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  • 1. 1. Theories of crime and deviance Key questions: Key information1. What is crime and deviance?  Definitions of crime and deviance, social construction and biological explanations.2. Why do people commit  Functionalism – Durkheim & crime? Merton  Subcultural strain theory3. What happens if a person  Labelling theory is labelled as a criminal?  Marxism and Neo-Marxism (white collar crime)4. Are crime statistics  Left and Right Realism valid?
  • 2. Crime Deviance Deviant not criminal Any act which breaks Behaviour which Deviant and the laws of moves away from Burping, not criminalsociety, such as murder conventional queuing or rape. norms and values Rape, murder such as burping Criminal not deviant , paedophilia Social control is and farting inenforced by agencies Speeding, parking onsuch as police and the public. yellow lines courts. Biological explanations Definitions and Early criminologists like explanations Crime and deviance asCesare Lombroso sort to relative find physical criminalcharacteristics like long Crime as socially constructed Crime and deviance is arms or sloping If what is consider to be crime relative (changing) inforeheads. Sociologists and deviance changes it can’t relation to time, place find such ‘born bad’ be inherently wrong but must and culture. What one determinism dangerous be culturally specific. society may see as a and prefer to normalise This means crime and deviance crime another may crime by reminding us is socially constructed i.e. not, such as polygamythat we all commit crime created and defined by the (many wives). Other and there are social people of that society and not examples are factors which influence universal. homosexuality and our behaviour. suicide.
  • 3. Durkheim – Key ideas Crime and society Positive functions of crime1. Crime is inevitable and Society is only healthy when necessary to society. social order is maintained 1. Re-marking social through the police and boundaries – affirms2. Crime has positive courts. We need a small social norms and functions. amount of crime to remind values.3. The perfect amount us of what we believe in. 2. Media coverage – as of crime will keep Only a small minority will be a warning to others. society healthy and self-interested and commit avoid anomie crime. 3. Social bonds – (Normlessness) strengthened as we unite in disapproval. Functionalism on crime 4. Safety Value – a Criticisms little bit of deviance reduces more serious What is the perfect amount Society of saints problems –of crime? Prostitution – Kingley Imagine there was no Davis.Explaining the functions of crime or deviance, evencrime doesn’t explain what the most slight slip like 5. Malfunctioningcaused them in the first place. coughing without putting society – theft, drug your hand over your use and truancy alertMurder maybe functional for mouth would become a us to other socialsociety but what about the crime. problems in society.victim?
  • 4. Merton - Key idea 1. The goals of People engage in society – Americandeviant behaviour Deviance is the Dream when they are result of theunable to achieve strain betweensocially approved 2. Your legitimate goals. means of achieving them 1. Conformity Strain produces Five frustration which creates aMost of America not pressure to deviate, what adaptations criminal or deviant Merton calls the strain to anomie. Deviant adaptations Innovation Retreatism Explanation Criminal behaviour Habitual drug users as an adaptation and alcoholics lower class and ethnic minorities are more likely to commit criminal acts Ritualism Rebellion because of their People in dead end position in the social Karl Marx and structure. jobs. Martin Luther King
  • 5. TYPE Goal of Means Type Success Conformity Accepts Legitimate Most people (Normal) Innovation Accepts Illegitimate Gangsters (Tony (Criminal) Montana) Ritualism Rejects Legitimate People in dead end (Deviant) jobs. Retreatism Rejects Illegitimate Habitual drug user (Deviant) or drunk Rebellion Rejects for Illegitimate Karl Marx, Martin (Deviant) alternative Luther King, Criticisms Why don’t all lower class people turn to crime? Can only account for utilitarian crime (money) what about gang violence, rape andGraffiti? What about other factors like class, gender, ethnicity and sexuality?
  • 6. Subcultural group Albert Cohen – Status frustration A group with its own Cloward and Ohlin – distinctive norms and A Subcultural strain theory Opportunity structures values, sometimes which argues lower class people A Subcultural strain although not always are frustrated because they theory like Cohen but deviant. want to be successful but lack more concerned about the qualifications and skills to do the different types ofContemporary examples so. They solve this frustration crimes groups commit. by rejecting society and creatingThe Street gangs living They conclude where their own norms and values in a in the Favelas of Rio you live dictates the gang. Here they achieve statusand the gangs of South type of criminal activity through non-utilitarian crimesAfrica show that often available to you. Criminal like violence and graffiti.criminal groups are not subcultures are rejecting societies available in areas of norms and values but Subcultural strain criminal hierarchy.are in fact conforming theories Conflict subcultures to their own. arise due to low social cohesion and high Walter Miller – Lower class subcultures population turnover. Retreatists subculturesNot a strain subculture, each social class doesn’t feel any are the result of beingstrain but just has different focal concerns which lead to unsuccessful in society different criminal activity. The lower class experience a and the other two lack of excitement at work which leads to the desire to subcultures. look for excitement in things like joy-riding.
  • 7. Overview Lower-class feel the strainStrain theory Robert Merton and commit utilitarian crime (money) Lower-class feel the strain but start Albert Cohen subculture and commit Subcultural non-utilitarian crimeStrain theory Lower-class feel the Cloward and strain but what crime Ohlin they commit depends on the area they live in Lower-class doesn’t Subcultural feel the strain each Walter Miller theory subcultural group has different values
  • 8. Interactionism Howard Becker Labelling process Doesn’t focus on the Focuses on the process of a 1. A label is attachedstructures of society but person and act getting by police and courts. how people and society labelled as deviant. He interact and how this argues that no act is 2. Label becomes a affects criminal intrinsically deviant but master status – behaviour. relies on its context to overrides other determine its acceptability. status as sibling, Examples: nudity, injecting friend etc. Deviancy amplification oneself even murder. 3. The labelled person spiral accepts the label – Interactionism – because how we see This idea says that ourselves relies on sensationalist reporting Labelling theory how others see us. by the newspapersdistorts the act of crime Stanley Cohen 4. Self-fulfilling or deviance and prophecy – whether Cohen studied how the media increases public the label was true or has often demonised youth awareness. Public not we act in culture. This happened to pressure is put on the accordance with it. mods and Rockers in 1964police and courts to act. This confirms who were seen as modern day This creates a moral peoples beliefs folk devils who threatenedpanic where certain acts about the label being social order. His research or groups are seen as a true. found that actual acts of threat to social order. deviance were minimal.
  • 9. Blue collar crime White collar crime Corporate crime Crimes committed by Crimes committed by Crimes carried out on behalf ofmanual factory workers office workers a company such as tax evasion or(working class), these (middle/upper class) toxic waste dumping. are street crimes like like fraud, these are Occupational crime theft which are in often hidden from public view. public view. Crimes carried out at the expense of companies like fraud. Case study – Enron False accounting and White collar crime White collar crimereports of high profit allowed president Very difficult to prosecute Kenneth Lay to Case study – Guinness affair due to problems of who is borrow $74 million responsible and who is a from a company False claims of success led to victim. Much white collar before it was made high share prices and company crime is not dealt with bankrupt. 20,000 directors making millions. criminally but creditors were owed Gerald Ronson received a one administratively by an estimated $67 - year sentence in Ford (open external agencies like the billion, most received prison) and was released on EPA (Environmentalless than 20 cents for parole after serving about 6 Protection Agency) and the every dollar they months. He is still a successful Trading Standards Agency. were owed. 19,000 businessman and one of Only serious cases go to people lost their jobs Britains 100 richest people. court. and savings.
  • 10. Key idea Criminolgenic Capitalism The state and law making The Law and the Crime is inevitable in Capitalism.  All laws serve the rulingcriminal justice system The working class commit another tool used by the ruling class to utilitarian and non-utilitarian Most law is based on serve their interests crimes because of poverty, protecting privateand maintain a position constant advertising, alienation of power. property. and a lack of control. Even the ruling class feel the pressure to The working class and commit crime and get ahead. ethnic minorities are punished harshly while the Weaknesses crimes of the powerful go Marxism on crime unnoticed. Very deterministic, notall working class commitcrime. Ideological functions of law Switzerland and Japan Strengths Laws don’t just punish butare capitalist but have low perform functions to keepcrime rates. Shows a link between capitalism stable. Health and law and the safety laws keep the workingProsecutions against interests of the class able to work. Seeing crimecompanies and the ruling ruling class. as a working class problemclass do happen. diverts it away from capitalism.Left Realists say most Highlights selective Seeing criminals as disturbedworking class crime is enforcement. also disguises the true nature ofcommitted against working crime.class people not the state.
  • 11. A fully social theory of Neo-Marxism on crimedeviance – combining Marxism and labelling theory Policing the crisis – Stuart Hall 1. The 1970’s was a period of considerable Ian Taylor, Paul Walton and social crisis in Britain, the result of an Jock Young (1973) international downturn in capitalist economies.1. The wider origins of the 2. This turmoil was shown in a number of inner- deviant act. city riots, conflict in Northern Ireland and a high level of strikes. The government was2. The immediate origins of searching for a group that could be the deviant act. scapegoated, to draw attention onto them and away from the crisis.3. The act itself. 3. Mugging – which according to the police was more likely to be carried out by those from African-Caribbean backgrounds.4. The immediate origins of social reaction. 4. Media outrage at the extent of muggings, linked to racism amongst the Metropolitan police.5. The wider origins of social reaction. 5. The need to find scapegoats and the ease with which young men from African-Caribbeans backgrounds could be blamed.6. The effects of labelling. 6. A sense of injustice amongst ethnic minorities against the police led to much hostility between them and further arrests.
  • 12. Key ideas Biology The root cause of crime is Wilson and Hernstein Charles Murray (1990)biology and poor socialisation suggest some people are Argues most crime isas people make a rational innately more strongly committed by thechoice to commit crime. predisposed to commit underclass (unemployed). crime than others. The solution is more A recent upsurge in lone- Especially those who haveformal social control such parent families has led to personality traits likeas harsher prison poor socialisation and aggression, risk taking andsentences, zero tolerance encouraged these people low impulse control.policies and more CCTV. to be welfare dependant. Criticisms Right Realism Rational Choice Doesn’t explain white theory collar crime or Tackling crime domestic violence. Ron Clarke (1980) Make crime less attractive to suggests that people Ignores issues like criminals by (formal rationalise their poverty. control):- choice to commit crime Scapegoats the • Zero tolerance – harsh by weighing up the underclass. sentences ‘broken window’. cost vs benefits. If the benefits (money) Overstates the role of • Target hardening – make it outweigh the costs rationality. difficult to access private (prison) then they will and public buildings. commit crime. Crime displaced to other areas. • More surveillance – CCTV.
  • 13. Key ideas The offenders Marginalisation The root cause of crime isRelative Young and Lea argue that Marginalised groups aredeprivation, marginalisation most crime is committed by those who lack clearand exclusion in modern W/C against the W/C. This goals orsociety. is due to discontent caused representation. Young by relative deprivation W/C are powerless andThe solution is more (judging your status by that unrepresented whichinformal social control such of others) and individualism leads to violence andas better housing, more job (being self-interested). rioting.opportunities and moredemocratic policing. Left Realism Criticisms Modern society and exclusion Doesn’t explain white Tackling crime collar crime or A lack of jobs for the domestic violence. Make things better for people W/C and being out by (informal social control): priced of the property Minimum wage and • Giving them housing market has left many housing conditions have socially excluded. Jock never been better. conditions to be proud of. young says we live in a M/C could be relatively • Better job opportunities. ‘bulimic society’ where deprived and • A better relationship we are exposed to a individualistic, yet don’t between police and large variety of commit as much crime. public, being more consumer products democratic will help the which the W/C cannot Impossible to get rid of purchase. relative deprivation. flow of information.
  • 14. 2. The social distribution of crime Key questions Key information1. Do crime statistics give a  Crime statistics – police, BCS true picture of crime? and self-report study.  Gender and crime2. Are people from different  Ethnicity and crime age  Age and social class groups, classes, ethnicities  Location – Environmental and gender groups treated criminology equally when it comes to crime?3. Is there any link between location and criminal activity?
  • 15. Official statistics Recorded crime Lack of crime reporting Complied from A crime, which has Crimes may not be reported duegovernment departments been recorded by to:- the police as a like the police and crime. (Only 40%  fear of reprisal. courts. of reported crime is then recorded Lack of awareness (fraud). due to discretionary Fear it may not be taken Reported crime powers of the seriously. A crime, which the police).  Crime is too trivial. public has reported to the police. (90% of all crime the Crime statistics Inaccurate picture of police deal with is crime reported to them by the public).  White collar crime dealt with administratively.Official crime statistics are  Only serious crimesthe tip of the iceberg, BCS from incidences is and self-report studies recorded. show there is more crime Rules for counting always than what can be seen on change.the surface. This is knownas the dark figure of crime Lack of recording makes (what is recorded vs. clear up rates look higher. reported).
  • 16. British Crime Survey The study is based on a representative sample of adultsA victim study which asks Self-report studies living in private households inpeople if they have been a England and Wales. In 2002 over Anonymousvictim of a crime and the 36,000 surveys were conducted. questionnaires which circumstances of that Certain crimes are excluded due ask respondents if they crime. It was conducted to low reporting such as have committed a crime every two years from murder, drug possession or over the past year. 1982 -2000 then every dealing, fraud, offences against year since. businesses. They are usually based Trends and patterns on self-completed BCS and Self- questionnaires or BCS says 10.7 million crimescommitted, OS (4.7 million. report studies interviews which contain a list ofThe majority of crime is BCS: includes unreported related. and unrecorded crime but Respondents are asked Violent crime accounts for only 75% is comparable with to highlight which they1/5 of all crime police statistics. have committed. Self report studies show us Overall crime peaked in 1995 Self-report: Mainly street that most peopleand has declined ever since. crime (working class) commit crime at some excludes hidden crimes like point in their lives so Men aged 16-24 most likely domestic violence. Onlyto be a victim of violence. crime is normal. gives a small picture of criminal activity.
  • 17. Key facts The Chivalry thesis Feminism Girls and women appear This argues that most They argue the criminal to commit less crime. police, judges and justice system is 4/5 convicted offenders magistrates are men and patriarchal and is bias in Britain are male. men are socialised to be against women when they chivalrous to women. step outside gender roles. Women more likely to be Roger Hood found women Women are judged more convicted of theft and are 1/3 less likely to be harshly for having property offences. jailed than men in similar promiscuous sex and Men more likely to cases. being bad mothers rather convicted of violence and than the seriousness of sexual offences. Gender and crime their crimes. This is what happens in rape cases where the victims Liberation thesis Explanations for sexual activity is always female criminality on trial. Freda Alder (1975) argues that if feminists are right and women only commit less Feminist - Control Functionalist -Sex role crime because of patriarchy theory theory then greater equality should Women commit less The way girls are see a rise in women crimes because men socialised to be quiet and offenders. This equality will control women through demur doesn’t encourage bring about more female domestic roles, fear of them to behave offenders for violence and being a victim and aggressively or break white collar crime. financial dependence. the law.
  • 18. Women demonised in the media Myra Hindley Maxine Carr Sentenced to 30 years in prison for Was convicted and sent to prison forher part in the murder and torture of providing a false alibi for boyfriend Ian5 children along with Ian Brady. The Huntley who murdered Holly wells andmedia widely reported her true crime Jessica Chapman in 2002. Maxine had as not having any motherly instincts nothing directly to do with the murders but as a women. Newspapers still to this many protested for reintroduction of theday publish a sinister picture taken of death penalty outside the court. The mediaher 30 years ago because it portrays had a definitive role in demonising Maxine her as a cold sadistic killer. Carr by producing sensationalist stories of her past. Gender and crime Why do men commit crime?Postmodernity and masculinity James Messerschmidt (1993) makes a link Others have suggested that between male offending and masculinity. Hepreviously jobs in manufacturing says all men want the dominant hegemonic allowed men to express their masculinity which is achieved through masculinity. An increase in domination of work, women and sexuality. Heservice sector jobs like bouncers argues that lower class men and ethnic allows men to express their minorities lack the resources to achieve this masculinity through masculinity so commit crime in order to violence, drug dealing and achieve it. racketeering.
  • 19. Key facts Ethnicity and the criminal 1. PolicingOfficial statistics say black justice system Many allegations of people are: oppressive policing 7 times more likely to be from minority ethnic 2.Stop and search communities are made. stopped and searched. Lots of stop an search is 3 ½ times more likely to perhaps due to racism be arrested. 3. Arrests and and the targeting of cautions 5 times more likely to be ethnic minorities. in prison than their white More likely to be counterparts. arrested and cautioned Ethnicity and perhaps due to a Victim studies say black mistrust of police and crime people are more likely to not admitting to the be identified as offence. offenders & most crime 4. Prosecution & is intra –ethnic meaning conviction it takes place among 5. Sentencing and Prison rather than between Crown prosecution Service more likely to Custodial sentences more ethnic groups. drop cases against ethnic likely to be given to black Self-report studies minorities. Black and offenders. Blacks and conclude that black Asian defendants are less Asians over-represented people have similar rates likely to be found guilty. in prisons and more likely of offending to whites if to be given longer not lower. sentences.
  • 20. Explaining differences in offending Neo-Marxist - Paul Gilroy Neo-Marxist - Stuart Black people commit more Hall et al (Policing the Left realism crime because they resent crisis)Ethnic minorities commit more the cultural experience ofcrime because racism in wider colonialism i.e. being taken Combines Marxism and has caused them to be over and having black slaves Labelling theory. marginalised, coupled with sent to Britain to work. This economic exclusion such as experience causes Economic conditions in high unemployment and poor resentment in young black the 1990’s were housing. Left realists don’t males which makes them bad, government look believe that racism in the commit crime. for a scapegoat. police can account for higher crime because black people Young black muggers Ethnicity and have a higher offending rate are labelled and a moral than Asians. crime panic is created about their behaviour in the Stephen Lawrence Victimisation media. The death of Stephen Police recorded 61,000Lawrence in 1993 by a white Young black males racists incidents while thegang caused outcry as police commit no more crime BCS reports 184,000 many botched the investigation. than any other group go unreported. People from The inquiry called the but labelling and the mixed ethnic backgroundsMacpherson report declared economy makes it seem were more likely to be institutional racism in the like they do. victims of crimes. police.
  • 21. Key facts Functionalism – Age and Subcultural theory – Age class and class Young, working class are more likely to commit Functionalists like Merton Young working class people criminal acts than say young working class join gangs because they are older, middle class. people commit crime because frustrated at their status in they strive for success but mainstream society. They A typical prisoner in the lack the necessary solve this by rejecting U.K will be under 30 and educational skills and mainstream norms and working class. qualifications. They want values, joining a gang and Offending rises steeply the goal of success but must achieving a status through from 10-18 then declines achieve it illegitimately. non-utilitarian crimes. sharply after 24. (Innovation) Age – class and Right realism – class Labelling theory – crime age and class Right realists like Charles Murray believe Young working Left realism – Age and class that single parent class people Most crime is committed by working families fail to socialise especially boys are class people against working class their children more likely to be people. Perhaps because relative effectively due to a lack stopped and deprivation, individualism and that of male role searched and fact we live in a bulimic society (the models, they also grow labelled as idea that we are exposed to consumer up to be welfare criminals by the products but cannot consume them). dependant. police and courts.
  • 22. Marxism Blue collar crime The working class are no more criminals than anyone else, however Crimes committed the law protects the bourgeoisie so by manual factory the working class become easier to workers (working criminalise. The working class get class), these are street crimes like White collar crime harsher punishments compared withthose who commit white collar crimes. theft which are in Crimes committed by public view. office workers (middle/upper class) White collar crime like fraud, these are often hidden from Very difficult to prosecute Social class and public view. due to problems of who is crime responsible and who is a victim. Much white collar crime is not dealt with criminally but Case study – Guinness affair administratively by False claims of success led to high share prices external agencies like the and company directors making millions. Gerald EPA (Environmental Ronson received a one -year sentence in Ford (open Protection Agency) and the prison) and was released on parole after serving Trading Standards Agency. about 6 months. He is still a successful Only serious cases go to businessman and one of Britains 100 richest court. people.
  • 23. Key ideas Shaw and McKay They found the Did a study of delinquency in delinquency living rates There is a link between declined from zone 1 to Chicago (1927-33). They where offenders live and 5. They argue that divided the city of into five crimes committed in that zone 1 has the highest zones, drawn at two-mile area. rate of delinquents intervals, radiating outwards in concentric circles from the because it is Environmental criminology characterised by a CBD (Central Business is concerned with mapping high population District). the spatial distribution of turnover and mixture offenders and offences. of different cultures. Location – They called this the zone of transition Environmental Criminology The least delinquents live in Zone 5 – 1.8 % They concluded that mainly commuter zone the zone of transition with expensive houses. had social disorganisation (low social cohesion and The most delinquents little sense of live in Zone 1 – 9.8% - community) making it deteriorating housing a breading ground for and factories, high deviants. population turnover
  • 24. Explanations Area offending rates in Britain Studies in Britain contradict Opportunity theory Shaw and Mckay and the idea of determining crime by location. Crimes will be committed in locations where Some studies show higher targets are attractive to criminals meaning numbers of offenders living in it has a high monetary value and can easily council housing estates rather be transported and sold. Coupled with than city centres (Morris 1957). accessibility meaning if physical access is One study of two council estates easy and chances of being observed are low. separated by a road showed one had 300% more offenders living Location – Routine activities there than the other (Bottoms, Mawby and Xanthos 1989) . Environmental theory Criminology Argues that crimes are likely to happen in They say most Cognitive mapping (1984) particular places offenders commit Patricia and Paul Brantingham argue because of three things: crimes in areas they that we have cognitive maps inside There are likely are familiar with; out heads which outline our offenders in the area, because of an perception of the geography of our attractive targets andoffender’s awareness local area. These maps contain an absence of capable of space, and places we are familiar with such as guardians like property opportunities for home, school or work, places of owners. crime. entertainment etc.
  • 25. 3. Crime in contemporary society Key questions: Key information1. Has crime become global?  Globalisation and crime  Mass media and crime2. How does the media report  Green crime criminal activity?  Human rights  State crimes3. What are green crimes and how are they dealt with?4. What rights due all human beings have?5. How can we stop state crimes when we have no world police?
  • 26. Globalisation Transnational crime Risk consciousness Greater communication and Increased terrorism has Definition: The way in travel have made the drugs increased our awareness which we seem to live in industry extend beyond of the international risksan increasingly ‘shrinking national boundaries. Often we face and increased world’, where societies involving many countries the security at our national are becoming more supply comes from south borders, airports, ports interconnected and America (Colombia) and its and train stations.dependant on each other. demand from western countries. Increased crimeGlobal crime (1 trillion) Arms trafficking Globalisation and Ian Taylor (1973) Marxist argues that Smuggling immigrants crime globalisation has allowed Trafficking women capitalism to create Changing crime and children more crime by exploiting Hobbs and Dunningham say workers abroad and Sex tourism crime is now longer local but creating fraud on a Cyber-crimes – ‘Glocal’ meaning it involves larger scale. identity theft and networks of people across manufacturing products child porn the globe. Gleeny (2008) abroad has led to a lack argues even the mafia has of jobs and opportunities Drugs trade gone global, it has franchised for the working Money laundering its businesses to different class, which leads them parts of the globe – McMafia to crime.
  • 27. The media and crime News as socially constructed Fictional crime The media over-represent ‘The news is not discovered but Our ideas of crime violence and sex crimes – manufactured’ says Cohen and don’t just come from this make us think its Young. What they mean is what the news. Fictional happening more and that gets coverage depends on what representation of most killers are strange has happened, who is crime comes from psychopaths – in most involved, when and where. Crime books, films and TV cases the perpetrator is by its very definition is abnormal shows. They tend to know to the victim. and ticks most of these news match the incorrect worthy boxes. stereotypes of theThe media portray media. criminals and victims as older and more middle- Mass media and class. crime How could the mediaMedia coverage cause crime? Can the media cause crime exaggerates police success or fear?  Imitation – copycats. in clearing up cases. Most studies show media  Desensitisation.The media exaggerates violence has at most a small the risk of victimisation,  Learning criminal and limited negative effect especially women. techniques. on audiences. Studies doThe media overplay show those that watch TV  Desire for extraordinary crimes but for longer periods of time unaffordable goods. underplay ordinary crimes. are more likely to be fearful of becoming a victim.  Glamorising offending.
  • 28. New media – new crime Cyber-crimeCinema, television, computer games and the  Cyber-trespass – includes hacking and internet have all been blamed for spreading viruses. corrupting the young. The internet has grown so quickly its brought about cyber  Cyber –deception and theft – identify crime. Defined as computer-meditated theft, illegal downloading.criminal activities conducted through global  Cyber-pornography – illegal porn electronic networks. involving children.  Cyber-violence – bullying by text, threatening e-mails, cyber stalking. Stanley Cohen Mass media and crime Cohen studied how the media has often demonised youth culture. This Deviancy amplification spiral happened to mods and Rockers in 1964 who were This idea says that sensationalist seen as modern day folk reporting by the newspapers distorts the devils who threatened act of crime or deviance and increases social order. His research public awareness. Public pressure is put found that actual acts of on the police and courts to act. This deviant acts were minimal. creates a moral panic where certain acts or groups are seen as a threat to social order.
  • 29. Key ideas Traditional criminology Green criminology Defined as crimes against If pollution that causes Less bound by laws but by the environment such as global warming is legal harm caused to the toxic waste dumping and and no real crime has environment or people.deforestation. Green crime been committed then Green criminology is a is linked with globalisation traditional criminology is much wider field and so as the world is one single not interested. called Transgressive eco-system. Ulrich Beck Criminology – goes beyond reminds us that many traditional criminology. environmental issues are Environmental/manufactured rather than Green crime natural. Harm Secondary crimes Anthropocentric is a human Primary crimesCrimes that result from centred approach which Crimes that result directly assumes humans have theflouting rules aimed at from the destruction of right to dominate naturepreventing an environmental the earth:- for their own ends. Thedisaster.  Crimes of air pollution. Ecocentric view sees State violence against humans and theiroppositional groups – despite  Crimes of deforestation. environment asopposing terrorism states have interdependent, so harming  Crimes of species declineused the method themselves. one is harming another. and animal rights.Hazardous waste and Green criminology takes the  Crimes of water ecocentric approach.organised crime –illegal pollution.dumping.
  • 30. Human rights Problem SolutionThe right to life, liberty States create laws which Herman and Schwendinger and free speech. make their actions legal (1970) argue we should Civil rights and free them from define crime as a violation criminal charges. of human rights rather The right to vote, to than law breaking. States privacy, fair trial and that deny humans their education. Human rights rights are then seen as criminals. This newThe social conditions Stanley Cohen – The spiral approach has been called of state crimes of state denial (1996) Transgressive criminology as it transgresses (goes Three ways dictators deny beyond) the traditionalThree features which human rights violations:- boundaries of criminologyproduces statecrimes:- (criminal law). Stage 1: ‘It didn’t happen’, this works until theAuthorisation – New problem media uncover evidence that itobedience. did. Not everybody agrees onRoutinisation – human rights. Is freedom Stage 2: ‘If it did from poverty a humanpressure to continue. happen, it is something else’. right? Could states beDehumanisation – charged as criminals for Stage 3: ‘Even if it is what not making its membersEnemy is a monster. you say it is, its justified’ wealthy? we had to do it.
  • 31. Definition Case studies Eugene McLaughlin (2001)Crimes or deviant activities Pol Pot – Leader of the Four types of state crime:-perpetrated by or with Communist party in  Political crimes -permission of state agencies. Cambodia. Slave corruption or censorship labour, malnutrition, (controlling what the mediaExamples:- poor medical care says). resulted in the deathGenocide (deliberate and of 21% of the  Crimes by security and systematic destruction of population (1.7 -2.5M). police forces – Genocide an ethnic, national or and torture. religious group).War crimes  Economic crime - violationsTorture State crimes of health and safety.Imprisonment without trialAssassination  Social and cultural crimes - institutional racism.The problem of national sovereignty States are the supreme authority Abu Ghraib within their borders. Nazi Germany The problem is the state is the A prison in Baghdad Hitler started thesource of law meaning it decides what Controlled by US led T4 – euthanasia crimes are, manages the criminal coalition forces. program from 1939 justice system and prosecutes Accusations of abuse in – 1941. offenders, meaning it can evade its 2004 – 11 soldiers 275,000 terminally own law. charge and convicted ill and mental for mistreatment. patients were killed.
  • 32. 4. Crime control, prevention, punishment, victims and the criminal justice system Key questions Key information1. How can we prevent  Crime prevention policies – crime from happening? ‘broken window’  Punishment of crimes & the2. Does our way of prison system punishing really work?  Victimology – the study of victims  The role of the Criminal3. What can we learn from Justice system victims of crimes?4. What is the role of the criminal justice system?
  • 33. Situational crime prevention Marcus Felson (1998) Problem – DisplacementRon Clarke ( 1992) argues for a This approach was used This approach doesn’t pre-emptive approach which with the Port Authority solve the causes oftargets specific crimes (petty) Bus terminal in NYC. crime in the area. by altering the immediate They reshaped the Often criminals find environment of crime. As a environment to design different areas, changeright realist he believes target out crime with large the type of crime they hardening and more CCTV will open spaces, it was commit or choose a increase the risk of being successful. different victim.caught and lower the rewards. Crime control and Environmental crime prevention prevention Wilson and Kellings argued for an approach called ‘broken window’. The term broken windows stands for various signs of disorder and lack of The results concern for others found in neighbourhoods. They argue that leaving broken windows This approach has found great unrepaired such as graffiti, begging etc sends success in NY. A ‘Clean Car out a signal that no one cares and can tip the Program’ was instituted on the area into social disorder. A way to prevent this subway in which trains with is more police on the streets enforcing zero graffiti on them were taken away tolerance towards any social disorder and immediately. As a result graffiti repairing things that are broken or was largely removed from the deteriorating . subway.
  • 34. Social and community Perry pre-school project crime prevention These students were Research conducted in 1962 by David Weikart in Michigan. The given extra sessions A left realist approach to on decision making project provided high-quality crime prevention it gets to and problem solving. pre-school education to three- the causes of crime by Parents implemented and four-year-old African-improving unemployment and the programme at American children living in housing. home. poverty and assessed to be at high risk of school failure. The results Crime control and By age 40 they had prevention significantly fewer lifetime arrests for violent crime, property Evaluation of all policies crime and drugs, while  Displacement transfers the problem elsewhere. more had graduated from high school and  None of the following can help reduce white were in employment. collar or state crimes. For every dollar spent  Do criminals make the rational choice to commit on the programme, $17 crime? were saved on welfare, prison and  Only social and community gets to the causes of other costs. crime.
  • 35. Reduction What is the purpose Restorative of punishment? The aim is to reduce This approach crime by deterring tries to restore others, rehabilitating Retribution things as they offenders and were by making incapacitation meaningtaking away their ability Meaning pay back, based on the offenders meet to re-offend. This idea that offenders deserve to their victims toapproach is instrumental be punished and society is see the personalas punishment is a means entitled to take its revenge. affect their crime to an end, i.e. crime reduction. This approach is expressive as has had on their it expresses societies outrage. lives. Do Prisons work? Punishment Prison – key facts Two –thirds of prisoners commit further crimes on  8.75 million people in their release from prison. prisons across the Do prisons work? world. In 1993, the UK prison Transcarceration means population was 44,000.  The U.S has the when somebody enters Today it is over 83,000. highest prison prison or youth offending population compared David Garland (2001) they are more than likely to with population argues the USA and the UK re-enter it again at some to a lesser extent are point be it with social  The U.K has the moving into the era of mass services or mental health highest prison incarceration. institutions. population in Europe.
  • 36. Durkheim Marxism The function of punishment is to uphold social Society is divided into two solidarity and reinforce shared values. It also allows classes, ruling class exploit the people to express their outrage at rituals like trials working class.and re-set boundaries. Traditional close knit societies Marxists ask how does had a strong sense of right and wrong so had punishment serve the ruling Retributive justice as punishment was severe, cruel class? They argue thatand public. Modern societies have Restitutive justice harsh punishments are part ofwhich like restorative justice tries to restore broken the Repressive State relations and offer compensation. Apparatuses (RSA) which keep the working class in their place. Panopticon Sociological Prison is similar to the slave labour of capitalism, especially perspectives onA prison designed by Jeremy similar to strict discipline of Punishment factories in 20th century. Bentham, its design means inmates don’t know if theyare being watched. The idea of surveillance turns into Michel Foucault – Postmodernismself-surveillance, it becomes internalised. This move Sovereign power – punishment before the 19th centurytowards self surveillance and was a public spectacle with hangings and stockades, its was self discipline is reflected a way of asserting the monarchs power over its citizens. not just in prisons but all Disciplinary power – punishment after 19th century was aspects of social life says not just about governance over the body but the mind or Foucault. soul, this is done through surveillance – Panopticon.
  • 37. Definitions Positivist Victimology Hans Von Hentig . A person who suffers (1948) identified 13 It tries to identify why characteristics suchphysical, mental or psychological certain people are victims of as female, elderly or harm, economic loss or crimes. Early work focused on mentally subnormal. impairment of their rights. victim proneness meaning They imply that finding social and victims invite Victim is a concept like crime psychological characteristics victimisation by thethat is socially constructed, who that made them more way they are. is and isn’t a victim changes vulnerable than non-victims. depending on the context. Problem Failure to label Victimology: The This approach has They are also interested in the study of victims been called victim way the state has the power to blaming as it attach or deny a label as a doesn’t count for victim. If the police decide not the motives of the to press charges then you are Critical Victimology perpetrator. denied the status of victim and Based on Marxism and any compensation. Feminism it wants to highlight structural factors like Problem: While it highlights poverty or patriarchy which the role of the powerful it put the powerless at greater denies the role victims risk of being a victim. themselves have in their own victimisation.
  • 38. Class Patterns of victimisation Ethnicity The poorest groups are Minority ethnicmost likely to be victims Age groups most at risk of all crimes. Homeless Younger people are most at of all crimes. Ethnicpeople are 12 times more risk of crimes like minorities most likely likely to experience assault, theft, sexual to feel under-violence than the general harassment. Infants under protected yet over population. one are at most risk of controlled. being murdered. Women who have been raped but whose cases Genderhave failed in court are Victimology: The Males most at risk ofalso victims of the legal study of victims violent attacks system. especially by strangers. 70% of The impact of victimisation homicide victims are Fear male.The media has a large Research has found that a part to play when variety of effects such as Repeat victims stirring up fear but disrupted sleep, feelings of Once you have been a statistically speaking helplessness, increased security- victim once you are verymen are more likely to consciousness and difficulties in likely to be victims of violence socialising. Crime can also create Suggests people were yet some women fear fear in communities, these are victims for agoing out late at night. referred to as indirect victims. reason, perhaps even targeted.
  • 39. Common law Murder isn’t written Structure of the courtsBritish law not originally in law anywhere but 1. European courts ofdecided upon and written based on precedents Justice down but based on a made years ago. 2. House of Lords series of judgementsmade by judges based on Oldest statute law in 3. Royal Courts of a series of facts. The England and Wales goes Justice courts must follow the back to 1297 originally part 4. Crown Court decisions of the of the Magna Carta and its precedent (previous about seeking damages. 5. Magistrates courts case). Courtroom The role of the Criminal Judges seats – often 3 criminal justice These are cases that Clerk & stenograph system have broken the law of (typist). the land and brought Witness stand about by the state such Types of law as murder or rape. The bar – behind which  Criminal – murder, rape. the prosecution and Civil defence solicitors and  Tort – These are cases that barristers sit negligence, nuisance, defamati have broken the law but on, trespass. are brought about by The dock – The accused  Contract – sales & purchasing. people such as compensation against Public viewing area  Trusts – Property and injury or land disputes. inheritance.
  • 40. 1. Reporting 2. Investigation 3. Crown Prosecution Service A crime is committed The police will and reported to the investigate the scene The CPS must decide police. and question witnesses. whether a case is likely to The will either charge get a conviction in court. 8. Mental health the suspect, release them or given them a Those deemed to be warning. 4. Magistrates court without their mental Over 95% of cases are dealtfaculty when committing with by the magistrates a crime are often sent Stages of the court. Because its usually for assessment and criminal justice less serious crimes there is a incarceration at system limit to the punishment thathospitals like Broadmoor can be imposed (6 months in or Ashworth, many will prison). never be released. 6. Prison With shorter sentences 5. Crown court prisoners remain in the 7. Probation service local area while longer More serious cases are Works to monitor sentences, prisoners passed to the crown court prisoners after their could be sent anywhere. which is served by a judgerelease. They help with They must be treated and jury. The jury willemployment and housing with fairness and decide if the accused is guiltand advise the courts of humility and be given at which point the judge will a risk of re-offending. productive activities. decide upon the sentence.
  • 41. 5. The study of suicide Key questions Key information1. Is suicide just a  Positivism – Emile Durkheim psychological issue?  Interpretivism – Maxwell Atkinson2. What social factors may  Realism – Steve Taylor cause suicide?3. How do we define suicide?4. Should we include people who have attempted suicide?
  • 42. Emile Durkheim (1897) Findings 3 Objective: To look beyond the  Suicide rates were higher in Protestant countries individual act and towards the than Catholic ones. social factors which cause  Suicide rates for any given country remained more or suicide. He took a positivist less constant over time. methodology, as he wanted to establish Sociology as a  Rates were higher for childless and unmarried people. science. He collected suicide statistics from across  Rates rose during times of economic depression and Europe. prosperity and fell during times of war and political uncertainty. Social Facts The study of suicide Explaining findings For Durkheim social facts exist in the Durkheim concluded that world. Integration Types of suicide suicide must be the result and regulation are  Altruistic – Too much integration of the extent to which wesocial facts i.e. forces (Japan, Seppuka). are integrated and in the world that regulated into a group. constrain our  Egoistic – too little integration Integration is the extent behaviour. If (individualistic). to which a person is bound Durkheim could  Fatalistic – Too much by a society by norms and discover these facts regulation, you cant change things values (Japan). Regulation he would establish (China). is the extent to which asociology as a science. society has control over its  Anomic – Too little members (China) regulation, norms and values
  • 43. Maxwell Atkinson (1978) Suicide as socially Atkinson examined the constructed ways in which coroner’s Took an interactionist classified deaths. It (Ethnomethodology) Atkinson believed suicide had was based on the approach because he no objective reality. It’s observations of believes suicide is an societies that define suicide inquests, interview with expression of individual as something specific, the coroners andmeaning rather than an act definition itself is varied. examinations of based on social forces. Atkinson wanted to find out coroner’s records. what this definition was and Atkinson claimed that how it was constructed. Criticises Durkheim coroners have a ‘common-sense theory’ Atkinsons work shows The study of suicide of suicide- meaning ifthat Durkheim didn’t find the facts fit the theoryanything objective about then a verdict of suicide suicide just the corners is likely. Secondary cues theory (subjective). He highlights that using  History of mental Primary cuesstatistics is floored as we illness.  Suicide note. will never have access to  Disturbed childhood. those cases that were  Type of death – hanging.suicide but categorised as  Recent loss or divorce.  Place and circumstance death by misadventure  Financial problems. of death – garage, because the death didn’t windows and doorsmatch the corners theory.  Lack of friends. closed.  Problems at work.
  • 44. Steve Taylor (1988) Durkheim & Atkinson Wider definition As a realist taylor rejects Taylor agrees with A wider definition of Atkinsons view that Durkheim that we should suicide is needed in order suicide is socially look for the underline to explain the broad constructed, he argues it’s structural causes of suicide spectrum of suicidal a real problem that but believes case studies behaviour, he therefore requires a real solution. are more appropriate than defines suicide as ‘any statistics. deliberate act of self- Problems damage, or potential self- damage where the Case studies are individual cannot be sureunrepresentative. He fails of survival’. to find out what causes The study of suicideuncertainty or detachment. Categories Taylor said Suicide Thanatation suicide – Uncertainty about the world and stems from an imbalance detached from people. in individuals sense of their own identity and Appeal suicide – uncertainty about the world but attached their relationship with to people/person (jilted lover). others, this combines Submissive suicide – certain about your future but both personal thoughts detached from people (terminal illness). and feelings and their position in wider society. Sacrifice suicide – Attached to people and certain about future, but unliveable.
  • 45. 6. Sociological methods and the study of crime Key questions Key information1. What areas of crime are of  Crime as a research context interest to Sociologists?  Official statistics, BCS and self report studies.2. What is the best way of  Questionnaires and crime studying crime?  Interviews and crime  Observations and crime3. What problems do researchers face?  Experiments and crime  Secondary sources – statistics and documents4. What factors influence the type of methodology a  P.E.R.V.E.R.T research will use?
  • 46. Researching Domestic Violence Researching violent crimes Difficult to study due to being Few observationalunder represented in statistics. opportunities unless a The act itself has few public researcher manages to witnesses and many victims infiltrate a gang. Great choose to not report the danger can be posed to any incident to the police. Greater researcher who explores this Researching corporate confidentiality is needed for and high crime areas. Victims crime that take part in the research of violent crimes are unlikely for fear of further abuse. to want to be Likely to be under- interviewed, unless by the reported in statistics police. and by the media. The Researching Criminal justice crimes themselves have Crime as a The police maybe open to research context low visibility and are research but aware of public often difficult to scrutiny. Studies of senior Researching Young offenders investigate, they may officers is rare. Although even go beyond national courts are public places, Studying these groups maybe borders. Perpetrators judges, jurors and lawyers are be difficult to observe and are powerful and often beyond study. Prisons interview due to suspicion organised and enjoy are closed environments (police officer in disguise and political protection. where researcher safety is the age, class, gender and paramount. Prisoners often ethnicity of the researcher. co-operate due to boredom Researchers must be aware of but are no stranger to the vulnerability of this group deception. and their use of language, literacy and cognitive
  • 47. Official statistics Recorded crime Lack of crime reporting Complied from A crime, which has Crimes may not be reported duegovernment departments been recorded by to:- the police as a like the police and crime. (Only 40%  fear of reprisal. courts. of reported crime is then recorded Lack of awareness (fraud). due to discretionary Fear it may not be taken Reported crime powers of the seriously. A crime, which the police).  Crime is too trivial. public has reported to the police. (90% of all crime the Crime statistics Inaccurate picture of police deal with is crime reported to them by the public).  White collar crime dealt with administratively.Official crime statistics are  Only serious crimesthe tip of the iceberg, BCS from incidences is and self-report studies recorded. show there is more crime Rules for counting always than what can be seen on change.the surface. This is knownas the dark figure of crime Lack of recording makes (what is recorded vs. clear up rates look higher. reported).
  • 48. British Crime Survey The study is based on a representative sample of adultsA victim study which asks Self-report studies living in private households inpeople if they have been a England and Wales. In 2002 over Anonymousvictim of a crime and the 36,000 surveys were conducted. questionnaires which circumstances of that Certain crimes are excluded due ask respondents if they crime. It was conducted to low reporting such as murder, have committed a crime every two years from drug possession or dealing, fraud, over the past year. 1982 -2000 then every offences against businesses. year since. They are usually based Trends and patterns on self-completed BCS and Self- questionnaires or BCS says 10.7 million crimescommitted, OS (4.7 million. report studies interviews which contain a list ofThe majority of crime is BCS: includes unreported related. and unrecorded crime but Respondents are asked Violent crime accounts for only 75% is comparable with to highlight which they1/5 of all crime police statistics. have committed. Self report studies show us Overall crime peaked in 1995 Self-report: Mainly street that most peopleand has declined ever since. crime (working class) commit crime at some excludes hidden crimes like point in their lives so Men aged 16-24 most likely domestic violence. Onlyto be a victim of violence. crime is normal. gives a small picture of criminal activity.
  • 49. Positivist Written questionnaires Closed questions Respondents are asked to The respondent must choose Generally used by complete and return by post their answer from a limitedpositivists due to their or e-mail. range of possible answers like ability to generate yes, no or don’t know.statistical data that is Interviewsreliable, representative Either face-to face or by Open questions and generalisable telephone. These allow the respondent to answer freely in their own Quantitative words. Social Surveys Large amounts of Questionnaires Hypothesis statistical data A theory or idea to test Primary Sampling techniquesThis data has not been Pilot study 1. Random – people selected collected before by chance A trial run to test for 2. Systematic – every problems with questions 5th, 10th or 100th person is Sample chosen. Operationalising concepts Not all of the 3. Stratified – a sample that population can be Putting concepts like God reflects societies diversity or class into categories studied so researchers select a sample of it to 4. Quota – researchers have a (pre-set answers) that study quota (amount) of can be easily analysed requirements to fill
  • 50. Advantages Disadvantages1. Quick, cheap and easy 1. The data is limited and to gather. superficial.2. Reliable – can be 2. Postal questions have a replicated. low response rate, in3. Can test a hypothesis. some studies it is as low as 40%.4. Detached and objective way of collecting the 3. Very inflexible as Social surveys - hypothesis cannot be data. Questionnaires changed or adapted.5. Representative; due to the large amount of data 4. A lack of validity that can be gathered, means Questionnaires especially if a good don’t gives us any real sampling method is used. insight into people behaviour.6. Fewer ethical issues as questions aren’t in depth 5. Using closed questions and people can refuse to constrains people’s answer. answers.7. No issue of deception as informed consent has been gained.
  • 51. Practical issues Ethical issues Quick and cheap. Post or e-mail questionnaires pose fewer Criminals are unlikely to ethical concerns because volunteer their identity or returning the questionnaire Reliability and location. is giving consent. However Representativeness Government departments talking to under 16’s about want results quickly. crime is crucial but parents Difficult to get lists consent is needed. of criminals to make Questions more likely to questionnaires be able less serious crime. representative. Those Self report studies are more involved in crime Questionnaires to are less likely to questionnaires. investigate crime respond to self report studies. Some Validity disagreement from Detachment and objectivity sociologists over the Validity is likely to be low list of crimes in self due to respondents lack of Most large-scale crime report studies which memory about criminal research is developed makes them difficult events or their through consultation with to replicate.exaggeration to seem tough. criminologists and Questionnaires often governments. Thereforeimpose on respondents what topics and questions will be is important rather than dictated rather than decided discovering something new. upon.
  • 52. Positivist Laboratory experiments Stanley Milgram Experiment (1961) Generally used by Conducted in a controlledpositivists due to their environment. A lab experiment ability to generate (Milgram, Stanford) conducted to test ourstatistical data that is obedience to authority. Field experimentsreliable, representative Volunteers were asked to and generalisable Conducted out in the field where administer electric shocks variables can’t be controlled. while being encouraged to Quantitative (Sissons – Hawthorne) do so by a scientist. Results showed people Large amounts of Experiments were highly influenced by statistical data an authority figure. Primary Philip Zimbardo – Stanford This data has not been prison experiment (1971) collected before A lab experiment designed to Problems show behaviour of inmates Highly unethical due to and the role of authority the amount of emotional Problems figures. Volunteers were harm caused and Highly unethical due to given roles as either prisoner deception. Study not the amount of emotional or guard. The experiment got representative or harm caused and out of hand as prisoners generalisable deception. Study not suffered sadistic and representative or humiliating treatment at the generalisable hands of the guards
  • 53. Sissons Hawthorne Electrical plant Hawthorne effect A field experiment A field experiment to testconducted at Paddington People who know they the adjustment of light and are being studied station to see whether heat on workers people behaviour in change their productivity. In all cases ordinary behaviour relation to social class. workers output increased. It involved a man dressed as a labourer and then later a Experiments Lab experiments businessman. Advantages:  Can test a hypothesis. Field experiments  Can be replicated due to controllableAdvantages: variables. Higher validity than lab experiments.  Can study cause and effect Less artificial as respondents are in their relationships. natural setting. Disadvantages:Disadvantages:  Due to small scale it isn’t representative or generalisable. Variables more difficult to control – lack of reliability.  Low validity due to artificial situation. Low in validity due to Hawthorne effect.  Lots of ethical issues. Lots of ethical issues.
  • 54. Laboratory experiments Ethics Bandura et al (1977)This method doesn’t lend itself Many crime related Did an experiment on young to the study of crime and research involves nursery children aboutdeviance. Although Zimbardo’s danger, victimisation imitative aggression. The study of the behaviour and the exercise of children watched an adult be prisoners and guards has power which can if aggressive towards the dollproduced some useful insights recreated can cause then were told they couldntinto the dehumanising effects harmful effects. play with some toys to see ifof prisons on both inmates and they would act as the adults staff. did. This caused the children Experiments to psychological harm. This We must remember investigate crime study like others showed low that youth offenders validity as often experiments and deviance are more vulnerable are artificial and bear no than other criminal relation to reality.groups. Its difficult to Tougher regime project replicate fieldexperiments because of Field experiments were used to Field experiments the complexity of study the effect of tougher More effect in crimecrime and deviance. If regimes in youth offending research as they can be prisoners know they institutions such as physical used to study crime are being studied they exercise, reduced education prevention policies to see are likely to change and more inspections. The how effect they are on their behaviour – results showed it had little criminal groups like Hawthorne effect. effect on re-offending rates. prisoners.
  • 55. Interpretivist Structured interview Semi-Structured Set questions asked to all Set themes to cover but has Generally used by respondents. some freedom to explore and Interpretivists due to their ability to probe answers. Unstructured interview generate valid data Interviewers have freedom Group interviewabout what people think to ask any questions and The discussion of topics with and feel and how they probe answers for small groups of 10-12 people. act. explanation. Qualitative Interviews Interviewer bias Small in-depth datagiving us a real insight Interviewer could ask leading Structured interviews questions or use body Primary (Disad) language to subconsciously This data has not No depth so low in validity. influence respondentsbeen collected before answers. Lacks flexibility. Unstructured Risk of interviewer bias. Structured interviews (Ad) interviews (Ad)  Easy to quantify. Unstructured interviews High validity. (Disad)  Reliable less risk ofCan develop a rapport.  Costly, lack interviewer bias.Real insights. reliability, Representative  Higher response rate if ness, & Generalisability. face to face.People feel at ease.  Comparison is difficult.  Can test a hypothesis.
  • 56. Practical issues Reliability Convicted criminals have The nature of some groups Validity lower literacy levels. makes it very difficult to replicate and interview. Unstructured Recording answers may interviews allow Maguire (2007) studied street make respondents feel researcher to decode criminals and said some uncomfortable that their language and slang. interviews took minutes while answer may have legal Lengthy interviews others took hours, in a pub or implications. allow researchers to persons home. Safety of interviewers is build a rapport and important. trust. The appearance Interviews to of the interviewer may Getting access to investigate crime make respondents feel interviewing criminals or they are an authority victims is difficult. figure. There are Ethics hierarchy and status Representativeness issues when Respondents may become at interviewing members These interviews with ease and give up ‘guilty of courts and police. A victims and criminals are knowledge’ of crimes they clerk of a magistrates time-consuming due to the committed. This leaves the is more likely to give sensitive nature of the researcher with the ethical honest response than adiscussion which means they dilemma of whether to high court judge. are unlikely to produce break the respondentslarge enough samples to be trust and pass the representative. information onto the police.
  • 57. Interpretivist Non-Participant obs Where the researcher observes Generally used by Participant obs without interfering. Interpretivists due to Where the their ability to researcher generate valid data Structured becomes a part Unstructuredabout what people think of what they a set of criteria in Nothing set just and feel and how they record as much observe. categories that act. need to be important recorded. information as Qualitative possible. Small in-depth datagiving us a real insight Observations Covert observation - the sociologist is open Primary about what they are doing by making their identity This data has not Keywords and purpose known.been collected before Getting in: gaining access to a group. Covert observation - the Observers role study is done undercover as take a position which Going native: no longer the researchers identity will not allow you to being a research and being a and purpose are concealed. disrupt the groups part of the group. normal behaviour and Semi-covert observation – Getting out: leaving the yet offer a good vantage to make group without putting Telling one person in a observations. yourself in danger. group but no others.
  • 58. Positivism John Howard Griffin Laud Humphries (1970) Structured observations Used medication and Broke the law by being a look could be used by sun lamps to conduct out at a toilet to find out more positivists as they create covert research among about sex in public places. data that is easy to black people in 1959. quantify and can be He knew he wouldn’t James Patrick (1973) replicated. be accepted as a white male. Acted as a gang member in Glasgow but had to leave due to Advantages the violence he experienced. Observations1. High Validity as you see people in their natural Disadvantages setting.2.A real insight into why 1. Time, money and personal cost through stress and people do the things they danger. do. 2. Personal involvement can reduce objectivity.3. The only chance to walk 3. Very difficult to replicate as its so unpredictable. in other persons shoes and 4. Not possible to generalise due to small sample sizes. get their view of the 5. Maybe unethical to members of group if deception is world. used.4. More flexible method 6. Researcher may be asked to commit illegal acts.5. A way to gain access to 7. The observer is likely to affect the groups especially deviant groups if they are aware of them (participant observation).
  • 59. Practical issues Going native Covert observation Covert observation Whyte (1955) maybe the only way to Many criminal groups recognised he turned won’t allow overt study criminal gangs. from being a non- participation or at very Gaining access to groups participating observe to least will only let them is going to be difficult. a non-observing see what they want them participator when to see. However if access Police stations and prisons observing Italian may restrict access to is granted this will allow American street gangs. the researcher to ask all observe. sorts of naive but Observations can take a Observations to interesting questions. long time without any investigate crime incidence of crime or deviance. Overt observation Ethics Ken Pryce was murdered It reduces the risk of observing organised More ethical dilemmas changing people’s behaviour, crime. than any other method Laud Humphreys found this in studying crime due to in his observation of causal risk to research, illegal sex in public places. The risk Validity activity and lack of of one’s cover being blown is A rare method that consent. How to leave very dangerous, along with reveals real insights into the gang without concerns that you may be criminal and deviant reprisal is also a asked to engage in illegal behaviour. challenge. activity in order to fit in.
  • 60. Positivist & Official statistics Advantages Interpretivist Gathered by • Its free and available to all. Can be used by both • Statistics gives us large government on groups depending on amounts of data births, deaths, marriathe type of secondary • Census done every 10 years is ges, crime and data used good for comparison unemployment • Done by the government and Quantitative & strict sampling so Qualitative representative. • ReliableDepending on the type of data Secondary data Secondary Disadvantages This data has beengathered or created • Statistics may not meet the before needs of the sociologists Crime statistics research. Positivist Because the police don’t • Definitions of terms change record every crime that over time. Statistics preferred by is reported to them the • Soft statistics (not every Positivists due to large stats we have are only incidence is recorded) like amounts of quantitative the tip of the iceberg from the police and data, which is reliable, as we know more crime education unlikely to be low representative and is happening. in validity. Generalisable
  • 61. Documents Public documents Personal documents Refers to diaries, Produced by organisations First person accounts andletters, photographs, like schools and includes experiences, these include newspapers, novels, things like Ofsted letters, diaries, photo and things from reports, council notes from albums and autobiographies. television and radio. meetings, published company accounts, and records of parliamentary debates. Historical documents Interpretivists A personal or public document created in the Preferred by Secondary data past. These documents will Interpretivists because allow you the opportunity tothe data is qualitative and see how people experiencedallows them a real insight the social world.into peoples meanings and motives John Scott – assessing documents Content analysis Scott says we must consider if documents are authentic (not fakes)A method for systematically studying and if it is credible (believable). We content of documents and must find out if the document producing quantitive data. Sue represents the past fairly and that theSharpe did this in her study of girls meaning of words, ideas and beliefs aspirations. hasn’t changed.
  • 62. Official statistics Validity RepresentativenessPractically there is always About 90% of crime is At first sight they seem large amounts of reported to the police by to be representative as statistical data the public, whether they do they are collected by available to researchers so depends on the nature government agencies but on a variety of issues of the crime. Crimes like we know they are only the from different domestic violence and sex tip of the iceberg. agencies. crimes are less likely to be reported which puts Reliability the validity of statistics in Although the same Validity question. research can be Biographies of criminals replicated what crimesmaybe be exaggerated but are included and howcan still offer real insight. Secondary data to changes making it Many official documents investigate crime difficult to compare. tilt towards enforcementagenicies like the police or Ethics courts. Documents These pose few ethical issues if Practically there is always Reliability and they are part pf large amounts of documents Representativeness public record. from courts, police etc that If documents about crimes are are part of public found they are varied and few record, however there is and far between making them also a lot that isunreliable and unrepresentative. restricted. Suicide notes along with graffiti can be
  • 63. Practical issues Ethical issues Time and money. the British Sociological Society guidelines. If you can get research funded  Informed consent – participants should be offered they may require a certain type the right to refuse to be researched. of data.  Participants identity should be kept confidential  Researchers should be aware of the social or Skills of the Sociologist to psychological harm of research. build trust and rapport or social  Special care should be give to research in vulnerable skills. Skills of the Sociologist groups like young offenders and victims. to build trust and rapport or  Covert research can take place but must be aware of social skills. problems of deception. A research opportunity may Factors influencing a come out of the blue leaving no time for Questionnaires. researchers choice of topic Theoretical issues  Validity – Getting results that are true to life, qualitative methods are seen to do this the best.  Reliability – getting results that be replicated, quantitative methods allow for this.  Representativeness – getting results that reflects all of society, large scale quantitative questionnaires allow researchers to make generalisations.  Whether the researcher is a Positivist or Interpretivist
  • 64. P.E.R.V.E.R.TPractical – time and money, difficult to analyseEthical – is it right or wrong?Reliable – Can it be replicated?Validity – Are the results true to life?Evidence of studies – What studies have used this method?Representativeness – does it reflect society as a whole?Theoretical - Positivist or Interpretivist
  • 65. Positivists Interpretivism Main aim: Main aim: Reliability, Representativeness Validity and Generalisability Structuralists: Sees society Interactionism: Sees society has a set of institutions which as created by our interactions shape our behaviour. with other people. Functionalists, Marxist Labelling theory, Charles and Feminists Cooley, Erving GoffmanA bird’s eye view of society, looking Walking in other peoples shoes,for cause and effect relationships subjective, small but quality dataand turning behaviour into numbers looking at how people interact Quantitative methods: Qualitative methods: gathering gathering lots of data that be small but in-depth data turned into statistical data Research methods: Research methods: Unstructured Questionnaires, structured interviews, participant observation interviews, experiments and official and personal documents statistics
  • 66. Aim of sociology: To find out why people behave as they do. Structuralism Social ActionTheories Sees behaviour as the result of us See behaviour as the result of being constrained by institutions. people interacting and creating their own meanings and motives. InteractionismTheories Functionalism - Consensus Labelling theory Marxism - Conflict Mead – Symbolic Feminism - Conflict Interactionism Goffman – Impression management Positivist InterpretivistMethods 1.Scientific 1.Walking in others shoes 2.Birds eye view 2.Subjective 3.Quantitative 3.Interaction 4.Cause and effect 4.Qualitative Questionnaires, structured Unstructured interviews, interviews, experiments and Official observations and personal statistics documents
  • 67. 7. Sociological theory only Key questions Key information1. Does society control us or do we control society?  Functionalism  Marxism and feminism2. Do we need new theories to  Social action approaches - explain recent changes in Interactionism society?  Structuration theory – Giddens3. Is sociology a science?  Globalisation, modernity and Postmodernity  Late modernity – Giddens4. Should sociology be objective and value free?  Sociology as a science  Objectivity and values in5. Should sociological research Sociology influence social policy?  Sociology and social policy
  • 68. Structuralism Emile Durkheim Talcott Parsons A theory which argues Concerned with how society Its important that that the institutions of stayed together after such individuals aresociety, education, family, rapid change. He said society is socialised to accept religion, politics, media kept together by social to norms and values and law & order all solidarity (shared norms and through institutions influence and constrain values) and collective like education, religion our behaviour. consciousness. If these things and the media. Consensus are not maintained then society could fall into a state of Anomie On crime An approach which says – Normlessness. society is based on Crime has positive agreement, meaning we functions which help Functionalism keep society balanced agree on norms and values. and in harmony. CriticismsUses a macro approach to On religion studying society.  Explaining the function of things doesn’t explain how they Religion helps came about. reinforce social Modernist solidarity through Agrees with the 18th  Too optimistic ignores rituals. It givesenlightenment project of inequality. people a sense of using reason to achieve  Too deterministic, our meaning and gives knowledge that will help behaviour is constrained and support during times society progress. there is nothing we can do. of emotional stress
  • 69. Structuralism Key ideas Solution A theory which argues Marx says institutions are used The Proletariat can that the institutions of to transmit ruling class never be free undersociety, education, family, ideology, then in turn causes capitalism they must religion, politics, media false class consciousness and cast off the shackles and law & order all the idea that capitalism is of oppression and influence and constrain reasonable and just. Marx says create a Communist our behaviour. Capitalism exploits and revolution. alienates the proletariat in Conflict order for the Bourgeoisie to On crime An approach which says create profit. Laws are their to society is based on oppress the working conflict between the Marxism class and control Bourgeoisie and the them if they revolt. Proletariat CriticismsUses a macro approach to On religion studying society.  Out of date, especially in relation to class. Religion is the opium of the masses it Modernist  Economic determinist – too doesn’t encourage Agrees with the 18th focused on the economy and the working class toenlightenment project of ignores gender and ethnicity. change their using reason to achieve  Marx’s predictions of situation because of knowledge that will help revolution haven’t come the promise of society progress. true, was he wrong? compensation in the after life.
  • 70. Structuralism Types of feminism Three Waves A theory which argues  Liberal – Using democracy to 1. Mid 1800’s – right that the institutions of change the laws. to vote.society, education, family,  Marxist (socialist) – Capitalism 2. 1960’s – equal religion, politics, media is the cause of womens rights in pay and and law & order all oppression work influence and constrain our behaviour.  Radical – men and women should 3. 1990’s – be separated. representing Conflict  Black – Sexism, class oppression ethnic minorities An approach which says and racism are bound together society is based on On crimeconflict between men and Feminism their subordination of Women commit less women. crime than men Criticisms because they areUses a macro approach to controlled by men. studying society.  Gender determinist – no place for issues of class or poverty. On religion Modernist  Patriarchy is in decline! Women Religion helps Agrees with the 18th are becoming more equal to men. suppress women byenlightenment project of  Fragmented movement, portraying women as using reason to achieve different ideas and solutions subordinate to men in knowledge that will help leads to a lack of unit or the bible and customs society progress. progress. and practices.
  • 71. Social action George Herbert Mead Herbert Blumer An approach which Noticed most of our Blumer says our actionsfocuses not on structures communication was symbolic are based on the meaning but the interaction such as smiles, and frowns. It is we give to between people. These our job to determine the situations, these individuals have free will meaning of these symbols and meanings arise from the and choice to determine act accordingly. He calls this interaction process, andtheir own actions. A micro Symbolic Interactionism. they are not fixed but approach which focuses Understanding the meaning of negotiable and on individuals. these symbols to us is the key to changeable to some understanding human behaviour. extent. Criticisms Charles Cooley Ignores structural Interactionism The looking glass factors like poverty. self reminds us that Not all action is Erving Goffman our self conception is meaningful sometimes made up of how Impression management is the we act subconsciously. others see us. idea that we give more or less If we care so much continuous performance to each other like actors on a stage. Like Howard Becker about what people think of us and we feel actors we manage costumes, The labelling theory a pressure to conform dialogue and props to give a good reminds us our then this seems as performance. Like an actor we interaction with though our behaviour also recognise when to perform others can determine is determined and not and when to not with front/back our behaviour. free at all. stage performances.
  • 72. Structure Action Whilst its easy to Structuralist theories are those see society as an Social action theories are that focus on the institutions of external force those that focus on society because these dictate our which constrains individuals and the way they norms and values and thus our behaviour, its interact with each other. determine our behaviour. While difficult to The reason for this is thatpeople can choose to act otherwise believe we have no they believe our behaviour is most of the time this ends in free will as we the result of the way we prison or social exclusion. These seem to express interpret and negotiate withinclude Functionalism, Marxism and this everyday. others over norms and Feminism values. Criticisms Whilst its easy to see how we Structuration freely choose our actions, its Can people just theory difficult to see how such choose to change freedom is possible without the structures of structures like democracy. society – slaves. Craib says this Structure and action isn’t a theory at all because it doesn’t Giddens says that structure and action are two sides of the explain what same coin; neither can exist without the other, he calls this the happens in duality of structure. He says through our actions we produce society, just and reproduce structures over time, while these structures are structure and also what make our actions possible in the first place. action.
  • 73. Globalisation The end of truth – Lyotard Death of sociology? Lyotard argues we have a variety If there is no socialThe way in which we seem of meta-narratives (big stories - truth about the world to live in an increasingly Marxism, science) all which claim to be discovered then ‘shrinking world’, where to know the truth. We should Sociology would societies are becoming reject the idea of absolute truth become useless likemore interconnected and in exchange for truth that is most other disciplinesdependant on each other. relative to each person such as science and (relativism). We should listen all Psychology. Main idea perspectives as equal possibilities. Globalisation has Jean Baudrillardchanged the world, such rapid social change Postmodernism He argues that all humanrequires a new theory to experience is shaped by explain its effect on Late modernists like Giddens and the media. Our problem society and people. beck argue society has changed is at times we are unable but that doesn’t mean we have to to distinguish reality assume we can never find truth. from fantasy Postmodernist (Hypereality). We We can no longer agree Criticisms struggle to tell the with the enlightenment difference between the project, as this hasn’t  Isn’t Postmodernism also a real and unreal and live a led to progress but meta-narrative? copy of the real world more manufactured  We can tell the difference rather than the real risks and uncertainty. between reality and fantasy. world itself.
  • 74. Positivism Sociology is a science! This methodological It’s the job of science to It’s the jobs of sociologistsapproach takes birds- study the natural world to discover the laws thateye view of society and and discover objective order our behaviour. seeks to create facts that will tell us Durkheim took this approachquantitative data which about its behaviour. in his study of suicide can help to find cause Society should be studied statistics. Sociologists and effect in the same way to reveal should use objective methods relationships. social facts. like experiments, questionnaires and statistics as these areUnderstanding society is Sociology as a science mathematically precise and about understanding not based on thoughts and people’s meanings and feelings motives, to do this you must use methods that Sociology isn’t a science! Interpretivism allow you to see theworld from their point of Interpretivists argues that This methodological view – unstructured people are more complex than approach focuses on interviews, participant things in the natural world like individuals and their observations and plants. People’s behaviour is interaction with others. personal documents. less predictable because they It seeks to generate in- Becker and Goffman have the choice to act depth qualitative datahave used these methods differently and frequently do that can reveal people’s in their research. so. meaning and motives.
  • 75. Thomas Kuhn Karl popper 1. Science is a paradigm1. No theory can ever be Popper says sociology meaning a shared set of said to be 100% true. isn’t a science because assumptions, principles and theories like Marxism methods.2. Science works by and false class Falsification meaning a consciousness are 2. Science studies the world theory can only be unfalsifiable. Sociology until it finds conclusions scientific if it can be could be a science if it that it cannot explain proved to be false or produced hypothesis (anomalies). true. that can be tested. 3. These anomalies cause us to3. If it can’t be proven or consider other paradigms disproven it isn’t Sociology as a science in order to find answers scientific! (flat earth vs. round). Kuhn says sociology isn’t a4. A good theory isn’t science because there is 4. Two paradigms cannot exist necessarily true but one together, at some point one no shared assumptions and that has withstood wins favour amongst the principles. attempts to falsify it so scientific community, this Functionalism, Marxism far. causes a scientific and Feminism all have differing ideas. If these revolution, a shift from one5. Science is an open belief to the other. could be resolved to system, it can and should create one paradigm then be constantly criticised 5. This process starts all over sociology could be a and this will allow us to again as this new paradigm science, but this is get closer to the truth. highlights new anomalies. unlikely.
  • 76. Key Question Comte, Durkheim and Marx Max Weber Can sociologists All agree that Sociology can be Its impossible for research be value- studied like the natural sciences, sociology to be value free meaning free objectively without subjective free, as these values guidefrom contamination or values. This can help society the type of research to be distortion by their improve and progress studied and the way to go values? (enlightenment project). Comte about studying it. and Durkheim were Positivist, Sociologists have a moral while Marx was in a scientist. responsibility for their work and the harm it may Howard Becker cause. Despite this Objectivity andSays we should ask although values arewhose side are you values in Sociology important we should try to on? Sociologists be objective and unbiasedalways take the side in the data collection. of the powerful Committed sociology(police, courts) what They argue its not only Other issuesabout the powerless possible but desirable to Sociologists research is such as labelled or use values in their research. constrained by other factors mentally ill? Taking Sociologists should not only like the values of their the side of the make their values clear but paymasters. Whether aunderdog will reveal actually take the side of a sociologist is positivist or another side to particular group. Gunnar Interpretivist will also affect reality. Myrdal and Alvin Gouldner the methods they use and the advocate this approach. type of data they generate.
  • 77. Definition Factors which influence social policy Social policy is  If the research led to a policy that would be unpopulargovernment policy to with voters. deal with social  The political values of the government at the time. problems like Previous parties have tried to stop research being poverty, crime and published because it was commissioned by the previous benefits. government. Key Question  What organisations like the EU think is important as noShould it be the job of decision is made in isolation.Sociologists to produce research in order to Sociology and social  Sociologists like Marxinfluence social policy? policy arent taken seriously as they are critical of the system itself.In reality sociological research is only one To be or not to be?  Costs arefactor when deciding important, even if the Opinions from sociologists are on social policy. government likes the divided, some believe theirUltimately any policy policy if funding research should feed into policy. is the result of Others suggest its there job to priorities liepolitical decisions by find out what is happening and elsewhere it will never those in power. be implemented. why and that its somebody elses task to figure how to solve the problem.
  • 78. Functionalism - Yes Marxism – No Its the job of the sociologist is to Social policies only serve the rulingprovide the state with scientific and class. Even policies introduced to help objective information on which the the working class like NHS are used to state can base its policies. dampen discontent and keep them fit toThe state will implement policies that work. Recommendations for socialhelp promote a fairer society for all. policies are pointless as only a revolution can solve social problems. The New Right Sociology and social policyThe state should have a minimal role when Perspectives on sociology and intervening in peoples social policylives, so criticises most social policies. Some Feminism – yes and no policies like theNHS, welfare benefits The state perpetuates its subordination of women reduces personal through social policies – promoting policies like responsibility (Charles marriage keeps women dependant on men. Feminists Murray). have helped promote anti-discrimination policies andThe NR promotes polices more positive images of women since 1970;s. Radicalwhich increase personal feminists support policies which separate women responsibility so often from men, such as womens refuges for victims of favoured by the domestic violence.