Microencapsulation for theimproved delivery of bioactive compounds in foods Speaker: Manoj Solanki PhD 1st Year Dairy Chemistry NDRI, Karnal
Microencapsulation• It is defined as a technology of packaging solids, liquids or gaseous materials in miniature, sealed capsules that can release their contents at controlled rates under the influences of specific conditions. (Arneado, 1996)
CoacervationCoacervation microencapsulation is the phaseseparation of one or many hydrocolloids from theinitial solution and the subsequent deposition of thenewly formed coacervate phase around the activeingredient suspended or emulsified in the samereaction media. Flavour oil Nutrients Vitamins Enzymes Fish oils Preservatives
Molecular inclusionβ Cyclodextrins are enzymatically modified starchmolecules, which can be made by the action ofcyclodextrin glucosyltransferase upon starch. Aftercleavage of starch by the enzyme, the ends arejoined to form a circular molecule.
Spray-dryingThree basic steps: Preparation of a dispersion or emulsion to be processed Homogenization of the dispersion and Atomization of the mass into the drying chamber.
Spray cooling/chilling‘matrix’ encapsulation because theparticles are more adequatelydescribed as aggregates of activeingredient particles buried in the fatmatrix
Melt extrusionIn melt-extrusion process forcing the core material,which is dispersed in a melt carbohydrate carriersthrough a series of die to form sheets, ropes orthreads of different dimensions. 1. Motor drive 7. Co-rotating screws 3 5 2 2. Solids Feed 8. Heating Jacket 3. Water 9. Transition zone 4 4. Water pump 10. Die 6 5. Flavour 11. Take off conveyor 6. Flavour pump 12. Cooling air 8 9 10 12 1 7 11
Fluidized bedFluidized bed technology is a very efficient way to applya uniform layer of shell materials onto solid particles.It is one of the few technologies capable of coatingparticles with different kinds of shell material likepolysaccharides, proteins, emulsifiers, fats, complexformulations, powder coatings, yeast cell extract etc.
The wruster process The technology can be used to encapsulate solid materials with diameters ranging from near 50µm to several centimeters. Wruster Process can be used to encapsulate vitamins, minerals, and functional food ingredients.
Melt injection This process is often referred to as the“Durarome” process after the product trade name. In this method sugar syrup or sugar-corn syrup ismade. Ingredients like flavour oils are then added to thehot molten sugar, the pressure vessel is closed andhigh shear mixing is employed to emulsify theflavour oil.
Liposome microencapsulation A liposome can be defined as an artificial lipidvesicle that has a bilayer phospholipidsarrangement with the head groups orientedtowards the interior of the bilayer and the acylgroup towards the exterior of the membrane facingwater. Liposomes are usually made ofphosphatidylcholine (lipid) molecules althoughmixtures of phospholipids can also be employed tomake liposomes
Morphology of encapsulation (Augustin et al, 2001).
Use of encapsulation Technologica l challenges Bioactive functionalFood compoun foods ds Microencapsulat ion is a useful tool
Use of bioactive compounds Flavour Bioactive Stability of the bioactive compoun ds compounds during Colour processing and storage Preservatio n Health benefits
Microencapsulation technologies used forbioactive food ingredients Microbial productsProbiotic bacteria are „defined, livemicroorganisms which, administered in adequateamounts, confer a beneficial physiological effecton the host‟.These bioactive ingredients have been at theforefront of the development of functional foods,particularly in dairy products,
Spray-coating Size (typically between 1 and 5 μm Spray-drying diameter) Extrusion MicroencapsulatioProbiotics n Emulsion Gel-particle Must be kept alive.
Spray-coating methods for themicroencapsulation of probioticsFermentation --- concentration--- freeze-drying ---granulation
waxes, lipid-based fatty acids and oilsCoating gluten andMaterial Protein-based casein Carbohydrate- cellulose derivatives, based carrageenan and alginate
Gel-particle technologies for themicroencapsulation of probiotics (Claude and Fustier, 200
Microencapsulation technologies used forbioactive food ingredients Non-microbial productsSpray-dryingOil-based vitamins,fatty acidsSpray-chilling and liposome retinol, omega-3 fatty acids, yeasts, enzymes
The delivery of bioactive ingredients intofoods and to the GI tract
Beneficial effects of microencapsulation.Spray-chilling and fluidized-bed coating are the mostpopular methods for encapsulating water-solublevitamins (e.g ascorbic acid), whereas spray-drying ofemulsions is generally recommended for theencapsulation of lipid-soluble vitamins (e.g. b-carotene,vitamins A, D and E) (Gouin, 2004)ME promotes the delivery of vitamins and minerals tofoods mainly by preventing their interaction with other foodcomponents;for example, iron bioavailability is severely affected byinteractions with food ingredients (e.g. tannins, phytatesand polyphenols).Additionally, iron catalyzes the oxidative degradation of
Consumption of food enriched with microencapsulated fishoil obtained by emulsion spray-drying was as effective asthe daily intake of fish oil gelatine capsules in meeting thedietary requirements of this omega-3 long-chain fatty acid . (Champagne et al, 2006)ME is usually used to mask unpleasant flavours andodours, or to provide barriers between the sensitivebioactive materials and the environment (food or oxygen).
Average daily weight gain in cat by supplemented with P.E.P.MGE
The delivery of microencapsulated iron to the GI tract
Case studiesME alone in promoting the survival of probioticsintroduced into biscuits, frozen cranberry juice andvegetable juices. (Weiss et al., 2006)ME can also serve to co-entrap prebiotics (i.e.nondigestible food ingredients that canbeneficially affect the host by selectivelystimulating the growth and/or the activity ofbacteria in the gut), raising the possibility of usingME to deliver multiple bioactive ingredients.
Bioactive peptides, such as bacteriocins, are alsocandidates for co-encapsulation; they couldenhance or complement the antimicrobialactivities of the probiotic bacteria, especially if thehealth target is protection against diarrhoea. (Arneado,2008) By encapsulating calcium lactate in lecithin liposomes, it was possible to fortify soymilk with levels of calcium equivalent to those found in cow‟s milk , while preventing undesirable calcium- protein reactions. (Augustin et al., 2009) As with probiotics, the co-encapsulation of vitamins and minerals could be beneficial.
Ocean Nutrition CanadaUsing a proprietary microencapsulationtechnology, ONC provides the food and dietarysupplement industry with a microencapsulatedpowdered fish oil with the highest concentration ofbio-available Omega-3 in the market place. ONC‟sprocess enhances shelf life and bio-absorptionwhile maintaining the taste and texture of theproducts.(www.ocean.nutrition.com, 2011)
Institute Rosell/ Lallemand’s encapsulatedprobiotic bacteria products for use in dietarysupplements and functional foods is based on amodified fluidized-bed encapsulation process.Clinical testing has shown the encapsulatedprobiotic bacteria have 100 percent recovery rate,compared to the standard industry rates of 25 to50 percent. (www. lallemand.com, 2011)
ConclusionME could be useful in helping to deliver bioactiveingredients both to the food matrix itself and to theGI tractME has primarily served for the delivery ofbioactives into the matrix and, as yet, has not beenfully explored for more efficient delivery in the GItract
Another area that is likely to see intense researchactivity in the future is the use of co-encapsulation.In this regard, many emulsion and spray-coatingtechnologies offer significant opportunities for theco-encapsulation of various hydrophobic andhydrophilic bioactives.ME might even be used to create particles thatclearly show consumers that the bioactiveingredients are present in the functional foods, thuspromoting marketing strategies for productdifferentiation.