interface for AR model viewing application   Enables non-programmers to build AR scenes
    • Metaio Creator   Drag and drop AR   http://www.metaio.com/creator/
    • Total Immersion D’Fusion Studio   Complete commercial authoring platform   http://www.t-immersion.com/   Multi-platform   Markerless tracking   Scripting   Face tracking   Finger tracking   Kinect support
    • Others   AR-Media   http://www.inglobetechnologies.com/   Google sketch-up plug-in   LinceoVR   http://linceovr.seac02.it/   AR/VR authoring package   Libraries   JARToolKit, MXRToolKit, ARLib, Goblin XNA
    • More Libraries   JARToolKit   MRToolKit, MXRToolKit, ARLib, OpenVIDIA   DWARF, Goblin XNA   AMIRE   D’Fusion
    • Advanced Authoring: iaTAR (Lee 2004)   Immersive AR Authoring   Using real objects to create AR applications
    • osgART Developing Augmented Reality Applications with osgART
    • What is a Scene Graph?   Tree-like structure for organising a virtual world   e.g. VRML   Hierarchy of nodes that define:   Groups (and Switches, Sequences etc…)   Transformations   Projections   Geometry   …   And states and attributes that define:   Materials and textures   Lighting and blending   …
    • Scene Graph Example
    • Benefits of a Scene Graph   Performance   Structuring data facilitates optimization -  Culling, state management, etc…   Abstraction   Underlying graphics pipeline is hidden   Low-level programming (“how do I display this?”) replaced with high- level concepts (“what do I want to display?”) Image: sgi
    • About Open Scene Graph   http://www.openscenegraph.org/   Open-source scene graph implementation   Based on OpenGL   Object-oriented C++ following design pattern principles   Used for simulation, games, research, and industrial projects   Active development community   Maintained by Robert Osfield   ~2000 mailing list subscribers   Documentation project: www.osgbooks.com   Uses the OSG Public License (similar to LGPL)
    • About Open Scene Graph (2) Pirates of the XXI Century Flightgear 3DVRII Research Institute EOR SCANeR VRlab Umeå University
    • Open Scene Graph Features   Plugins for loading and saving   3D: 3D Studio (.3ds), OpenFlight (.flt), Wavefront (.obj)…   2D: .png, .jpg, .bmp, QuickTime movies   NodeKits to extend functionality   e.g. osgShadow   Cross-platform support for:   Window management (osgViewer)   Threading (OpenThreads)
    • Open Scene Graph Architecture Plugins read and write 2D image and 3D model files NodeKits extend core functionality, exposing higher-level node types Scene graph and rendering functionality Inter-operability with other environments, e.g. Python
    • Some Open Scene Graph Demos   You may want to get the OSG data package:   Via SVN: http://www.openscenegraph.org/svn/osg/OpenSceneGraph-Data/trunk osgviewer osgmotionblur osgparticle osgreflect osgdistortion osgfxbrowser
    • Learning OSG   Check out the Quick Start Guide   Free PDF download at http://osgbooks.com/, Physical copy $13US   Join the mailing list: http://www.openscenegraph.org/projects/osg/wiki/ MailingLists   Browse the website: http://www.openscenegraph.org/projects/osg   Use the forum: http://forum.openscenegraph.org   Study the examples   Read the source? 
    • osgART
    • What is osgART?   osgART adds AR to Open Scene Graph   Further developed and enhanced by:   Julian Looser   Hartmut Seichter   Raphael Grasset   Current version 2.0, Open Source   http://www.osgart.org
    • osgART Approach: Basic Scene Graph Root Transform 3D Object 0.988 -0.031 -0.145 0 -0.048 0.857 -0.512 0 0.141 0.513 0.846 0 10.939 29.859 -226.733 1 [ ]   To add Video see-through AR:   Integrate live video   Apply correct projection matrix   Update tracked transformations in realtime
    • osgART Approach: AR Scene Graph Root Transform 3D Object
    • osgART Approach: AR Scene Graph Video Geode Root Transform 3D Object Virtual Camera Video Layer
    • osgART Approach: AR Scene Graph Video Geode Root Transform 3D Object Virtual Camera Projection matrix from tracker calibration Transformation matrix updated from marker tracking in realtimeVideo Layer Full-screen quad with live texture updated from Video source Orthographic projection
    • osgART Approach: AR Scene Graph Video Geode Root Transform 3D Object Virtual Camera Projection matrix from tracker calibration Transformation matrix updated from marker tracking in realtimeVideo Layer Full-screen quad with live texture updated from Video source Orthographic projection
    • osgART Architecture   Like any video see-through AR library, osgART requires video input and tracking capabilities. ARLibrary Application Video Source e.g. DirectShow Tracking Module (libAR.lib)
    • osgART Architecture   osgART uses a plugin architecture so that video sources and tracking technologies can be plugged in as necessary osgART Application VideoPluginTrackerPlugin ARToolKit4 - ARToolkitPlus - MXRToolKit - ARLib - bazAR (work in progress) - ARTag (work in progress) - OpenCVVideo - VidCapture - CMU1394 - PointGrey SDK - VidereDesign - VideoWrapper - VideoInput - VideoSource - DSVL - Intranel RTSP -
    • Basic osgART Tutorial   Develop a working osgART application from scratch.   Use ARToolKit 2.72 library for tracking and video capture
    • osgART Tutorial 1: Basic OSG Viewer   Start with the standard Open Scene Graph Viewer   We will modify this to do AR!
    • osgART Tutorial 1: Basic OSG Viewer   The basic osgViewer… #include <osgViewer/Viewer> #include <osgViewer/ViewerEventHandlers> int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { // Create a viewer osgViewer::Viewer viewer; // Create a root node osg::ref_ptr<osg::Group> root = new osg::Group; // Attach root node to the viewer viewer.setSceneData(root.get()); // Add relevant event handlers to the viewer viewer.addEventHandler(new osgViewer::StatsHandler); viewer.addEventHandler(new osgViewer::WindowSizeHandler); viewer.addEventHandler(new osgViewer::ThreadingHandler); viewer.addEventHandler(new osgViewer::HelpHandler); // Run the viewer and exit the program when the viewer is closed return viewer.run(); }
    • osgART Tutorial 2: Adding Video   Add a video plugin   Load, configure, start video capture…   Add a video background   Create, link to video, add to scene-graph
    • osgART Tutorial 2: Adding Video   New code to load and configure a Video Plugin: // Preload the video and tracker int _video_id = osgART::PluginManager::getInstance()->load("osgart_video_artoolkit2"); // Load a video plugin. osg::ref_ptr<osgART::Video> video = dynamic_cast<osgART::Video*>(osgART::PluginManager::getInstance()->get(_video_id)); // Check if an instance of the video stream could be created if (!video.valid()) { // Without video an AR application can not work. Quit if none found. osg::notify(osg::FATAL) << "Could not initialize video plugin!" << std::endl; exit(-1); } // Open the video. This will not yet start the video stream but will // get information about the format of the video which is essential // for the connected tracker. video->open();
    • osgART Tutorial 2: Adding Video   New code to add a live video background osg::ref_ptr<osg::Group> videoBackground = createImageBackground(video.get()); videoBackground->getOrCreateStateSet()->setRenderBinDetails(0, "RenderBin"); root->addChild(videoBackground.get()); video->start(); osg::Group* createImageBackground(osg::Image* video) { osgART::VideoLayer* _layer = new osgART::VideoLayer(); _layer->setSize(*video); osgART::VideoGeode* _geode = new osgART::VideoGeode(osgART::VideoGeode::USE_TEXTURE_2D, video); addTexturedQuad(*_geode, video->s(), video->t()); _layer->addChild(_geode); return _layer; }   In the main function…
    • osgART Tutorial 3: Tracking   Add a Tracker plugin   Load, configure, link to video   Add a Marker to track   Load, activate   Tracked node   Create, link with marker via tracking callbacks   Print out the tracking data
    • osgART Tutorial 3: Tracking int _tracker_id = osgART::PluginManager::getInstance()->load("osgart_tracker_artoolkit2"); osg::ref_ptr<osgART::Tracker> tracker = dynamic_cast<osgART::Tracker*>(osgART::PluginManager::getInstance()->get(_tracker_id)); if (!tracker.valid()) { // Without tracker an AR application can not work. Quit if none found. osg::notify(osg::FATAL) << "Could not initialize tracker plugin!" << std::endl; exit(-1); } // get the tracker calibration object osg::ref_ptr<osgART::Calibration> calibration = tracker->getOrCreateCalibration(); // load a calibration file if (!calibration->load("data/camera_para.dat")) { // the calibration file was non-existing or couldnt be loaded osg::notify(osg::FATAL) << "Non existing or incompatible calibration file" << std::endl; exit(-1); } // set the image source for the tracker tracker->setImage(video.get()); osgART::TrackerCallback::addOrSet(root.get(), tracker.get()); // create the virtual camera and add it to the scene osg::ref_ptr<osg::Camera> cam = calibration->createCamera(); root->addChild(cam.get());   Load a tracking plugin and associate it with the video plugin
    • osgART Tutorial 3: Tracking osg::ref_ptr<osgART::Marker> marker = tracker->addMarker("single;data/patt.hiro;80;0;0"); if (!marker.valid()) { // Without marker an AR application can not work. Quit if none found. osg::notify(osg::FATAL) << "Could not add marker!" << std::endl; exit(-1); } marker->setActive(true); osg::ref_ptr<osg::MatrixTransform> arTransform = new osg::MatrixTransform(); osgART::attachDefaultEventCallbacks(arTransform.get(), marker.get()); cam->addChild(arTransform.get());   Load a marker and activate it   Associate it with a transformation node (via event callbacks)   Add the transformation node to the virtual camera node osgART::addEventCallback(arTransform.get(), new osgART::MarkerDebugCallback(marker.get()));   Add a debug callback to print out information about the tracked marker
    • osgART Tutorial 3: Tracking   Tracking information is output to console
    • osgART Tutorial 4: Adding Content   Now put the tracking data to use!   Add content to the tracked transform   Basic cube code arTransform->addChild(osgART::testCube()); arTransform->getOrCreateStateSet()->setRenderBinDetails(100, "RenderBin");
    • osgART Tutorial 5: Adding 3D Model   Open Scene Graph can load some 3D formats directly:   e.g. Wavefront (.obj), OpenFlight (.flt), 3D Studio (.3ds), COLLADA   Others need to be converted   Support for some formats is much better than others   e.g. OpenFlight good, 3ds hit and miss.   Recommend native .osg and .ive formats   .osg – ASCII representation of scene graph   .ive – Binary OSG file. Can contain hold textures.   osgExp : Exporter for 3DS Max is a good choice   http://sourceforge.net/projects/osgmaxexp   Otherwise .3ds files from TurboSquid can work
    • osgART Tutorial 5: Adding 3D Model std::string filename = "media/hollow_cube.osg"; arTransform->addChild(osgDB::readNodeFile(filename));   Replace the simple cube with a 3D model   Models are loaded using the osgDB::readNodeFile() function   Note: Scale is important. Units are in mm. 3D Studio Max Export to .osg osgART
    • osgART Tutorial 6: Multiple Markers   Repeat the process so far to track more than one marker simultaneously
    • osgART Tutorial 6: Multiple Markers osg::ref_ptr<osg::MatrixTransform> arTransformA = new osg::MatrixTransform(); osgART::attachDefaultEventCallbacks(arTransformA.get(), markerA.get()); arTransformA->addChild(osgDB::readNodeFile("media/hitl_logo.osg")); arTransformA->getOrCreateStateSet()->setRenderBinDetails(100, "RenderBin"); cam->addChild(arTransformA.get()); osg::ref_ptr<osg::MatrixTransform> arTransformB = new osg::MatrixTransform(); osgART::attachDefaultEventCallbacks(arTransformB.get(), markerB.get()); arTransformB->addChild(osgDB::readNodeFile("media/gist_logo.osg")); arTransformB->getOrCreateStateSet()->setRenderBinDetails(100, "RenderBin"); cam->addChild(arTransformB.get());   Load and activate two markers osg::ref_ptr<osgART::Marker> markerA = tracker->addMarker("single;data/patt.hiro;80;0;0"); markerA->setActive(true); osg::ref_ptr<osgART::Marker> markerB = tracker->addMarker("single;data/patt.kanji;80;0;0"); markerB->setActive(true);   Create two transformations, attach callbacks, and add models   Repeat the process so far to track more than one marker
    • osgART Tutorial 6: Multiple Markers
    • Basic osgART Tutorial: Summary Standard OSGViewer Addition ofVideo Addition of Tracking Addition of basic 3D graphics Addition of 3D Model Multiple Markers
    • AR Interaction
    • experiences applications tools components Sony CSL © 2004 Building Compelling AR Experiences Tracking, Display Authoring Interaction
    • AR Interaction   Designing AR System = Interface Design   Using different input and output technologies   Objective is a high quality of user experience   Ease of use and learning   Performance and satisfaction
    • User Interface and Tool   Human  User Interface/Tool  Machine/Object   Human Machine Interface © Andreas Dünser Tools User Interface
    • User Interface: Characteristics   Input: mono or multimodal   Output: mono or multisensorial   Technique/Metaphor/Paradigm © Andreas Dünser Input Output Sensation of movement Metaphor: “Push” to accelerate “Turn” to rotate
    • Human Computer Interface   Human  User Interface Computer System   Human Computer Interface= Hardware +| Software   Computer is everywhere now HCI electronic devices, Home Automation, Transport vehicles, etc © Andreas Dünser
    • More terminology   Interaction Device= Input/Output of User Interface   Interaction Style= category of similar interaction techniques   Interaction Paradigm   Modality (human sense)   Usability
    • Back to AR   You can see spatially registered AR.. how can you interact with it?
    • Interaction Tasks   2D (from [Foley]):   Selection, Text Entry, Quantify, Position   3D (from [Bowman]):   Navigation (Travel/Wayfinding)   Selection   Manipulation   System Control/Data Input   AR: 2D + 3D Tasks and.. more specific tasks? [Foley] The Human Factors of Computer Graphics InteractionTechniques Foley, J. D.,V.Wallace & P. Chan. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications(Nov.): 13-48. 1984. [Bowman]: 3D User Interfaces:Theory and Practice D. Bowman, E. Kruijff, J. Laviola, I. Poupyrev Addison Wesley 2005
    • AR Interfaces as Data Browsers   2D/3D virtual objects are registered in 3D   “VR in Real World”   Interaction   2D/3D virtual viewpoint control   Applications   Visualization, training
    • AR Information Browsers   Information is registered to real-world context   Hand held AR displays   Interaction   Manipulation of a window into information space   Applications   Context-aware information displays Rekimoto, et al. 1997
    • Architecture
    • Current AR Information Browsers   Mobile AR   GPS + compass   Many Applications   Layar   Wikitude   Acrossair   PressLite   Yelp   AR Car Finder   …
    • Junaio   AR Browser from Metaio   http://www.junaio.com/   AR browsing   GPS + compass   2D/3D object placement   Photos/live video   Community viewing
    • Web Interface
    • Adding Models in Web Interface
    • Advantages and Disadvantages   Important class of AR interfaces   Wearable computers   AR simulation, training   Limited interactivity   Modification of virtual content is difficult Rekimoto, et al. 1997
    • 3D AR Interfaces   Virtual objects displayed in 3D physical space and manipulated   HMDs and 6DOF head-tracking   6DOF hand trackers for input   Interaction   Viewpoint control   Traditional 3D user interface interaction: manipulation, selection, etc. Kiyokawa, et al. 2000
    • AR 3D Interaction
    • AR Graffiti www.nextwall.net
    • Advantages and Disadvantages   Important class of AR interfaces   Entertainment, design, training   Advantages   User can interact with 3D virtual object everywhere in space   Natural, familiar interaction   Disadvantages   Usually no tactile feedback   User has to use different devices for virtual and physical objects Oshima, et al. 2000
    • Augmented Surfaces and Tangible Interfaces   Basic principles   Virtual objects are projected on a surface   Physical objects are used as controls for virtual objects   Support for collaboration
    • Augmented Surfaces   Rekimoto, et al. 1998   Front projection   Marker-based tracking   Multiple projection surfaces
    • Tangible User Interfaces (Ishii 97)   Create digital shadows for physical objects   Foreground   graspable UI   Background   ambient interfaces
    • Tangible Interfaces - Ambient   Dangling String   Jeremijenko 1995   Ambient ethernet monitor   Relies on peripheral cues   Ambient Fixtures   Dahley, Wisneski, Ishii 1998   Use natural material qualities for information display
    • Tangible Interface: ARgroove   Collaborative Instrument   Exploring Physically Based Interaction   Map physical actions to Midi output -  Translation, rotation -  Tilt, shake
    • ARgroove in Use
    • Visual Feedback   Continuous Visual Feedback is Key   Single Virtual Image Provides:   Rotation   Tilt   Height
    • i/O Brush (Ryokai, Marti, Ishii)
    • Other Examples   Triangles (Gorbert 1998)   Triangular based story telling   ActiveCube (Kitamura 2000-)   Cubes with sensors
    • Lessons from Tangible Interfaces   Physical objects make us smart   Norman’s “Things that Make Us Smart”   encode affordances, constraints   Objects aid collaboration   establish shared meaning   Objects increase understanding   serve as cognitive artifacts
    • TUI Limitations   Difficult to change object properties   can’t tell state of digital data   Limited display capabilities   projection screen = 2D   dependent on physical display surface   Separation between object and display   ARgroove
    • Advantages and Disadvantages   Advantages   Natural - users hands are used for interacting with both virtual and real objects. -  No need for special purpose input devices   Disadvantages   Interaction is limited only to 2D surface -  Full 3D interaction and manipulation is difficult
    • Orthogonal Nature of AR Interfaces
    • Back to the Real World   AR overcomes limitation of TUIs   enhance display possibilities   merge task/display space   provide public and private views   TUI + AR = Tangible AR   Apply TUI methods to AR interface design
    •   Space-multiplexed   Many devices each with one function -  Quicker to use, more intuitive, clutter -  Real Toolbox   Time-multiplexed   One device with many functions -  Space efficient -  mouse
    • Tangible AR: Tiles (Space Multiplexed)   Tiles semantics   data tiles   operation tiles   Operation on tiles   proximity   spatial arrangements   space-multiplexed
    • Space-multiplexed Interface Data authoring in Tiles
    • Proximity-based Interaction
    • Object Based Interaction: MagicCup   Intuitive Virtual Object Manipulation on a Table-Top Workspace   Time multiplexed   Multiple Markers -  Robust Tracking   Tangible User Interface -  Intuitive Manipulation   Stereo Display -  Good Presence
    • Our system   Main table, Menu table, Cup interface
    • Tangible AR: Time-multiplexed Interaction   Use of natural physical object manipulations to control virtual objects   VOMAR Demo   Catalog book: -  Turn over the page   Paddle operation: -  Push, shake, incline, hit, scoop
    • VOMAR Interface
    • Advantages and Disadvantages   Advantages   Natural interaction with virtual and physical tools -  No need for special purpose input devices   Spatial interaction with virtual objects -  3D manipulation with virtual objects anywhere in physical space   Disadvantages   Requires Head Mounted Display
    • Wrap-up   Browsing Interfaces   simple (conceptually!), unobtrusive   3D AR Interfaces   expressive, creative, require attention   Tangible Interfaces   Embedded into conventional environments   Tangible AR   Combines TUI input + AR display
    • AR User Interface: Categorization   Traditional Desktop: keyboard, mouse, joystick (with or without 2D/3D GUI)   Specialized/VR Device: 3D VR devices, specially design device
    • AR User Interface: Categorization   Tangible Interface : using physical object Hand/ Touch Interface : using pose and gesture of hand, fingers   Body Interface: using movement of body
    • AR User Interface: Categorization   Speech Interface: voice, speech control   Multimodal Interface : Gesture + Speech   Haptic Interface : haptic feedback   Eye Tracking, Physiological, Brain Computer Interface..
    • Resources
    • Websites   Software Download   http://artoolkit.sourceforge.net/   ARToolKit Documentation   http://www.hitl.washington.edu/artoolkit/   ARToolKit Forum   http://www.hitlabnz.org/wiki/Forum   ARToolworks Inc   http://www.artoolworks.com/
    •   ARToolKit Plus   http://studierstube.icg.tu-graz.ac.at/handheld_ar/ artoolkitplus.php   osgART   http://www.osgart.org/   FLARToolKit   http://www.libspark.org/wiki/saqoosha/FLARToolKit/   FLARManager   http://words.transmote.com/wp/flarmanager/
    • Project Assignment   Design/Related work exercise   Individual   Each person find 2 relevant papers/videos/websites   Write two page literature review   As a team - prototype design   Sketch out the user interface of application   Design the interaction flow/Screen mockups   3 minute Presentation in class August 16th