Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
J4/554 – Theory & Writing the Plan January 28, 2010 ©Margy Parker
Theory = “So that…” <ul><li>Theory = Prediction (of how actions/events are related </li></ul><ul><li>Theory = Explains why...
Relationship Theories <ul><li>Systems Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines, assesses, monitors relationships </li></ul></...
Relationship Theories <ul><li>Situational theory  - predicts level of involvement </li></ul><ul><li>A. Problem Recognition...
Influential Theories <ul><li>Social Exchange Theory  -  People are influenced by perceived “rewards” (low costs, high bene...
Influential Theories <ul><li>Social Learning Theory  – People are influenced by observing others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thr...
Influential Theories <ul><li>Elaborated Likelihood Theory  --  People are influenced by sources outside of the organizatio...
Media Theories <ul><li>Uses and Gratifications Theory  – people use different types of media for different reasons. </li><...
Media Theories <ul><li>Agenda Setting Theory*  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides topics/info. to think about  </li></ul></ul>...
PR Models <ul><li>One way asymmetrical:  Dominant, top down, no compromise.  One way persuasion, information. </li></ul><u...
PR Plan - Basic Components <ul><ul><li>Opportunity or Challenge Statement </li></ul></ul>
PR Plan - Basic Components <ul><li>Situation Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth understanding of situation </li></ul>...
Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Goal statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>•  “ To Be” statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>•...
Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Primary focus (target audiences) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will be influenced  </li></u...
Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Objectives (for each target/focus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ACTION statement </li></ul>...
Forming an Objective <ul><li>Example </li></ul>Target Independent Physicians Action To establish opportunities to feel inv...
Theory:  Supports Plan Objectives
Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Says how to accomplish an objective. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Tactics/Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts strategy into action. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Evaluation Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks progress toward objective </li></ul></...
Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Time Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocates time for tactics  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for each tactic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summar...
Ten Components - PR Plan <ul><li>1. Opportunity/Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>2. Situation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Goa...
11 th  Component - PR Plan <ul><li>Follow up measures with target audiences </li></ul><ul><li>-Notes requesting input </li...
Assignments for Feb. 2 <ul><li>Research – should be in “full on” mode </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly update due Friday to Margy ...
R.A.C.E  <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate </li...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

PR Theory and Plan Writing

2,217

Published on

PR Theory and Strategic Plan Writing

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • thank a lot.. your pp gave me direction and flow on how to articulate my pr plan for class.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,217
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
48
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Prediction: Isac Newton – theory of gravity – what goes up must come down (super simplified.) Einstine’s theory of relativity: E = mc2. If you have any mass, you have an associated field of energy PR Theory predicts the relationship between your recommendation and its outcome. If you recommend that your client find a famous spokesperson for their product, the elaborated likliehood theory will predict that the awareness for the product and the desire to use it will increase.
  • Situational Theory is used to examine/monitor/assess relationships with stakeholders, and their influence on an organization. An open organization depends on other organizations to provide feedback information. A closed organization doesn’t rely on feedback. Takes a look at interdependence between departments, or stakeholders considers the way they relate and then considers channels for communications. PR People become boundary spanners – monitor relationships and make recommendations for improved communication. A way to look at relationships and their effects. Can be used internally or externally
  • Predicts how active and involved or passive and not involved people will be Actively seek information or actively seek participation are more likely to be engaged.
  • Is a reward necessarily something tangible?
  • How would media influence us to acquire a behavior?
  • Situational Theory assumes that people actively think about something if the constraint recognition is low. In Elaborated Likelihood, suggests that people can be influenced by peripheral routes. S Examples? Famous person Word of mouth A coupon in the mail Samples
  • Just because a message is available, doesn’t mean a person is going to receive it. Each person chooses their own type of media for their own reasons. So messages need to be conveyed through multiple ways. Example?
  • Cannot tell people what or how to think, but you can tell them what to think about. The media can set the agenda.
  • EXAMPLES OF EACH?
  • What is secondary research?
  • What is secondary research?
  • WHAT YOU WANT THE ULTIMATE CONDITION TO BE COULD BE FOCUSED ON THE CLIENT OR THE AUDIENCE RECOGNIZED, SERVING SUPPORTING XPANDING REGARDED BY SEEN BY OR AS INCREASING APPROACHING BE PREFERRED BE POPULAR BE AWARE RECOGNIZED,
  • Who - what group of people DESCRITPION CHARACTERISTICS? WHY IMPORTANT TO THE GOAL?
  • SO THAT! TO PROVIDE THE MEDIA WITH APPROPRIATE MATERIALS CONVEYING KING ESTATE’S ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE PROGRAMS SO THAT ……
  • What is the difference between strategies and a tactic Would creating a Web site be a strategy?
  • NOT JUST FOR COUNTING THINGS – ITS TO SAY HOW ITS WORKING IF YOU WERE MEASURING THE AMOUNT OF PRESS RECEIVED BY CVALCO ABOUT ITS UPCOMING CONTEST, WHAT ELSE WOULD YOU MEASURE BESIDES PRESS CLIPS, WHAT WOULD YOU LOOK FOR IN THOSE PRESS CLIPS? Ability to evaluate moves the PR professional from technician (able to do the tasks) to managing relationships and making key decisions/recommendationsAbility to evaluate supports accountabilityEvaluate requires informal and formal researchGood evaluation turns PR from rhetoric to a scienceRACE model (research action communication evaluation, leads to next RACE. Evaluation s/b conducted from the beginning. Evaluate the input (the decisions that go into creating a communication materials or events), the output - measuring the impact of materials or events, and the outcome - whether there was a behavioral change. Then this is used to formulate future plans. The evaluation, in effect becomes strategic in the planning role.Evaluation is based on having measurable objectives and sub-objectivesHas to evaluate a wide range of communication channels and relationshipsEvaluation goes beyond counting, it delves into the differences and quality. # of press clips, where positioned, length of article, angle of article, any comments (if online) gist of commentsContent AnalysisCustomer surveys or interviewsQuality of attendance increasesFollow-upGood evaluation leads to inclusion in management decision making.
  • WHAT IF THE CLIENT HAS SAID THERE’S NO BUDGET. INCLUDE A GRANT WRITING PROGRAM, KEEP YOUR COSTS SMALL
  • Ability to evaluate moves the PR professional from technician (able to do the tasks) to managing relationships and making key decisions/recommendations Ability to evaluate supports accountability Evaluate requires informal and formal research Good evaluation turns PR from rhetoric to a science RACE model (research action communication evaluation, leads to next RACE. Evaluation s/b conducted from the beginning. Evaluate the input (the decisions that go into creating a communication materials or events), the output - measuring the impact of materials or events, and the outcome - whether there was a behavioral change. Then this is used to formulate future plans. The evaluation, in effect becomes strategic in the planning role. Evaluation is based on having measurable objectives and sub-objectives Has to evaluate a wide range of communication channels and relationships Evaluation goes beyond counting, it delves into the differences and quality. # of press clips, where positioned, length of article, angle of article, any comments (if online) gist of comments Content Analysis Customer surveys or interviews Quality of attendance increases Follow-up Good evaluation leads to inclusion in management decision making.
  • Transcript of "PR Theory and Plan Writing"

    1. 1. J4/554 – Theory & Writing the Plan January 28, 2010 ©Margy Parker
    2. 2. Theory = “So that…” <ul><li>Theory = Prediction (of how actions/events are related </li></ul><ul><li>Theory = Explains why (you think the plan will work) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory and models are usually tested </li></ul><ul><li>No single theory covers all -- a group of theories helpful </li></ul>
    3. 3. Relationship Theories <ul><li>Systems Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines, assesses, monitors relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PR staff = boundary spanners </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Relationship Theories <ul><li>Situational theory - predicts level of involvement </li></ul><ul><li>A. Problem Recognition- level of awareness? </li></ul><ul><li>B. Constraint Recognition – perception of obstacles? </li></ul><ul><li>C. Involvement – how much do they care? </li></ul><ul><li>A – B + C = Active Engagement. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Influential Theories <ul><li>Social Exchange Theory - People are influenced by perceived “rewards” (low costs, high benefits) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward: low costs (time, resources) high benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward: effort recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward: change avoid disaster </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Influential Theories <ul><li>Social Learning Theory – People are influenced by observing others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through individual examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through mass media </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Influential Theories <ul><li>Elaborated Likelihood Theory -- People are influenced by sources outside of the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peripheral endorsement supports positive perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repetition (outside the environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tangible rewards. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Media Theories <ul><li>Uses and Gratifications Theory – people use different types of media for different reasons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a diversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a measure against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal identity and values. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Media Theories <ul><li>Agenda Setting Theory* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides topics/info. to think about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates information sources/resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Can’t tell a person how to think, but can tell a person what to think about </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. PR Models <ul><li>One way asymmetrical: Dominant, top down, no compromise. One way persuasion, information. </li></ul><ul><li>Two way asymmetrical: Influence takes into account both self interest and interests of others </li></ul><ul><li>Two way symmetrical: Others’ input formulates communication strategies and tactics. All stakeholders participate. </li></ul>
    11. 11. PR Plan - Basic Components <ul><ul><li>Opportunity or Challenge Statement </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. PR Plan - Basic Components <ul><li>Situation Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth understanding of situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys story of what’s-going-on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argues a case for a PR plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes research findings </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Goal statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• “ To Be” statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• The vision of plan success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• A target for objectives </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Primary focus (target audiences) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will be influenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the details about the audience? –(Includes findings from primary research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why a focus/target? </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Objectives (for each target/focus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ACTION statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To-do-what-to-whom- for-what-purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be measurable </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Forming an Objective <ul><li>Example </li></ul>Target Independent Physicians Action To establish opportunities to feel involved in and respected by Wilcox Health Purpose So that physicians develop a stronger sense of identity with the organization and have a more positive speaking of Wilcox Hospital. OBJECTIVE To establish opportunities for independent physicians to feel involved in and respected by Wilcox Health so that physicians develop a stronger sense of identity with the organization and have a more positive speaking of Wilcox Health. Measure Number of opportunities; number of physicians who respond
    17. 17. Theory: Supports Plan Objectives
    18. 18. Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Says how to accomplish an objective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discusses key messages /themes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform for action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept leading to recommended action/tactic </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Tactics/Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts strategy into action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically makes use of communication tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a chore list. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Evaluation Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks progress toward objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes achievement of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a tool for adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a tool for follow-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goes beyond counting; it evaluates </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Time Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocates time for tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management tool </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Basic Components - PR Plan <ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for each tactic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarized per objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guideline for allocations </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Ten Components - PR Plan <ul><li>1. Opportunity/Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>2. Situation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Goal statement - vision </li></ul><ul><li>4. Target audience description </li></ul><ul><li>5. Objectives – for each audience </li></ul><ul><li>6. Strategies - – key messages </li></ul><ul><li>7. Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>8. Evaluation measures </li></ul><ul><li>9. Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>10. Budget </li></ul>
    24. 24. 11 th Component - PR Plan <ul><li>Follow up measures with target audiences </li></ul><ul><li>-Notes requesting input </li></ul><ul><li>-Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>-Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>-Updates </li></ul>
    25. 25. Assignments for Feb. 2 <ul><li>Research – should be in “full on” mode </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly update due Friday to Margy Jan. 29 </li></ul><ul><li>Read BB postings on presentations for Feb. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Start thinking about draft plan, client “pitch.” </li></ul><ul><li>Flex day – Feb. 4 </li></ul>
    26. 26. R.A.C.E <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×