Chapter 14: Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Pete...
Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms
Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Topography: distribution of landscape (mountains, plains, hills, val...
14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology <ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low relief (e.g. western Utah) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology <ul><li>Geomorphic Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endogenic processes: originate within ...
14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology <ul><li>Rising Relief: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endogenic processes greater than exogenic pr...
14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology <ul><li>Punctuated Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Vesuvius </li></ul></ul>
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Landforms resulting from igneous processes are related to: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Volcanic Eruptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural processes </li></ul></ul><ul...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Nature of Volcanic Eruption dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral compo...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Volcanic Landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends primarily on explosiveness  ...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Lava Flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basalt is the most common </li></ul></ul><ul...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Lava Flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fissures </li>...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Shield Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous basaltic lava flows piling up...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Shield Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Why do Hawaiian volcanoes erupt less ex...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Cinder Cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest type of volcano </li></ul></ul><u...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Composite Cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effusive or explosive </li></ul></ul><u...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Composite Cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Could other volcanoes in the Cascade...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Composite Cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Plug Domes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscous silica-rich magma pushed into a vent...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Calderas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cr...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Plutonism and Intrusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Igneous intrusions (plutons) <...
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Examples of Laccoliths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry and La Sal Mountains in S....
14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Dike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Neck </...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Rock Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul></ul><ul...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>3 Principal Tectonic Forces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Compressional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folding (e...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Compressional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulting <...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Tensional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault blocks <...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Tensional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilted fault b...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Tensional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escarpment (sc...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Shearing Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dip-slip faults...
14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Relationship between Rock Structure and Topography </li></ul>
14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of present-day tectonic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Measuring Earthquake Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degr...
14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Measuring Earthquake Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M...
14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquake Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake in quake and ensuing tsu...
14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquake Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loma Prieta (San Francisco Bay) in 1989 </li></ul></ul><...
14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquake Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Q: what is the earthquake hazard where you live, and what do...
Physical Geography End of Chapter 14: Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms
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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 14 (p. 378).
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  • 14

    1. 1. Chapter 14: Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms
    3. 3. Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Topography: distribution of landscape (mountains, plains, hills, valleys, plateaus) </li></ul><ul><li>Landforms: surface terrain features </li></ul><ul><li>Geomorphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding landforms and landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek explanations for the shape, origin, spatial distribution, and development of terrain features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Igneous processes and tectonic processes </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology <ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low relief (e.g. western Utah) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High relief (e.g. Great Basin, Rockies, Himalayas) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology <ul><li>Geomorphic Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endogenic processes: originate within earth and result in an increase in surface relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exogenic processes: originate at Earth’s surface, tend to decrease relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deposition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geomorphic agent (e.g. flowing water or ice) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology <ul><li>Rising Relief: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endogenic processes greater than exogenic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Tetons, Wyoming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punctuated Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exogenic processes (e.g. flood) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology <ul><li>Punctuated Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Vesuvius </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Landforms resulting from igneous processes are related to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanism (extrusive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plutonism (below Earth’s surface) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Volcanic Eruptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large eruptions can be devastating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary greatly in size and character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting landform varies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main types of Eruptions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explosive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effusive </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Nature of Volcanic Eruption dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silica rich felsic (cool, thick, resistant to flowing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mafic (very hot, flows readily) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silica rich magmas with rhyolite (violent eruption) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basaltic (effusive) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyroclastic materials (ash and tephra) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Volcanic Landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends primarily on explosiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 major kinds (least explosive to most explosive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lava flows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shield Volcanoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cinder Cones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composite Cones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plug Domes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calderas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Lava Flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basalt is the most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small potential for explosive eruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joints and columnar-jointed basalt flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pahoehoe </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Lava Flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fissures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood basalts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basalt plateaus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Columbia plateau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deccan plateau in India </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Shield Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous basaltic lava flows piling up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gently sloping, dome shaped cone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not very explosive, but still damaging </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Shield Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Why do Hawaiian volcanoes erupt less explosively than volcanoes of the Andes or Cascades? </li></ul>
    16. 16. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Cinder Cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest type of volcano </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhyolite composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steep, straight sides and a large crater in the center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Craters of the Moon, ID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunset Crater, AZ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Composite Cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effusive or explosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite of lava and pyroclastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratovolcanoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyroclastic flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concave slopes that are gently near the base and steep near the top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fujiyama, Vesuvius, Rainer, Mt. St Helens </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Composite Cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Could other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, such as Oregon’s Mount Hood, erupt with the kind of violence that Mount St. Helen’s displayed in 1980? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Composite Cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Krakotoa (1883 and subsequent tsunami) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Pinatubo (1991) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many died in both events above. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico City is threatened </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Plug Domes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscous silica-rich magma pushed into a vent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dome shaped summit and jagged blocks make up cone on steep sloping sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lassen Peak, CA </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Calderas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crater Lake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowstone </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Plutonism and Intrusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Igneous intrusions (plutons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified by size, shape, and relationships to surrounding rocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laccolith </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Examples of Laccoliths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry and La Sal Mountains in S. Utah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palisades along Hudson River, NY </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Dike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiprock, New Mexico </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Rock Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangement of affected rock layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dip </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>3 Principal Tectonic Forces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shearing </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Compressional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folding (e.g. Appalachians, Rockies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synclines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recumbent folds </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Compressional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse Fault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrust fault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overthrust </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Tensional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal faults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graben and Horst (e.g. Great Basin) </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Tensional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilted fault blocks (e.g. Death Valley) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rift valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rift Valley of east Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rio Grande rift </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Tensional Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escarpment (scarp) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault scarp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Sierra Nevada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Tetons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piedmont fault scarps </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Shearing Tectonic Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dip-slip faults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strike-slip faults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral fault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Andreas Fault </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1906 san Francisco Earthquake </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms <ul><li>Relationship between Rock Structure and Topography </li></ul>
    34. 34. 14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of present-day tectonic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground motions of Earth caused when accumulating tectonic stress is suddenly relieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seismic waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epicenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aftershocks </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. 14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Measuring Earthquake Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of its impact on humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake magnitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moment magnitude </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. 14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Measuring Earthquake Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified Mercalli scale </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. 14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquake Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake in quake and ensuing tsunami </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Killed 300,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9.1 magnitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan (7.6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kobe, Japan (7.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mojave Desert (7.5) </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. 14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquake Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loma Prieta (San Francisco Bay) in 1989 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northridge earthquake (1994 6.7 magnitude) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico City (1985 8.1 magnitude) </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. 14.4 Earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquake Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Q: what is the earthquake hazard where you live, and what does that level of intensity mean according to the Mercalli scale? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Physical Geography End of Chapter 14: Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms
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