IntroductionInnovative technological developments in theproduction of functional foods, whose bioactiveprinciples and actuators are devised to be containedwithin packaging or coating materials.Bioactive packaging - food package or coating is giventhe unique role of enhancing food impact over theconsumer’s health
IntroductionGrowth of functional foods is expected to be higher, i.e.up to 5 times at its highest, over the next few yearscompared to that of total packaged foods . (www.euromonitor.com)In most commercial functional foods are added anumber of bioactive components that are considered tobe beneficial to the health of the consumers. (Falk, 2004)
Industrial limitationsCurrently, the majority of commercial functional foodsare presented with the bioactive componentscontained within compatible foods, an aspect whichimposes to the food industry a number of limitations Loss of functionality -processing, storage and/or commercialization Oxidation Production line change
Bioactive packaging conceptsThese previous technologies would, in our vision, be redesignedfor its implementation in packaging materials, creating thus awhole new packaging technological discipline that can begenerally termed as bioactive packaging. (Lagaron, 2005)Bioactive packaging materials- capable of withholding desiredbioactive principles in optimum conditions until their eventualrelease into the food product
definitionBioactive packaging materials is capable of withholding desiredbioactive principles in optimum conditions until their eventualrelease:- into the food product;- through controlled or fast release during storage;- just before consumption.
Active and bioactive packagingThe main difference:Active packaging means maintaining or increasing qualityand safety of packaged foods, ensure a shelf life of packagedfood products.Bioactive packaging has a direct impact on the health of theconsumer by generating healthier packaged foods.
Development of bioactive packaging Controlled Micro- and Enzymatic release nanoencapsulation activityFunctional concept including prebiotics, probiotics, phytochemicals, marine oils,lactosefree foods, encapsulated vitamins, bioavailable flavonoids. (Lagaron, 2005)
Integration and controlled releaseMost food products reach the consumer with some sort ofpackaging (including coating) technology, packaging has become amajor partner in the food chain.Currently, industrial demand for technologies ensuring thestability of bioactive compounds in foods remains strong.New technologies such as micro- and nanoencapsulation.Biomedical field- the development of matrixes for controlledrelease of bioactive substances (drugs) is already a fact.
PhytochemicalsNon-nutritive plant chemicals that contain protective, disease-preventing compounds.More than 900 different phytochemicals have been identified ascomponents of foods, and many more phytochemicals continue tobe discovered today. (Liu, 2006)They are associated with the prevention and/or treatment of:Cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. (Bloch & Thomson, 1995)Help to prevent cell damage, cancer cell replication, and decreasecholesterol levels.
Many phytochemicals are polyphenolic compounds withantioxidant activity.Antioxidative effect of phenolics in functional foods is due to adirect free radical scavenging activity and an indirect effect arisingfrom chelation of prooxidant metal ions. (Shahidi, 2004)Many phenolics are found in oilseeds, but during the processingsteps of refining, bleaching and deodorization a large portion ofphytochemicals are removed. They are essential for healthpromotion and disease prevention. (Mattila-Sandholm et al., 2002)
VitaminsVitamins are essential for good health. Food can supply all thevitamin requirements provided that the diet is adequate and well-balanced.Moreover, some vitamins are destroyed during processing. Most ofthe losses are due to heat generated during the canning andfreezing steps (e.g. blanching, pasteurisation and sterilisation).
Dietary fiberDietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharidesand lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomachand small intestine.Dietary fiber has demonstrated benefits for health maintenanceand disease prevention and as a component of medical nutritiontherapy. (Etherton et al., 2002)
prebioticPrebiotic is considered to be any food component that escapesdigestion in the small intestine and enters the colon, where it mayserve as a growth substrate for intestinal bacteria. (Roberfroid, 2001)Prebiotics identified thus far are non-digestible carbohydratesincluding lactulose, inulin, and a range of oligosaccharides thatsupply a source of fermentable carbohydrate for the beneficialbacteria in the colon.
fabrication of the films vitamins High temperature Bioactive substance release Structure of the material Humidity pH
multilayer structures control layer matrix layer Sorbate-releasing plastic film for cheese packaging layer barrier paintThe inner control layer is thought to govern the rate of diffusion ofthe active substance- controlled/fast releasebarrier function to protect the bioactives from direct food or foodmoisture contact before application of the triggering mechanismupon food package opening.
Micro- and nanoencapsulationMicroencapsulation is defined as a technology for packaging solids,liquids, or gaseous substances in miniature, sealed capsules thatcan release their contents at controlled rates under specificconditions.Encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat orother extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability andmaintaining viability . (Garcia, & Beristain, 2004)Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signaled by changesin pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In food industry,the most common method is by solvent activated release.
Enzymatic packagingImmobilization of enzymes- food production lines -technologicaladvantages over the use of free enzymes such as reusability,improved stability to temperature, resistance to proteases andother denaturing compounds and improved activity. (Katchalski-Katzir, 1993)Objective of these bioactive materials is to catalyse a reaction,decreasing the concentration of a non-desired food constituent,and/or producing a food substance beneficial to the health of theconsumer.
Enzymatic packagingImmobilized naringinase in a plastic package. The resultsindicated that the grapefruit juice reduced its bitterness byhydrolysis of naringine, a bitter principle of citrus juices. (Soares and Hotchkiss 1998)Binding of b-galactosidase and cholesterol reductase in thepackage walls for the hydrolysis of lactose and cholesterol,respectively. (Brody & Budny, 1995)UHT milk produced by a conventional process, could bepackaged in a b-galactosidase- bioactive package and duringstorage, the product would transform into a low-lactose or free-lactose product. (Lagaron,2005)
The principle of in-package processing: cholesterol reduction of milk with covalentlyimmobilized cholesterol reductase enzyme. (Brody & Budny, 1995)
Immobilization of enzymes Ionic Covalent Adsorption Crosslinking Entrapment binding attachment (Van Rantwijk, & Sheldon, 2000)Manufacturing of enzymatic packages will depend on the nature ofthe biocatalyst (e.g., whole cells or purified enzymes), the envisagedstorage conditions, the type of food to be packed and the specificapplication of the biocatalyst.
An entrapment method- enzyme-based oxygen scavenger laminate paper carrier enzyme solution + additives Polyethylene films enzymes in the package heated under pressure(Andersson & Nielsen, 2002)
Surface topography of modified (D) and unmodified (A) LDPEshown using Atomic Force Microscopy
materialsDesirable characteristics should beHigh affinity to proteins, Availability of reactive functional groups or chemical modifications,Hydrophilicity,Mechanical stability and rigidity,Regenerability,Ease of preparation in different geometricalNon-toxicity,Biocompatibility,Food and drug regulations complyingAnd affordability from a price perspective
materialsCarrageenan, chitosan, gelatin, polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolicacid (PGA) and alginate are very promising materials.Carrageenan has a long history of safe food applications mostsupport for applications in enzymatically active food packages. (Van de Velde & Bakker, 2002)Chitosan is a natural polymer and has been widely used as asupporting material. (Kumar, 2000)Chitosan can provide many advantages . It possesses hydroxyl (OH)and amino (NH2) groups, which link with enzymes easily and can becross-linked to prevent from dissolution in acidic solutions (pH < 2) (Rorrer, Hsien, & Way, 1993)
materialsGelatin is a natural, biodegradable, biocompatible, nontoxic andreadily available polymer as a carrier for enzymes.Capability to retain the enzyme viability and activity and, asobserved with other immobilization matrixes, enhancing thermalstability of the immobilized biocatalysts. (Nagatomo & Matsui, 2005)PLA and PGA are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvedmaterials because they are degraded by hydrolysis to productswhich can be metabolized and excreted. Both of them arepotential matrixes for the encapsulation of enzymes. (Lazzeri & Giusti, 2005)
RecentBioactive packaging technologies for extended shelf life of meat-based products (Ve´ronique, 2009)
Bioactive packaging materials from edible chitosan polymer—antimicrobial activity (V. Coma, A. Deschamps, and A. Martial, 2011)
Bioactive packaging for milk that changes color according to storage (Ko Yang,2012,http://www.boredpanda.com/creative-packaging-designs,march )
conclusionBioactive packaging is thus a novel set of technologies designedto give response to a number of issues related to the feasibility,stability and bioactivity of functional ingredients for the foodindustry.These technologies aim to integrate the bioactives within newpackaging and coating material concepts and can greatly benefitfrom previous developments in the pharmaceutical andbiomedical sectors and from the unique properties of syntheticand biomass derived biopolymers.