Matt Argano: The Relationship Between Personality and Commitment

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Is there a relationship between leaders’ personality traits and organizational commitment among their associates? …

Is there a relationship between leaders’ personality traits and organizational commitment among their associates?

• A quantitative research design tested the relationship between leaders’ personality traits and organizational commitment
Apparel and Consumer Packaged Goods organizations
• New York and New Jersey markets
• Leaders’ personality traits assessed utilizing the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI)
• Associates’ levels of organizational commitment measured utilizing the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)
• Findings: There is a significant relationship between specific leaders’ personality traits and organizational commitment among their associates

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  • 1. A Dissertation PresentationLeadership and Commitment: The Relationship Between Leaders’ Personality Traits and Organizational Commitment Matt T. Argano
  • 2. Abstract• Is there a relationship between leaders’ personality traits and organizational commitment among their associates? • Five Apparel and/or Consumer Packaged Goods organizations • New York and New Jersey• Leaders’ personality traits • Measured with the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI)• Associates’ organizational commitment • Measured with Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) 2
  • 3. • A quantitative research design tested the relationship between leaders’ personality traits and organizational commitment• Findings: • There is a significant relationship between: • Specific leaders’ personality traits and organizational commitment in associates 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. IntroductionToday’s leaders face complex & rapidly changing landscapesWhen strong leadership is not demonstrated, “teams lose,armies are defeated, economies dwindle, and nations fall.” Hogan, Gordon, Curphy, and Hogan (1994)Talent is one of the most important resources in organizations 5
  • 6. Personality “An individuals characteristic patterns of thought, emotion,and behavior, together with psychological mechanisms behindthose patterns." (Funder, 2001) Personality IQ EQ 6
  • 7.  Organizational Commitment “Employee participation in, sense of belonging to, and emotional attachment with the organization.” (Meyer & Allen, 1996) • Support & acceptance of the goals, objectives & values • A willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization • A desire to retain membership with the organization 7
  • 8. Types of Commitment Affective Commitment Employee remains because they WANT toContinuance Commitment Employee remains because they NEED toNormative Commitment Employee remains because they OUGHT to 8
  • 9. Problem Statement• IF RESEARCH indicated that specific personality traits in leaders’ maximized levels of organizational commitment in associates • Organizations would be well positioned to utilize the findings to make informed decisions concerning human capital 9
  • 10. Purpose of the Study• To examine how leaders’ personality traits influenced organizational commitment among their associates• Q1: Are there differences in leaders’ personality traits based on gender and ethnicity?• Q2: What are the relationships between personality traits in leaders and organizational commitment among their associates? 10
  • 11. • Competitive landscape & high-quality leadership• Organizational excellence: • Clear vision • Principled leadership • Reciprocal relationships and • High degrees of follower trust• When employees and followers feel genuinely respected and nurtured by their leaders Organizations are positioned for: - Greater levels of productivity - Performance - Employee commitment 11
  • 12. Five Factor Model of PersonalityExtroversion:Sociability, assertiveness, gregarious, and social interactionAgreeableness:Good-natured, sympathy, trust, and cooperationConscientiousness:Competence, dependableNeuroticism:Calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus anxious,depressed, insecure, volatile (negative)Openness to Experience:Imaginative, inquisitive, sensitivity, and intellectualism 12
  • 13. Five Factor Model and Hogan Scale Comparison Five Factor Model Hogan Taxonomy Neuroticism Adjustment Extraversion Ambition and Sociability Agreeableness Interpersonal Sensitivity Conscientiousness Prudence Open to Experience Inquisitive & Learning Approach (Hogan, 1992) 13
  • 14. Research Design & Methodology• The impact of leaders’ personality traits on organizational commitment in Apparel and/or Consumer Packaged Goods organizations• New York and New Jersey • Annual revenues exceeding $500 million• Descriptive statistics • Mean & standard deviation • Two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) • Multiple regression analysis 14
  • 15. • The criterion variable was organizational commitment• The predictor variables were the HPI’s five traits • Adjustment • Ambition • Sociability • Interpersonal Sensitivity • Prudence• A Two-Way ANOVA • The effect of multiple levels of two factors with multiple observations at each level (gender, ethnicity and individual Hogan traits)• Multiple regression analysis • The effects of 2+ independent variables on 1 dependent variable 15
  • 16. Participants’ Demographics Leader Population Ethnicity Total Male Female Caucasian 16 8 8 African-American 11 5 6 Hispanic 12 6 6 Asian 11 6 5 Other 0 0 0 Total 50 25 25 Associate Population Ethnicity Total Male Female Caucasian 77 42 35 African-American 35 16 19 Hispanic 63 30 33 Asian 29 18 11 Other 0 0 0 Total 204 106 98 16
  • 17. InstrumentationTwo Instruments: Leaders: Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI) 206 T/F questionsAssociates: Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) 15 questions 7 point Likert scale 17
  • 18. ValidityPerformance Hogan Personality Assessment (HPI) Conformity to Assessment Profile (Hogan, 1992) 18
  • 19. Study Results• Associates were generally committed to their organizations• A significant relationship between • Specific personality traits in leaders & • Impact upon organizational commitment 19
  • 20. • No relationship between gender, ethnicity & Hogan personalitytraits• Associates respond more favorably to Leaders with higher degrees of: - Emotional stability - Greater interpersonal skills• Interpersonal Sensitivity & Adjustment traits Influenced levels of organizational commitment• Remaining traits showed weak relationships With organizational commitment 20
  • 21. • Adjustment and Interpersonal Sensitivity traits • Focus on the more social aspects of human interaction • Manifests in the leader’s ability to: - Effectively manage relationships with others• Female leaders high Interpersonal Sensitivity & Sociability• Male leaders high Adjustment, Ambition & Prudence 21
  • 22. • Male leaders scored high in Ambition, with the Ambition mean for male leaders (M = 74.20, SD = 22.46) being higher than the mean for female leaders (M = 67.24, SD = 26.41). Hogan’s Ambition trait is characterized by competitiveness, goal orientation, and a desire to seek out leadership roles• Males scored slightly higher than females on Hogan’s Prudence trait. The Prudence mean for male leaders (M = 65.68, SD = 25.38) was only six points higher than the mean for female leaders (M = 59.76, SD = 21.92). Hogan described Prudence as the degree to which an individual seems conscientious, conforming, and often dependable 22
  • 23.  The research study reflected that after controlling for all other variables: Ambition/Organizational Weak, negative relationship Commitment Adjustment/Organizational Moderate, positive relationship Commitment Sociability/Organizational Weak, positive relationship Commitment Prudence/Organizational Very weak relationship Commitment Interpersonal Definite, but not quite moderate, positive Sensitivity/Organizational relationship Commitment
  • 24. Implications for Practice• The study supported prior research that: Self management and emotional awareness in leaders remains a critical cornerstone in developing and maintaining relationships in organizations• Relationship management is essential in the leaders’ ability to - Effectively communicate, collaborate and influence others for the greater good of the organization• Leadership is a personal journey• Leadership directly impacts organizational function 24
  • 25. • Leaders who are: Self aware and manage emotions & behavior are well positioned to become high performing organizational stewards• Leaders who fail: Will find it difficult to develop & maintain relationships resulting in underperforming teams & organizations•Leaders who effectively manage: Stress, ambiguity and conflict will increase their success and effectiveness 25
  • 26. • The study also reflected a negative relationship between lower scores on Ambition with higher levels of organizational commitment• Associates become de-motivated or disengaged when they perceive that their leader is: - Narcissistic - Self promoting - Placing personal gain above organizational good 26
  • 27. • Female leaders appear more inclined to: develop and nurture followers’ interests into common organizational goals by leveraging their personality traits• Female leaders may be better positioned to understand and respond to followers’ needs 27