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The Dark and Light Side of
       Leadership

      Dr. Marilyn Buckner
  copyright Hogan Assessments

     The UCF Leader...
Key Ideas:
• Positive Leadership Traits Predict
  Organizational Effectiveness
• Negative Leadership Traits can be measure...
Personality and Leadership
• The leadership literature is huge. Can be
  separated into two traditions.

o The Troubadour ...
Evaluating the Two Traditions
• The Troubadour Tradition is entertaining
  but unscientific.

• The Academic Tradition is ...
How to Define and Evaluate
         Leadership
• Leadership should be defined in terms of
  the ability to build and maint...
What Do We Actually Know
       About Leadership?
                       OUTLINE:
•   Competency models (Leadership Domain...
WARREN BENNIS, LEADERSHIP GURU

The ruling quality of leaders, adaptive capacity, is
what allows true leaders to make nimb...
The Leader Domain
         Model:Competencies

• Intrapersonal skills: self-control (employability)
• Interpersonal skills...
Implicit Leadership Themes
• Integrity: keep one’s word, don’t play favorites (Kouzes
  & Posner)
• Decisiveness: make goo...
Good to Great Themes
• CEOs of Fortune 1000 companies with 15
  years sustained performance:

  – Amazingly persistent
  –...
Personality and Leadership
• Research shows overwhelmingly that personality
  (reputation) can be defined in terms of five...
Predicting Leader Success

A recent and definitive meta-analysis (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002

shows that 4 of th...
Leadership and Employee
           Satisfaction
•    A recent and definitive meta-analysis
     (Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes,...
The Base Rate of Incompetent
                  Management
• Bad* managers alienate employees and create negative
  busines...
Dark Side of Leadership
     Dimensions of Managerial/Leadership
        Incompetence:Jerk Behaviors
• Excitable: Erratic ...
Dark Side of Leadership
   Dimensions of Managerial /Leadership
    Incompetence:Jerk Behaviors (continued)
• Bold (Arroga...
Dark Side of Leadership
     Dimensions of Managerial/Leadership
      Incompetence:Jerk Behaviors (continued)
•   Diligen...
Bright Side of Leadership:
                 Positive Behaviors
•   Adjustment:* Leadership composure under stress* Emotion...
Components of Organizational
         Effectiveness
• Talented team members—found through good
  selection procedures
• Mo...
Last Thoughts
• Leadership matters—the persons in charge of
  organizations can make or ruin them.
• Good leadership is a ...
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The Dark and Light Sides of Leadership

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The Dark and Light Side of
Leadership

Dr. Marilyn Buckner
copyright Hogan Assessments

The UCF Leadership Edge
Learning Community
- 3rd in a Series –

Published in: Business
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The Dark and Light Sides of Leadership

  1. 1. The Dark and Light Side of Leadership Dr. Marilyn Buckner copyright Hogan Assessments The UCF Leadership Edge Learning Community - 3rd in a Series – Friday, February 13th, 2004 Repeated on March 9 th, 2004 1
  2. 2. Key Ideas: • Positive Leadership Traits Predict Organizational Effectiveness • Negative Leadership Traits can be measured • People leave organizations because of Jerk Behavior • Positive Leadership Traits can be measured • Most positive Traits can be developed *Based on the Research of Dr. Robert Hogan 2
  3. 3. Personality and Leadership • The leadership literature is huge. Can be separated into two traditions. o The Troubadour Tradition: Opinions of gurus and former CEOs. o The Academic Tradition: Empirical research from Academia. 3
  4. 4. Evaluating the Two Traditions • The Troubadour Tradition is entertaining but unscientific. • The Academic Tradition is scientific but often trivial. 4
  5. 5. How to Define and Evaluate Leadership • Leadership should be defined in terms of the ability to build and maintain a high performing team. • Leadership should be evaluated in terms of the performance of the team relative to the other teams with which it competes. 5
  6. 6. What Do We Actually Know About Leadership? OUTLINE: • Competency models (Leadership Domain Model) • Implicit leadership themes • Good to great themes • Personality predicts leadership • Bad managers alienate workers • Base rate of incompetent managers 6
  7. 7. WARREN BENNIS, LEADERSHIP GURU The ruling quality of leaders, adaptive capacity, is what allows true leaders to make nimble decisions that bring success. Adaptive capacity is also what allows some people to transcend the setbacks and losses that come with age and to reinvent themselves again and again. (Inside the Mind of the Leader, January 2004. 7
  8. 8. The Leader Domain Model:Competencies • Intrapersonal skills: self-control (employability) • Interpersonal skills: social skill (team work) • Business skills: job fit • Leadership skills: persuading, delegating, inspiring • Increasing levels of trainability 8
  9. 9. Implicit Leadership Themes • Integrity: keep one’s word, don’t play favorites (Kouzes & Posner) • Decisiveness: make good decisions quickly • Competence: be good at the business • Vision: explain why it matters Warren Bennis, “Leaders are individuals who create shared meaning have a distinct voice, have the capacity to adapt, and have integrity.” Bennis - “Founding chairman, University of Southern California Leadership Institute - Author - On Becoming a Leader” 9
  10. 10. Good to Great Themes • CEOs of Fortune 1000 companies with 15 years sustained performance: – Amazingly persistent – Humble (Level 5 Leader, Jim Collins) Example: Carly Fiorina, CEO of HP 10
  11. 11. Personality and Leadership • Research shows overwhelmingly that personality (reputation) can be defined in terms of five broad dimensions called: • Adjustment (Emotional IQ), * • Ascendance (Extrovert/Introvert), • Likeability (Interpersonal Sensitivity), * • Prudence (Planful), • and Intellect/Openness (Innovativeness). * • This is called the Five- Factor Model. • (Common names in parentheses) • Global Factors from CCL Research --see * 11
  12. 12. Predicting Leader Success A recent and definitive meta-analysis (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002 shows that 4 of the 5 dimensions of the Five-Factor Model predict ratings of leadership independent of the organization or occupational specialty. The best predictor is Adjustment (Emotional IQ) and the weakest is Likeability (Interpersonal Sensitivity). 12
  13. 13. Leadership and Employee Satisfaction • A recent and definitive meta-analysis (Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002) shows three important things: 1. The personalities of managers directly influence employee satisfaction. 2. When employee satisfaction is high, positive business outcomes result. 3. When employee satisfaction is low, negative business outcomes result. 13
  14. 14. The Base Rate of Incompetent Management • Bad* managers alienate employees and create negative business outcomes. • What is the base rate of bad managers in today’s business? • Depending on specifics, we estimate 50% to 75% • They are hired based on technical skill and business knowledge, not on leadership skill. And they interview well. *A new definition of Bad - Lack of Integrity Example: Ken Lay, former CEO Enron Michael Blumenthal, former CEO Unisys “When did I make my greatest hiring mistake? When I put intelligence and energy ahead of morality.” 14
  15. 15. Dark Side of Leadership Dimensions of Managerial/Leadership Incompetence:Jerk Behaviors • Excitable: Erratic emotional outbursts (Ted Turner—AOL Time Warner) EQ can be learned but only by those who have an aptitude- - John Mayer, Ph.D. (original inventor of EQ) • Cautious: Risk averse, won’t make decisions (United Nations) (Some CFO’s) • Skeptical: Mistrustful and vindictive (argumentative ) Ex:Samuel Goldwyn, I want you to tell me exactly what’s wrong with me and MGM even if it means losing your job. ------(People are afraid to confront a skeptical leader.) • Reserved: Poor communicator, insensitive to morale issues, aloof ( Examples:Clint Eastwood, Howell Raines deposed executive editor NY Times (also arrogant) • Leisurely: Passive-Aggressive, independent (Information technologists) 15
  16. 16. Dark Side of Leadership Dimensions of Managerial /Leadership Incompetence:Jerk Behaviors (continued) • Bold (Arrogant): Narcissistic feelings of entitlement (Bill Clinton), (some international cultures such as Dutch and Finnish do not like Bold - like humility) • Mischievous (Risk Taking): Careless about commitments, constant lying (Politicians) ex. GE decisions (pocket change to make mistakes) • Colorful: Manages by crisis (Dennis Kozlowski, CEO Tyco) • Imaginative: Bad ideas and impulsive decisions (Dell--Flop of Olympic line desktop computers) 16
  17. 17. Dark Side of Leadership Dimensions of Managerial/Leadership Incompetence:Jerk Behaviors (continued) • Diligent: Over-controlling micro-manager (Control as a leadership style is more acceptable in certain cultures but delegation is critical) (Ex:Martha Stewart) • Dutiful: Too concerned about pleasing superiors (Enron, MCI executives and Board Members) Andrea Lung, CEO Avon (Chinese decent) Examples: “Don’t say yes until I have finished talking”, Movie mogul Darryl F. Zanuck NASA Challenger & Columbia disasters (people don’t feel comfortable challenging leaders). GE Joke- If the chairman asks for a cup of coffee, someone is liable to go out and buy Brazil. 17
  18. 18. Bright Side of Leadership: Positive Behaviors • Adjustment:* Leadership composure under stress* Emotional IQ (empathy, transparent, self awareness, optimism, tolerance, self-confidence) • Ambition: Goal Achievement (Ernest Shackleton, Polar Explorer, Larry Bossidy - Allied Signal & Honeywell) • Inquisitiveness: Innovation, strategic thinking (Michael Dell; Scott McNeeley (Sun Microsystems); Bill Gates; Steve Jobs (Apple), Gary Hamel; Andy Grove, (Intel) • Others: Interpersonal Sensitivity* Roche CEO Franz Humer highly skilled at detecting subtle interpersonal skills Planning and Learning approach traits: Ralph Larsen J & J CEO - 2 years • to learn IT. • *Kets de Vries (Dir.,Insead Leadership Institute) - “The first thing I look for is emotional IQ - (self observation, self-reflection, etc). HBR, Jan 2004 18
  19. 19. Components of Organizational Effectiveness • Talented team members—found through good selection procedures • Motivated team members—developed through good management • Good management—developed by good senior leadership • An effective strategy—developed by good senior leadership • Monitoring systems to keep track of the first four. 19
  20. 20. Last Thoughts • Leadership matters—the persons in charge of organizations can make or ruin them. • Good leadership is a function of personality. • Bad leadership is a function of personality. • Every organization has problems with selection procedures, with poor managers, with ineffective strategies, and with poorly designed monitoring systems. • The best organizations are the ones that make the fewest mistakes. 20

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