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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 14 (p. 378).
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14 14 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 14: Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
  • Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms
  • Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms
    • Topography: distribution of landscape (mountains, plains, hills, valleys, plateaus)
    • Landforms: surface terrain features
    • Geomorphology
      • Understanding landforms and landscapes
      • Seek explanations for the shape, origin, spatial distribution, and development of terrain features
      • Igneous processes and tectonic processes
  • 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology
    • Relief
      • Low relief (e.g. western Utah)
      • High relief (e.g. Great Basin, Rockies, Himalayas)
  • 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology
    • Geomorphic Processes
      • Endogenic processes: originate within earth and result in an increase in surface relief
      • Exogenic processes: originate at Earth’s surface, tend to decrease relief
        • Examples:
          • Weathering
          • Erosion
          • Transportation
          • Deposition
          • Geomorphic agent (e.g. flowing water or ice)
  • 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology
    • Rising Relief:
      • Endogenic processes greater than exogenic processes
      • Grand Tetons, Wyoming
    • Punctuated Equilibrium
      • Examples:
        • Earthquakes
        • Volcanic eruption
        • Exogenic processes (e.g. flood)
  • 14.1 Landforms and Geomorphology
    • Punctuated Equilibrium
      • Mt. Vesuvius
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Landforms resulting from igneous processes are related to:
      • Volcanism (extrusive)
        • Volcanoes
      • Plutonism (below Earth’s surface)
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Volcanic Eruptions
      • Natural processes
      • Large eruptions can be devastating
      • Vary greatly in size and character
      • Resulting landform varies
      • Two main types of Eruptions:
        • Explosive
        • Effusive
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Nature of Volcanic Eruption dependent on:
      • Mineral composition
        • Silica rich felsic (cool, thick, resistant to flowing)
        • Mafic (very hot, flows readily)
        • Silica rich magmas with rhyolite (violent eruption)
        • Basaltic (effusive)
      • Pressure
      • Pyroclastic materials (ash and tephra)
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Volcanic Landforms
      • Depends primarily on explosiveness
      • 6 major kinds (least explosive to most explosive)
        • Lava flows
        • Shield Volcanoes
        • Cinder Cones
        • Composite Cones
        • Plug Domes
        • Calderas
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Lava Flows
      • Basalt is the most common
      • Small potential for explosive eruption
      • Joints and columnar-jointed basalt flows
      • Pahoehoe
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Lava Flows
      • Aa
      • Fissures
      • Flood basalts
      • Basalt plateaus
        • Columbia plateau
        • Deccan plateau in India
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Shield Volcanoes
      • Numerous basaltic lava flows piling up
      • Gently sloping, dome shaped cone
      • Hawaii
      • Not very explosive, but still damaging
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Shield Volcanoes
    • Q: Why do Hawaiian volcanoes erupt less explosively than volcanoes of the Andes or Cascades?
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Cinder Cones
      • Smallest type of volcano
      • Rhyolite composition
      • Steep, straight sides and a large crater in the center
      • Examples:
        • Craters of the Moon, ID
        • Sunset Crater, AZ
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Composite Cones
      • Effusive or explosive
      • Composite of lava and pyroclastic
      • Stratovolcanoes
      • Pyroclastic flows
      • Concave slopes that are gently near the base and steep near the top
      • Fujiyama, Vesuvius, Rainer, Mt. St Helens
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Composite Cones
      • Q: Could other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, such as Oregon’s Mount Hood, erupt with the kind of violence that Mount St. Helen’s displayed in 1980?
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Composite Cones
      • Examples:
        • Krakotoa (1883 and subsequent tsunami)
        • Mount Pinatubo (1991)
        • Many died in both events above.
      • Mexico City is threatened
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Plug Domes
      • Viscous silica-rich magma pushed into a vent
      • Dome shaped summit and jagged blocks make up cone on steep sloping sides
      • Lassen Peak, CA
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Calderas
      • Large depression
      • Crater Lake
      • Yellowstone
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Plutonism and Intrusions
      • Igneous intrusions (plutons)
      • Classified by size, shape, and relationships to surrounding rocks
      • Stock
      • Laccolith
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Examples of Laccoliths
      • Henry and La Sal Mountains in S. Utah
    • Sill
      • Palisades along Hudson River, NY
  • 14.2 Igneous Processes and Landforms
    • Dike
      • New Mexico
    • Volcanic Neck
      • Shiprock, New Mexico
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • Rock Structure
      • Nature
      • Orientation
      • Inclination
      • Arrangement of affected rock layers
      • Strike
      • Dip
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • 3 Principal Tectonic Forces:
      • Compressional
      • Tensional
      • Shearing
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • Compressional Tectonic Forces
      • Folding (e.g. Appalachians, Rockies)
      • Anticlines
      • Synclines
      • Recumbent folds
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • Compressional Tectonic Forces
      • Faulting
      • Reverse Fault
      • Fault
      • Thrust fault
      • Overthrust
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • Tensional Tectonic Forces
      • Fault blocks
      • Normal faults
      • Graben and Horst (e.g. Great Basin)
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • Tensional Tectonic Forces
      • Tilted fault blocks (e.g. Death Valley)
      • Rift valleys
        • Rift Valley of east Africa
        • Rio Grande rift
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • Tensional Tectonic Forces
      • Escarpment (scarp)
      • Fault scarp
        • Eastern Sierra Nevada
        • Grand Tetons
      • Piedmont fault scarps
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • Shearing Tectonic Forces
      • Dip-slip faults
      • Strike-slip faults
      • Lateral fault
        • San Andreas Fault
        • 1906 san Francisco Earthquake
  • 14.3 Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure, and Landforms
    • Relationship between Rock Structure and Topography
  • 14.4 Earthquakes
    • Earthquakes
      • Evidence of present-day tectonic activity
      • Ground motions of Earth caused when accumulating tectonic stress is suddenly relieved
      • Seismic waves
      • Epicenter
      • Aftershocks
  • 14.4 Earthquakes
    • Measuring Earthquake Size
      • Size of the event
      • Degree of its impact on humans
      • Earthquake magnitude
      • Moment magnitude
  • 14.4 Earthquakes
    • Measuring Earthquake Size
      • Earthquake intensity
      • Modified Mercalli scale
  • 14.4 Earthquakes
    • Earthquake Hazards
      • 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake in quake and ensuing tsunami
        • Killed 300,000
        • 9.1 magnitude
      • Pakistan (7.6)
      • Kobe, Japan (7.2)
      • Mojave Desert (7.5)
  • 14.4 Earthquakes
    • Earthquake Hazards
      • Loma Prieta (San Francisco Bay) in 1989
      • Northridge earthquake (1994 6.7 magnitude)
      • Mexico City (1985 8.1 magnitude)
  • 14.4 Earthquakes
    • Earthquake Hazards
    • Q: what is the earthquake hazard where you live, and what does that level of intensity mean according to the Mercalli scale?
  • Physical Geography End of Chapter 14: Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms