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CAPE SOCIOLOGY UNIT 2 Deviance teachernotes

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CAPE SOCIOLOGY UNIT 2 Deviance teachernotes

  1. 1. Deviance: The recognized violation of cultural norms To review, norms are rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
  2. 2. Conformity in Society Societies teaches us to conform  Social control refers to attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviors  Examples include praise, scolding, isolation, and laws  Most people don’t conform to all of a society’s rules  Which rules do you break? Does that make you criminal?  Winston Churchill held meetings with advisors in his bathroom while soaking in the tub – weird, deviant…but he was not a criminal!  Henry David Thoreau built himself a cabin of sticks and mud and lived for two years on what he could get from the woods – odd, deviant…but not criminal!  Grandma is deviant - she can’t help it! But that doesn’t make her a criminal!!!  Deviance is a matter of degree  Extent of disapproval  Degree of societal outrage  Sociology -Ms. Anderson 2
  3. 3. Deviance from the Functionalist Perspective (remember this…?)  According to Emile Durkheim and the functionalist perspective, deviance has some positive social functions, which helps to maintain stability:    Deviance affirms cultural values and norms (without good, there is no evil) Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries (If cheating is wrong, then plagiarism must be punished) Responding to deviance promotes social unity (9/11 attacks) Sociology -Ms. Anderson 3
  4. 4. Sociology -Ms. Anderson 4
  5. 5. Deviance from the Functionalist Perspective  According to Emile Durkheim and the functionalist perspective, deviance can perform some positive social functions, which helps to maintain stability:      Deviance affirms cultural values and norms (without good, there is no evil) Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries (If cheating is wrong, then plagiarism must be punished) Responding to deviance promotes social unity (9/11 attacks) Deviance encourages social change (rock and roll of 1950s) Deviance can relieve tension (open fire hydrants on a hot day) Sociology -Ms. Anderson 5
  6. 6. Sociology -Ms. Anderson 6
  7. 7. Deviance from the Functionalist Perspective  According to Emile Durkheim and the functionalist perspective, deviance can perform some positive social functions, which helps to maintain stability:  Deviance affirms cultural values and norms (without good, there is no evil)  Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries (If cheating is wrong, then plagiarism must be punished)  Responding to deviance promotes social unity (9/11 attacks)  Deviance encourages social change (rock and roll of 1950s)  Deviance can relieve tension (open fire hydrants on a hot day) And some negative ones…(which disrupt stability)  Deviance disrupts norms (burning American flag during Vietnam War)  Deviance makes life unpredictable (school shootings make everyone think twice about safety)  Deviance can hurt people and property (duh!) Sociology -Ms. Anderson 7
  8. 8. Deviance from the Functionalist Perspective (continued) Structural strain  Develops when people cannot reach the goals that are admired by a society (the structure of society becomes strained)  Result: people can turn to deviance Sociologist Robert Merton believed that if a society provided the means for all to reach cultural goals, then no deviance would exist Sociology -Ms. Anderson 8
  9. 9. Sociologist Robert K. Merton: “Failure to attain US social goals leads to deviant behavior.” Sociology -Ms. Anderson 9
  10. 10. Deviance from the Functionalist Perspective (continued)    Structural strain develops when people cannot reach the goals that are admired by a society (the structure of society becomes strained) and therefore turn to deviance Sociologist Robert Merton believed that if a society provided the means for all to reach cultural goals, than no deviance would exist For him, the primary cultural goal in the US is financial success, and obviously, some fail to attain this      Conformists – pursue social goals through accepted means; not deviant Innovators – find alternate ways to reach society’s goals (Al Capone; modern drug dealers) Ritualists – go through the accepted motions but feel that their behavior is pointless (low level bureaucrats and middle managers who know that they will never be promoted) Retreatists – reject both cultural goals and means of reaching them by dropping out of society (drug addicts, alcoholics, and “bums”) Rebels – reject both goals and means and develop new ones (idealists, socialists, militarists) Sociology -Ms. Anderson 10
  11. 11. Sociology -Ms. Anderson 11
  12. 12. Which Deviance Typology is Milton? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSU0RQoyfv8 Sociology -Ms. Anderson 12
  13. 13. Deviance from Interactionist Perspectives (remember this…?)  Labeling theory states that deviance is based not on the action but on our response to it   That “bad kid” in 1st grade…will the label follow him the rest of his life? Will s/he become a criminal? Cultural transmission theory states that a person learns deviant behaviors through social interaction Sociology -Ms. Anderson 13
  14. 14. Deviance from Conflict Perspectives: Norms and laws of a society generally reflect the interests of the rich and powerful  The rich and powerful have the resources to avoid being considered deviant    Evidence: white collar crime, corporate crime, organized crime, and hate crime are rarely punished compared to other crimes Poor do not   Armed robbery, muggings, etc. Any different than the white collar crimes above? Sociology -Ms. Anderson 14
  15. 15. Crime Why do societies develop standards of right and wrong? Crime is the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law  This form of deviance often requires more intensive, formal social control  Societies differ in the ways they define deviance, who is branded as a deviant, and how deviance is dealt with  Interestingly, because human behavior was once viewed only as a expression of “nature,” it was once believed that criminals could be identified by physical features (1876), body shape (1949), and personality traits (1967)  Today we understand that both nature and nurture contribute to a person’s tendency toward criminality   Sociology -Ms. Anderson 15
  16. 16. Crime (continued) Crime is deviant behavior that is prohibited by law and punishable by the government A crime consists of two components   1. 2. In the U.S., there are approximately 1.6 million violent crimes reported/year       The act (or failure to act) The criminal intent (can be planned or caused by negligence) A decrease from the 1990s (but on the increase again) Local and national crime prevention programs Large increase in the prison population Reduction in the youth population Are actual crime statistics higher or lower? Sociology -Ms. Anderson 16
  17. 17. Types of Indexed Crime  Conventional Crime All violent crime  Property Crime  “Morals” crime (prostitution, illegal gambling)    Moral crimes are often referred to as victimless crimes (is this necessarily true?) Occupational/Corporate Crime  “White Collar Crime” Sociology -Ms. Anderson 17
  18. 18. Types of Crime  Organized Crime   The Mafia, money laundering, drug trafficking Political Crime  Crimes against or from within the government Sociology -Ms. Anderson 18
  19. 19. 7 FBI Index Crimes 9.9% 0.1% Larceny Theft 3.5% Rape 59.8% Assault 18.0% Burglary Robbery Auto Theft 7.9% Murder 0.8% Sociology -Ms. Anderson 19
  20. 20. Crime Around the World – A Global Perspective  By world standards, the U.S. crime rate is high             1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 murder every 34 minutes rape every 6 minutes robbery every minute assault every 34 seconds auto theft every 27 seconds violent crime every 22 seconds burglary every 15 seconds larceny theft every 5 seconds property crime every 3 seconds U.S.’s violent crime rate is 5x greater than Europe’s, and our property crime rate is 2x greater than Europe’s India and Japan have some of the lowest crime rates Why is the U.S. crime rate high?    Diversity? Economic inequality? Gun ownership? Sociology -Ms. Anderson 20
  21. 21. Why is punishment practiced? Retribution (revenge is necessary to keep moral balance of world in check; punishment should fit the crime)  Deterrence (discourage criminality through suffering)  Rehabilitation (reform the offender through individually tailored improvement plan)  Societal protection (make offender incapable of further offenses)  Sociology -Ms. Anderson 21
  22. 22. Does incarceration (jail) work?  Criminal recidivism refers to the subsequent offenses by people convicted of crimes ½ will return to jail  ¾ of those in jail have been jailed before  Will the stigma associated with being jailed increase the likelihood of a future arrest?   1/3 of crimes are known to the police, and of those, only 1/5 result in an arrest Sociology -Ms. Anderson 22
  23. 23. The Death Penalty: Is it an effective deterrent? Lethal injection is the most widely used method of execution, but hangings, firing squad, and gas chamber executions were all performed in the 1990s  TX, CA, and FL use the death penalty most frequently; overall, 5 states account for ½ of the prisoners on death row  Today, the U.S. does not execute juveniles (though it has in the past) nor the mentally disabled  The U.S. and Japan are the only two high-income nations that utilize the death penalty  The world is moving away from legalizing the death penalty  Sociology -Ms. Anderson 23
  24. 24. Sociology -Ms. Anderson 24
  25. 25. What U.S. States Have the Death Penalty? Sociology -Ms. Anderson 25
  26. 26. Use of the Death Penalty Sociology -Ms. Anderson 26
  27. 27. Does the Death Penalty Work? Sociology -Ms. Anderson 27

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