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Chapter 1 presentation 140


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    • 1. Ebbinghaus: Psychology has a short history, but a long past.
    • 2. Three fields that influenced psychology: Philosophy-writings about sleep, dreams, senses and memory.
    • 3.  Physiology-study of anatomy and brain function.
    • 4.  Medicine-relationship between disease and mental processes.
    • 5.  Two major schools of psychology by early 20th century: 1)Psychodynamic, based on the work of Sigmund Freud.
    • 6. Psychodynamic theory (continued)Human behavior motivated by unconscious conflictsThe past is critical to development
    • 7. Second major school of psych:Behaviorism-the study of behavior that can be measured and verified.Rejected the study of mental processes
    • 8. Modern definition of psychology: The science of behavior and mental processes.
    • 9. Other major perspectives in psychology:1) Biological: the physical origins of human and animal behavior, the study of the nervous system, the brain.
    • 10. 2)Humanistic: how people grow psychologically the influence of interpersonal relationships, the importance of self-direction in trying to reach one’s potential
    • 11. 3) Positive psychology: focus on positive emotions and psychological states, instead of the traditional focus on problems and disorders.
    • 12. 4) Cognitive: how people develop language, solve problems, and think
    • 13. 5) Cross-cultural: the influence of culture on behavior and mental processes.Some of your “personal” traits might be cultural traits instead!
    • 14. 6) Evolutionary: based on the principle of natural selection (survival of the fittest).Behavior is subject to natural selection.
    • 15. Dr. Bishop’s definition of critical thinking:Be open to the possibility that what you believe or what someone else believes is CRAP.
    • 16. Be aware of what you bring to the table, we all have biases and “weak spots”
    • 17. What conclusions can reasonably be drawn from the evidence?
    • 18. Is there another explanation that makes more sense for a research finding or some other phenomena?
    • 19. Steps in the scientific method:1) Start with a testable hypothesis, a tentative statement that describes the relationship between two or more variables.
    • 20. 2) Design the study and collect the dataTwo basic categories of research methods: a) Descriptive methods-observing and describing
    • 21. Common descriptive methods:SurveysNaturalistic observationCorrelational studies
    • 22. b) Experimental method: changing one variable causes change in a second variable.Much harder to do, but can prove cause and effect!
    • 23. 3) Analyze the data and draw conclusionsFindings have to be statistically significantSignificant isn’t necessarily meaningful!
    • 24. 4) Report the findings:Other scientists need to be able to replicate the findingsFindings are reported at conferences and professional journals
    • 25. Experimental MethodWhy is it needed to prove cause and effect?
    • 26. Hypothesis: Drug X causes memory loss in some people.Independent variable (IV): what gets manipulatedDependent variable (DV): what gets measured
    • 27.  Control group: Subjects who go through the experiment but are not exposed to the actual variable of interest.
    • 28. Random assignment: you can’t control for everything!All subjects have an equal chance of being in the experimental group or the control group.Helps to even out “outliers”
    • 29. Without random assignment and a control group, it’s not an experiment!Can’t use the word cause!
    • 30. Hypothesis: Cigarette smoking causes cancer in humans.Can you do an experiment?
    • 31. No experiment, can only look at pre- existing smokersNo random assignment!Surveys, hospital records, gov’t records, etc.
    • 32.  Correlational study: very common in psychology We have to study pre-existing groups How strongly two variables are related
    • 33.  Positivecorrelation: two factors increase or decrease together Ex: Anger and heart rate, loneliness and depression Negative correlation: two factors move in opposite directions Ex: alcohol use and grade point avg.