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Chapter1 understanding modernpsychology


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Chapter1 understanding modernpsychology

  1. 1. Understanding the Focus of Modern Psychology Chapter 1 pp. 3-33
  2. 2. Defining Psychology <ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific study of behaviour and brain (mind) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour = x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the scientific method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on systematic observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychology seeks to understand how people act , think and feel </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Psychology? Psyche Soul or Breath Logos Study or Investigation +
  4. 4. What is Psychology? <ul><li>Scientific: Systematic observation </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour: Observable actions </li></ul><ul><li>Mind: Subjective experiences such as sensations, thoughts, and emotions produced by the brain </li></ul>Psychology = Behaviour + Mind
  5. 5. What is Psychological Science? <ul><li>The Study of mind, brain and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>BRAIN MIND </li></ul><ul><li>Mind is what the Brain Does </li></ul><ul><li>The physical brain enables the mind </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Can You Study The Mind? <ul><li>Metaphor: “Black Box” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can observe what it does, how it responds, but can’t see inside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you study it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a way to “open” it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study how it behaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: How long does it take to respond to different stimuli ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What Psychologists Do <ul><li>Clinical Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Counselling Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Research Psychologists </li></ul>
  8. 8. Clinical Psychologists <ul><li>Diagnose and treat psychological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated in most provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Work with clients who have adjustment problems or more severe psychological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Work in clinics, private practice, universities and colleges </li></ul>
  9. 9. Counselling Psychologists <ul><li>Deal with milder problems than do Clinical Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with family and personal adjustment issues </li></ul><ul><li>Work in clinics, private practice, universities and colleges </li></ul><ul><li>Together, clinical and counselling psychologists = majority of “psychologists” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) <ul><li>Published by the American Psychiatric Association </li></ul><ul><li>Covers all mental health disorders for both children & adults </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gender, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age at onset, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prognosis, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as well as some research concerning the optimal treatment approaches. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. DSM - IV-TR <ul><li>Assesses five dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Axis I: Clinical Syndromes </li></ul><ul><li>Axis II: Developmental Disorders & Personality Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Axis III: Physical Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Axis IV: Severity of Psychosocial Stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Axis V: Highest Level of Functioning </li></ul>
  12. 12. Counsellor <ul><li>Provide some sort of therapy or support to clients, but do not have advanced training in providing psychological treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Generally not regulated </li></ul><ul><li>No minimum education requirements established </li></ul>
  13. 13. Psychiatrist <ul><li>Medical doctors who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to psychologists (BUT there are differences) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensed to prescribe drugs </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Applied Psychologists <ul><li>Apply psychology to practical problems in the real world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School psychologists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial/organizational psychologists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human factors psychologists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not involved with psychological disorders </li></ul>
  15. 15. Research Psychologists <ul><li>Conduct experiments to learn about behaviour and the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Work in universities, colleges, research institutes </li></ul><ul><li>Specialties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biopsychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical psychologists </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Psychological Science Crosses Many Levels of Analysis Genetic: Gene mechanisms, heritability, twin and adoption studies Neurochemical: Neurotransmitters and hormones, animal studies, drug studies Brain Systems: Neuroanatomical structures, animal studies, brain imaging Perceptual and cognitive: Thinking, decision making, language, memory Individual: Personality traits, sex differences, developmental age changes Social and Cultural: Cultural norms, situations, context
  17. 17. How to Become a Psychologist <ul><li>Major in Psychology as an Undergraduate (although not completely necessary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take relevant courses in Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get “practical” and/or “research” experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get to know your Professors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate good analytical thinking skills, people skills, writing skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bachelor’s degree, Master’s degree, Doctoral degree </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The mind-body problem <ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) </li></ul>
  20. 20. The mind-body problem <ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) </li></ul>Made conclusions about workings of the brain Sensory messages (vision, touch, smell) arrived at one location in the brain
  21. 21. The mind-body problem <ul><li>Where does the mind reside? </li></ul><ul><li>The heart? The liver? The stomach? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the mind separate from the body? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the mind a subjective experience of the physical brain? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Descartes and the Reflex
  23. 23. The mind-body problem <ul><li>René Descarte (1596-1650) </li></ul>Dualism: Mind exists separate from the body but is also related to the body The human mind causes motions in the body by moving a small part of the brain Blood came into contact with thinking substances in the brain and flowed out along the channels of the nerves to animate the muscles and other parts of the body
  24. 24. Mind and Body <ul><li>Roots of modern psychology lie in the disciplines of philosophy, physiology, and anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes: Two separate entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind controls body through pineal gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If so: impossible to scientifically study the mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychologists today: One and the same </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind arises from brain activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mind is what the brain does </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Nature and Nurture: Where Does Knowledge Come From? <ul><li>To what degree are we shaped by innate/inherited tendencies? </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tabula rasa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nativism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin (1809-1882) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive behaviours (guided by natural selection) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Nature-Nurture Debate <ul><li>Are psychological characteristics biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by dramatic mood swings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to 1950’s: bad parenting (all nurture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs were discovered that could alleviate symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This condition can be heritable: way the brain is wired (nature) and how the individual is treated (nurture) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Nature Plus Nurture <ul><li>Many characteristics do have genetic (inherited) component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: intelligence, personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience shapes how these characteristics develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: educational experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In other words, both matter! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Model of Gene-Environment Interaction: Limit-Setting Model
  29. 29. Modern Experimental Psychology <ul><li>Late 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological phenomenon should be studied experimentally </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of formal laboratories to study psychological phenomenon </li></ul>
  30. 30. Roots: Modern Experimental Psychology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Structuralism Founder of Psychology as an academic discipline Psychological Processes, as products of physiological actions in the brain
  31. 31. Roots: Modern Experimental Psychology <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological actions in the brain take time to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Present participant with two tasks </li></ul><ul><li>One more complicated than the other </li></ul><ul><li>By subtracting the easier task from the complex task –how much time particular mental task took to occur </li></ul>
  32. 32. Modern Experimental Psychology <ul><li>Gestalt School (late 19 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>The whole of personal experience is much greater than simply the sum of its constituent elements </li></ul><ul><li>The whole is greater than the sum of the parts </li></ul>
  33. 33. Modern Experimental Psychology <ul><li>Gestalt School (late 19 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of objects is subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on Context </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Structuralism </li></ul><ul><li>Introspectionism: to look inward </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of the mind could be understood by breaking it down into elementary parts </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex taste: salty, bitter, sour, sweet </li></ul></ul>Roots: Modern Experimental Psychology
  35. 35. Roots: Modern Experimental Psychology James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) <ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological laboratory at the University of Toronto </li></ul>
  36. 36. Functionalism <ul><li>William James (1842-1910) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand mental processes by understanding the goal or purpose of those processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: What is the goal or purpose of memory? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanded the topics covered by scientific psychology; still depend ant on introspection </li></ul>
  37. 37. Roots: Modern Experimental Psychology John B. Watson (1878-1958) <ul><li>Behaviourism </li></ul><ul><li>Role of environment on behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>The mind, if it existed was irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>The mind-body problem was of no interest to a scientist </li></ul>
  38. 38. Behaviourism <ul><li>John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with introspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot directly observe mental events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective, varies by individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution: Focus only on observable behaviour in carefully controlled experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Influences on animal behaviour </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Roots: Modern Experimental Psychology Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis Unconscious experience Unconscious mental forces were often in conflict – produced psychological discomfort – even psychological disorders Psychoanalysis – involves trying to bring contents of unconsciousness into conscious awareness Analyzing symbols in patients dreams
  40. 40. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud’s theory of how the mind works and how to address disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key to healing: Insight </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts, memories that you aren’t aware of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many conflicts and problems arise from childhood experiences </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Reaction to Freud: Humanistic Psychology <ul><li>Criticisms of Freudian psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark, pessimistic view of human nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismisses free will to grow and change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humanistic psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers (1905-1987), Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans have great potential to grow and improve selves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapists should encourage this through non-judgemental support </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Roots: Modern Experimental Psychology Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) <ul><li>Humanistic Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of free will </li></ul><ul><li>Positive view of human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers: Client-centred therapy </li></ul>
  43. 43. Current Perspectives
  44. 44. Psychological Science Crosses Many Levels of Analysis Genetic: Gene mechanisms, heritability, twin and adoption studies Neurochemical: Neurotransmitters and hormones, animal studies, drug studies Brain Systems: Neuroanatomical structures, animal studies, brain imaging Perceptual and cognitive: Thinking, decision making, language, memory Individual: Personality traits, sex differences, developmental age changes Social and Cultural: Cultural norms, situations, context
  45. 45. <ul><li>Psychology most popular major in Canadian universities </li></ul><ul><li>James Mark Baldwin started Canada’s first psychological research lab at the University of Toronto in 1892, making it one of the first such labs in the work </li></ul><ul><li>Donald O. Hebb (McGill) idea’s about neurological mechanisms underlying learning and memory continue to be influential </li></ul>Scientific Psychology in Canada
  46. 46. <ul><li>Brenda Miller (McGill University and the Montreal Neurological Institute) published groundbreaking studies of a man known as H.M. who has severe amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Ronald Melzack’s (McGill University) research and theory led to a radical reconceptualization of the nature of physical pain </li></ul>Scientific Psychology in Canada
  47. 47. <ul><li>Albert Bundura published works showing how children’s behaviour is influenced by rewards and punishments and also by observations of other children’s behaviour and its consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Salter Ainsworth made pioneering contributions to the understanding of the processes by which children become socially and emotionally attached </li></ul>First Psychology Laboratory
  48. 48. Trends in Modern Psychology <ul><li>Eclectic approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw from several ideas, schools of thought, not just one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New emphases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural factors </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Cognitive Factors <ul><li>1950’s: Shift from behaviourism, back to interest in internal mention processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as the “cognitive revolution” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better research techniques allowed more objective observation of mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers became a new way to understand how the mind works </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. The Cognitive Revolution <ul><li>Higher-order mental functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language, memory, decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The way people think can influence their behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Information processing theories </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></ul>
  51. 51. Developments in Biology <ul><li>New emphasis on linking brain and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Modern technology allows us to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record the activity of brain cells in response to stimuli in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create images of brain activity during different mental processes, psychological states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understand normal and abnormal brain chemistry </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Study of the human mind and behavioural processes as products of natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>New emphasis on applying Darwin’s ideas of natural selection to behaviour and the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Human mind evolved to include cognitive and social mechanisms to solve delineated adaptive problems </li></ul>
  53. 53. Solving Problems with the Adaptive Mind <ul><li>Natural selection has endowed humans with a mind/brain capable of flexibility and adaptiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour and understanding can shift dramatically with experience </li></ul><ul><li>Can solve and create array of problems </li></ul><ul><li>By using adaptive mind can enrich understanding and retention </li></ul>
  54. 54. Importance of Culture <ul><li>The shared values, customs, and beliefs that are characteristic of a group or community </li></ul><ul><li>New emphasis on how culture shapes the mind and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Lev Vgotsky (1896 - 1934) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How children think depends on social, cultural environment around them </li></ul></ul>