The Information Warfare: how it can affect us


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The Information Warfare: how it can affect us
Rethinking Warfare
9-10th September, 2012
University Fernando Pessoa

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The Information Warfare: how it can affect us

  1. 1. The Information Warfare - how it can affect us - Luis Borges Gouveia (UFP)
  2. 2. one initial remark…
  3. 3. Ideas & concepts are great but…
  4. 4. One of the main topics in warfare in the 21st Century• NETWORK-CENTRIC AND INFORMATION WARFARE, OPERATIONS, AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY – Networks (focus on computers and telecommunications) – Memory and storage & information analysis – intelligence (focus on digital information) – Electronic based tech to influence, alter, reduce and change information (focus on how humans process information)• Gibish, E. (2003). WARFARE IN THE 21ST CENTURY - A Selected Bibliography. U.S. Army War College Library. Carlisle Barracks, PA. EUA
  5. 5. Information warfare is a everyone concern – worldwide…• Explore the Pakistan’s site Terminal X on Defence, intelligence and geopolitics – communication.html
  6. 6. One (big) example…• On June 23 2009, the United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates issued notifications for the establishment of the worlds first dedicated CYBERCOM (Cyber Command), the USCYBERCOM based on growing concerns of Chinese military penetration into Pentagon defense systems. He outlined the objective in the following statement: "My own view is that the only way to counteract both criminal and espionage activity online is to be proactive. If the U.S. is taking a formal approach to this, then that has to be a good thing. The Chinese are viewed as the source of a great many attacks on Western infrastructure and just recently, the U.S. electrical grid. If that is determined to be an organized attack, I would want to go and take down the source of those attacks. The only problem is that the Internet, by its very nature, has no borders and if the U.S. takes on the mantle of the worlds police; that might not go down so well."
  7. 7. Another one…• On January 15 2011, the NY Times reported: Over the past two years, according to intelligence and military experts familiar with its operations, Dimona has taken on a new, equally secret role — as a critical testing ground in a joint American and Israeli effort to undermine Iran’s efforts to make a bomb of its own. Behind Dimona’s barbed wire, the experts say, Israel has spun nuclear centrifuges virtually identical to Iran’s at Natanz, where Iranian scientists are struggling to enrich uranium. They say Dimona tested the effectiveness of the Stuxnet computer worm, a destructive program that appears to have wiped out roughly a fifth of Iran’s nuclear centrifuges and helped delay, though not destroy, Tehran’s ability to make its first nuclear arms.• Conflicting reports just recently now suggest that it was the US which was behind the design, trial and injection of the Stuxnet worm. There can be a strong possibility that both Israel and the US cyber commands worked in tandem against Irani cyber command which was setup to "prevent espionage and sabotage in Information Technology (IT) tools" according to General Syed Kamal Hadianfar, Head of the Information Production and Exchange Department of the Law Enforcement Police in Iran.
  8. 8. Cyberwar non human nature…
  9. 9. Working DefinitionInformation warfare is comprised of operations directed against information in any form, transmitted over any media, including operations against information content, its supporting systems and software, the physical hardware device that stores the data or instructions, and also human practices and perceptions
  10. 10. Information Operations (IO)• Military Information Warfare• IO is conducted during time of crisis or conflict to affect adversary information and information systems while defending ones own information and systems
  11. 11. peace as an ultimate goal". . . attaining one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the pinnacle of excellence. Subjugating the enemys army without fighting is the true pinnacle of excellence." Sun Tzu, The Art of War
  12. 12. Better than brute force"There are but two powers in the world, thesword and the mind. In the long run thesword is always beaten by the mind." Napoleon Bonaparte
  13. 13. Core Capabilities• Psychological Operations (PSYOPS)• Military Deception (MILDEC)• Operations Security (OPSEC)• Computer Network Operations (CNO)• Electronic Warfare (EW)
  14. 14. Environment ShapingPolitical Power Overt PeacetimeEconomic Power Shaping the PSYOPPublic Affairs Information Space DeceptionPublic Diplomacy Covert Action Deterrent Capabilities Information Operations Public Diplomacy International Power Shaping the Public Affairs Force Disposition Conflict Space Network Security Psychological Operations Operational Security Covert Action & Deception Information Warfare Force Disposition Deception Shaping the Fire Power Operational Security Battle-Space Electronic Warfare Psychological Operations
  15. 15. Evolution of Terminology• Propaganda & Political Warfare• Psychological Warfare• Psychological Operations• Information Warfare• Information Operations• Influence Attitudes / Strategic Influence / Perception Management
  16. 16. IO & IW formal definitions• Information Operations Doctrine (OTAN) - Information Warfare: “ Information operations conducted during time of crisis or conflict to achieve or promote specific objectives over a specific adversary or adversaries.” - Information Operations: “Actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one’s own information and information system’s.”
  17. 17. Information Age ConflictINFORMATION INFORMATIONIN WARFARE WARFAREIntelligence  Influence AttitudesSurveillance  Deny/ProtectReconnaissance  DeceiveWeatherGeographic  Exploit/AttackOther
  18. 18. Potential vulnerability due to information war in our society• the vulnerability of democracies to false, misleading, or carefully crafted attacks orchestrated through the news media;• attacks by creative individuals skilled and determined enough to exploit communications systems and computer networks for illegal gain or to disrupt society;• criminal organizations (terrorists, drug smugglers, illegal arms merchants, international poachers, and rogue banking groups) that sit across any one countrys boundaries represent a poorly-met challenge;• coalition warfare in which military cooperation and interoperability are essential, but political goals are not fully compatible and intelligence sources and methods must be protected; and• psychological warfare waged against a general population in order to undermine confidence in leaders or the wisdom of their actions, often exploiting ethnic, social or moral cleavages in the target society.
  19. 19. Finalremarks
  20. 20. Cyberpower targets Intra cyberspace Extra cyberspaceDigital info tools Hard: denial of service Hard: atacks to SCADA attacks systems Soft: creaty standards and Soft: public opinion procedures campain and diplomacy to influencePhysical info tools Hard: campanies Hard: routing and cabling governmental control destruction Soft: software to support Soft: protests to identify human rights & others and embaressement activists suppliers Nye, J. (2010) The Future of Power. PublicAffairs. See also:
  21. 21. Three cyberpower tactics (familiar with these?)• A tell B what to do - if not the case, B will not do that• A do not allow choice to B - including barriers to B apply its own strategies• A shapes the B preferences - this way, B never consider some of the available strategies
  22. 22. Major players in information war• leading governments (most powerful Nations) – Vulnerabilities: depend on complex systems, also fragile, political instability, possible loss of reputation• Multinational organizations and high structured networks – Vulnerabilities: Legal action, intellectual property theft, system failure, public censorship• Individuals and less structured networks – Vulnerabilities: legal and ilegal stress by governments and big organizations, when caught
  23. 23. One more (general) conclusion…• Defensive information warfare, unlike warfare of other sorts, cannot be left solely to the government. It must be seen as the business of every organization likely to be a target• MacNulty, C. (1996). Changing Social Values and their Implications for Information Warfare. INFOWARCON 5. Washington DC. September.