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Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 2 / CHEMISTRY OF MATTER MATTER=ANYTHING WHICH HAS MASS AND VOLUME.
  • PHYSICAL STATES OF MATTER
    • 1. GAS= LOWEST DENSITY, PARTICLES NOT BOUND TO EACH OTHER, RAPID MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES.
    • 2. LIQUID= INTERMEDIATE DENSITY, PARTICLES ARE BOUND TO EACH OTHER BY “INTERMOLECULAR FORCES”, PARTICLES VIBRATE.
    • 3. SOLIDS= HIGHEST DENSITY, PARTICLES STRONGLY BOUND TO EACH OTHER BY “INTERMOLECULAR FORCES”, PARTICLES VIBRATE.
  • STRUCTURE OF MATTER
    • ELEMENTS= SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE COMPOSED OF ONLY ONE TYPE OF ATOM. THEY CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO SIMPLER SUBSTANCES
    • BY NORMAL PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL MEANS.
    • ATOMS= THE SMALLEST STRUCTURE OF AN ELEMENT.
  • ATOMIC STRUCTURE
    • MODERN ATOMIC THEORY= THE ATOM IS 3 DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE WITH “SUBATOMIC PARTICLES” FORMING A NUCLEUS AND MOVING AROUND THE NUCLEUS.
    • NUCLEUS= PROTONS AND NEUTRONS
    • ELECTRONS ORBIT THE NUCLEUS AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT!
  • PERIODIC CHART
    • THIS SHOWS THE ELEMENTS AND INFORMATION ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE.
    • COLUMNS= ELEMENTS WITH SIMILAR PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.
    • ROWS= INCREASING ATOMIC NUMBER AND MASS OF THE ELEMENTS.
  • ATOMIC NUMBER
    • LOOK ON THE PERIODIC CHART AND FIND THE WHOLE NUMBER IN EACH SQUARE. THIS IS THE ATOMIC NUMBER.
    • ATOMIC NUMBER = # OF PROTONS AND ALSO THE # ELECTRONS IN A STABLE ATOM.
    • ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS.
  • ISOTOPES
    • ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT MAY CONTAIN DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS. THESE ARE “ISOTOPES”
    • OF THE ELEMENT.
    • MASS NUMBER= THE # PROTONS +
    • # NEUTRONS
    • ISOTOPES OF THE SAME ELEMENT HAVE DIFFERENT “MASS NUMBER”.
  • ISOTOPES
    • EXAMPLE:
    • CARBON EXISTS AS 3 ISOTOPES: CARBON-12 ( 6 P AND 6 N)
    • CARBON-13 ( 6 P AND 7 N )
    • CARBON-14 ( 6 P AND 8 N )
    • HEAVIER ISOTOPES ARE “UNSTABLE AND RADIOACTIVE”.
  • ISOTOPES
    • MEDICAL USES
    • INDUSTRIAL USES
    • USED TO DETERMINE THE AGE OF ROCKS AND FOSSILS.
  • COMBINATIONS OF ATOMS
    • 1. “DIATOMIC” MOLECULES: ATOMS MAY LINK TO IDENTICAL ATOMS IF HIGHLY REACTIVE:
    • OXYGEN, NITROGEN, FLOURINE, BROMINE, CHLORINE, IODINE, HYDROGEN. (DIATOMIC GASES)
  • COMBINATIONS OF ATOMS
    • 2. “COMPOUNDS”= COMPOSED OF ATOMS OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS COMBINED CHEMICALLY. (PAGE 40)
    • WATER (HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN) AND CARBON DIOXIDE ( CARBON AND OXYGEN) ARE COMPOUNDS.
  • PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES
    • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES= CHARACTERISTICS DETECTED BY THE SENSES.
    • MASS VOLUME
    • COLOR TEXTURE
    • HARDNESS DENSITY
  • PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES
    • CHEMICAL PROPERTIES= DESCRIBE THE CHANGES THAT OCCUR DURING “CHEMICAL REACTIONS” BETWEEN SUBSTANCES.
    • EXAMPLE: THE RUSTING OF IRON (STEEL): IRON + OXYGEN--- RUST
    • (IRON OXIDE)
  • CHEMICAL BONDING
    • THESE ARE THE FORCES WHICH HOLD COMPOUNDS TOGETHER.
    • COVALENT BONDS: ATOMS OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS SHARE ELECTRONS OF THE OUTER ENERGY SHELL. ( WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE )
    • COVALENT COMPOUNDS ARE OFTEN GASES OR LIQUIDS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE.
  • CHEMICAL BONDING
    • “ IONIC BONDING”=OUTER SHELL ELECTRONS ARE EITHER GAINED OR LOST WHICH CREATES CHARGED (+,-) PARTICLES WHICH ATTRACT EACH OTHER.
    • EXAMPLE: TABLE SALT ( SODIUM CHLORIDE)
    • IONIC COMPOUNDS ARE SOLID CRYSTALS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE.
  • BONDING BETWEEN PARTICLES
    • “ METALLIC BONDING”= METAL ATOMS ARE BOUND TOGETHER TIGHTLY AS ELECTRONS ARE FREE TO MOVE THROUGHOUT A PIECE OF METAL.
    • “ HYDROGEN BONDING”= THE WATER MOLECULE IS “POLAR” ( +,- REGIONS).
    • EACH HYDROGEN ATOM IS ATTRACTED TO AN OXYGEN ATOM FROM A NEIGHBORING MOLECULE. ( PAGE 42 )
  • MIXTURES
    • 2 OR MORE SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE NOT CHEMICALLY COMBINED AND EASILY SEPERATED.
    • HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURE= COMPONENTS ARE NOT EVENLY MIXED. ( SALAD, PIZZA, M&M’S)
    • HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE= COMPONENTS ARE EVELY MIXED. ( SALT WATER “SOLUTION” )
  •