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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 14 (p. 378).
  • Insert Figure 14.1
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 14: Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    • 2. Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms
    • 3. Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms
      • Topography: distribution of landscape (mountains, plains, hills, valleys, plateaus)
      • Landforms: surface terrain features
      • Geomorphology
        • Understanding landforms and landscapes
        • Seek explanations for the shape, origin, spatial distribution, and development of terrain features
        • Igneous processes and tectonic processes
    • 4. 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology
      • Relief
        • Low relief (e.g. western Utah)
        • High relief (e.g. Great Basin, Rockies, Himalayas)
    • 5. 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology
      • Geomorphic Processes
        • Endogenic processes: originate within earth and result in an increase in surface relief
        • Exogenic processes: originate at Earth’s surface, tend to decrease relief
          • Examples:
            • Weathering
            • Erosion
            • Transportation
            • Deposition
            • Geomorphic agent (e.g. flowing water or ice)
    • 6. 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology
      • Rising Relief:
        • Endogenic processes greater than exogenic processes
        • Grand Tetons, Wyoming
      • Punctuated Equilibrium
        • Examples:
          • Earthquakes
          • Volcanic eruption
          • Exogenic processes (e.g. flood)
    • 7. 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology
      • Punctuated Equilibrium
        • Mt. Vesuvius
    • 8. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Landforms resulting from igneous processes are related to:
        • Volcanism (extrusive)
          • Volcanoes
        • Plutonism (below Earth’s surface)
    • 9. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Volcanic Eruptions
        • Natural processes
        • Large eruptions can be devastating
        • Vary greatly in size and character
        • Resulting landform varies
        • Two main types of Eruptions:
          • Explosive
          • Effusive
    • 10. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Nature of Volcanic Eruption dependent on:
        • Mineral composition
          • Silica rich felsic (cool, thick, resistant to flowing)
          • Mafic (very hot, flows readily)
          • Silica rich magmas with rhyolite (violent eruption)
          • Basaltic (effusive)
        • Pressure
        • Pyroclastic materials (ash and tephra)
    • 11. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Volcanic Landforms
        • Depends primarily on explosiveness
        • 6 major kinds (least explosive to most explosive)
          • Lava flows
          • Shield Volcanoes
          • Cinder Cones
          • Composite Cones
          • Plug Domes
          • Calderas
    • 12. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Lava Flows
        • Basalt is the most common
        • Small potential for explosive eruption
        • Joints and columnar-jointed basalt flows
        • Pahoehoe
    • 13. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Lava Flows
        • Aa
        • Fissures
        • Flood basalts
        • Basalt plateaus
          • Columbia plateau
          • Deccan plateau in India
    • 14. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Shield Volcanoes
        • Numerous basaltic lava flows piling up
        • Gently sloping, dome shaped cone
        • Hawaii
        • Not very explosive, but still damaging
    • 15. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Shield Volcanoes
      • Q: Why do Hawaiian volcanoes erupt less explosively than volcanoes of the Andes or Cascades?
    • 16. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Cinder Cones
        • Smallest type of volcano
        • Rhyolite composition
        • Steep, straight sides and a large crater in the center
        • Examples:
          • Craters of the Moon, ID
          • Sunset Crater, AZ
    • 17. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Composite Cones
        • Effusive or explosive
        • Composite of lava and pyroclastic
        • Stratovolcanoes
        • Pyroclastic flows
        • Concave slopes that are gently near the base and steep near the top
        • Fujiyama, Vesuvius, Rainer, Mt. St Helens
    • 18. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Composite Cones
        • Q: Could other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, such as Oregon’s Mount Hood, erupt with the kind of violence that Mount St. Helen’s displayed in 1980?
    • 19. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Composite Cones
        • Examples:
          • Krakotoa (1883 and subsequent tsunami)
          • Mount Pinatubo (1991)
          • Many died in both events above.
        • Mexico City is threatened
    • 20. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Plug Domes
        • Viscous silica-rich magma pushed into a vent
        • Dome shaped summit and jagged blocks make up cone on steep sloping sides
        • Lassen Peak, CA
    • 21. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Calderas
        • Large depression
        • Crater Lake
        • Yellowstone
    • 22. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Plutonism and Intrusions
        • Igneous intrusions (plutons)
        • Classified by size, shape, and relationships to surrounding rocks
        • Stock
        • Laccolith
    • 23. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Examples of Laccoliths
        • Henry and La Sal Mountains in S. Utah
      • Sill
        • Palisades along Hudson River, NY
    • 24. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
      • Dike
        • New Mexico
      • Volcanic Neck
        • Shiprock, New Mexico
    • 25. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • Rock Structure
        • Nature
        • Orientation
        • Inclination
        • Arrangement of affected rock layers
        • Strike
        • Dip
    • 26. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • 3 Principal Tectonic Forces:
        • Compressional
        • Tensional
        • Shearing
    • 27. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • Compressional Tectonic Forces
        • Folding (e.g. Appalachians, Rockies)
        • Anticlines
        • Synclines
        • Recumbent folds
    • 28. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • Compressional Tectonic Forces
        • Faulting
        • Reverse Fault
        • Fault
        • Thrust fault
        • Overthrust
    • 29. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • Tensional Tectonic Forces
        • Fault blocks
        • Normal faults
        • Graben and Horst (e.g. Great Basin)
    • 30. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • Tensional Tectonic Forces
        • Tilted fault blocks (e.g. Death Valley)
        • Rift valleys
          • Rift Valley of east Africa
          • Rio Grande rift
    • 31. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • Tensional Tectonic Forces
        • Escarpment (scarp)
        • Fault scarp
          • Eastern Sierra Nevada
          • Grand Tetons
        • Piedmont fault scarps
    • 32. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • Shearing Tectonic Forces
        • Dip-slip faults
        • Strike-slip faults
        • Lateral fault
          • San Andreas Fault
          • 1906 san Francisco Earthquake
    • 33. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
      • Relationship between Rock Structure and Topography
    • 34. 14.4 Earthquakes
      • Earthquakes
        • Evidence of present-day tectonic activity
        • Ground motions of Earth caused when accumulating tectonic stress is suddenly relieved
        • Seismic waves
        • Epicenter
        • Aftershocks
    • 35. 14.4 Earthquakes
      • Measuring Earthquake Size
        • Size of the event
        • Degree of its impact on humans
        • Earthquake magnitude
        • Moment magnitude
    • 36. 14.4 Earthquakes
      • Measuring Earthquake Size
        • Earthquake intensity
        • Modified Mercalli scale
    • 37. 14.4 Earthquakes
      • Earthquake Hazards
        • 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake in quake and ensuing tsunami
          • Killed 300,000
          • 9.1 magnitude
        • Pakistan (7.6)
        • Kobe, Japan (7.2)
        • Mojave Desert (7.5)
    • 38. 14.4 Earthquakes
      • Earthquake Hazards
        • Loma Prieta (San Francisco Bay) in 1989
        • Northridge earthquake (1994 6.7 magnitude)
        • Mexico City (1985 8.1 magnitude)
    • 39. 14.4 Earthquakes
      • Earthquake Hazards
      • Q: what is the earthquake hazard where you live, and what does that level of intensity mean according to the Mercalli scale?
    • 40. Physical Geography End of Chapter 14: Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms

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