Atoms in Combination: The Chemical Bond Chapter 10 Great Idea: Atoms bind together in chemical reactions by the rearrangem...
Chapter Outline <ul><li>Our Material World </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds </li>...
Our Material World <ul><li>What have you thrown out? </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable materials...
Electron Shells, the Periodic  Table, and Chemical Bonds
Electron Shells, the Periodic  Table, and Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Chemical bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence electrons </l...
The First Three Rows  of the Periodic Table
Types of Chemical Bonds
Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Bond of electrostatic attraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donate or accept electron(s) </li></ul></ul><ul...
NaCl – Table Salt
NaCl Crystal
MgCl 2
Metallic Bonds <ul><li>Share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiny, </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Metallic Bonding
Metals Hammered into Shape
Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Share electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul...
Covalent Bonds
Carbon <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single bonds </li></ul></ul><ul...
The Many Shapes of Carbon- Based Molecules
Polarization and  Hydrogen Bonds <ul><li>Polar molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bond; weak bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Water Molecule
Van der Waals Forces <ul><li>Weak bonds between molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul>...
States of Matter
States of Matter <ul><li>States of matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><...
States of Matter
States of Matter
Gases and Liquids <ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No volume or shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expands to fill containe...
Plasma <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive nuclei in sea of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties </li...
Solids <ul><li>Solids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed shape and volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R...
Crystals
Crystals
Polymers
Polymers
Recycling Plastic
Technology <ul><li>Liquid crystals and your hand calculator </li></ul>
Science in the Making <ul><li>Discovery of nylon </li></ul>
Changes of State <ul><li>Transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing, melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling, condensat...
Changes of State in Water
Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds
Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of mol...
Hindenburg   Explosion
Chemical Reactions & Energy:  Rolling Down the Chemical Hill <ul><li>Energy of an electron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic a...
Endothermic and  Exothermic Reactions
Common Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction </li...
Forest Fire : Oxidation Reaction
Oxidation Reaction
Smelting of Iron Metal
Common Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Precipitation-solution reactions </li></ul>
Common Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Acid-base reactions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid produces H + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
The Science of Life <ul><li>Antacids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralization reaction </li></ul></ul>
Addition Polymerization <ul><li>Addition of monomers end-to-end </li></ul>
Condensation Polymerization <ul><li>Small molecule released for each added monomer </li></ul>
Forms of Polymers <ul><li>Depolymerization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desirable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undesirable </li></u...
Building Molecules:  The Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Alkanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable gases or liquids; used as fuels </li...
Common Alkane Fuels
Technology <ul><li>Refining petroleum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex mixture of organic chemicals </li></ul></ul>
The Science of Life <ul><li>Blood clotting </li></ul>
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Ch10

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Ch10

  1. 1. Atoms in Combination: The Chemical Bond Chapter 10 Great Idea: Atoms bind together in chemical reactions by the rearrangement of electrons
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Our Material World </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Chemical Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>States of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Our Material World <ul><li>What have you thrown out? </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable materials </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical bond </li></ul>
  4. 4. Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds
  5. 5. Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Chemical bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stable configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To fill outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give electrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accept electrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share electrons </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The First Three Rows of the Periodic Table
  7. 7. Types of Chemical Bonds
  8. 8. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Bond of electrostatic attraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donate or accept electron(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Na and Cl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fiery reaction results in stable crystal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. NaCl – Table Salt
  10. 10. NaCl Crystal
  11. 11. MgCl 2
  12. 12. Metallic Bonds <ul><li>Share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiny, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malleable </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Metallic Bonding
  14. 14. Metals Hammered into Shape
  15. 15. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Share electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diatomic gases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon and its bonds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Covalent Bonds
  17. 17. Carbon <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 valence electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone of biological macromolecules </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Many Shapes of Carbon- Based Molecules
  19. 19. Polarization and Hydrogen Bonds <ul><li>Polar molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bond; weak bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in many biological substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egg white </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Water Molecule
  21. 21. Van der Waals Forces <ul><li>Weak bonds between molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stack of paper </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. States of Matter
  23. 23. States of Matter <ul><li>States of matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. States of Matter
  25. 25. States of Matter
  26. 26. Gases and Liquids <ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No volume or shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expands to fill container </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed volume, no shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface tension </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Plasma <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive nuclei in sea of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Solids <ul><li>Solids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed shape and volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular repeating sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No predictable arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polymers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chains of molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastics </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Crystals
  30. 30. Crystals
  31. 31. Polymers
  32. 32. Polymers
  33. 33. Recycling Plastic
  34. 34. Technology <ul><li>Liquid crystals and your hand calculator </li></ul>
  35. 35. Science in the Making <ul><li>Discovery of nylon </li></ul>
  36. 36. Changes of State <ul><li>Transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing, melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling, condensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No temperature change during phase change </li></ul>
  37. 37. Changes of State in Water
  38. 38. Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds
  39. 39. Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants  products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number and kinds of atoms are the same on both sides of the reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4H + 2O  4H +2O </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Hindenburg Explosion
  41. 41. Chemical Reactions & Energy: Rolling Down the Chemical Hill <ul><li>Energy of an electron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic and potential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy changes with bonding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exothermic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothermic </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
  43. 43. Common Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepts electrons </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Forest Fire : Oxidation Reaction
  45. 45. Oxidation Reaction
  46. 46. Smelting of Iron Metal
  47. 47. Common Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Precipitation-solution reactions </li></ul>
  48. 48. Common Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Acid-base reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid produces H + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base produces OH - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH of some common substances </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. The Science of Life <ul><li>Antacids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralization reaction </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Addition Polymerization <ul><li>Addition of monomers end-to-end </li></ul>
  51. 51. Condensation Polymerization <ul><li>Small molecule released for each added monomer </li></ul>
  52. 52. Forms of Polymers <ul><li>Depolymerization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desirable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undesirable </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Building Molecules: The Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Alkanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable gases or liquids; used as fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon length affects state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be straight chains or branched </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Common Alkane Fuels
  55. 55. Technology <ul><li>Refining petroleum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex mixture of organic chemicals </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. The Science of Life <ul><li>Blood clotting </li></ul>

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