Introduction to MIS   Chapter 2   Information Technology Foundations   Jerry PostTechnology Toolbox: Voice InputTechnology...
Outline   What types of computers are needed for    business applications?   What are the basic objects that computers  ...
Changing Technology Selections    Desktop: $400-2,000                                     Workstation: $2,000-7,000       ...
Trends   Hardware    ◦   Size (capacity)    ◦   Speed (performance)    ◦   Reliability    ◦   Mobility and physical size ...
Technology Trends Cost of workers increasing Cost of technology decreasing Capabilities increasing    ◦ Processing spee...
Brief History of Computing   Forerunners    ◦   1642      Pascals mechanical adding machine    ◦   1694      Leibnitz cal...
Computing History   1970    ◦   1970         IBM System/370 announced    ◦   1975         MITS Altair 8800: micro kit    ...
Binary Data: bits and BytesSingle bit: one or zero (on or off)8 bits = 1 Byte:      101010101 byte holds values from 0 – 2...
Big Numbers (Terminology)Term    Approximat    Powe Powe        IEC    Binary value        e             r of r of 2      ...
Data Types                           Input                   Process                        Output                        ...
Application Objects     Primary Objects                                      Primary Functions      ◦   Text            ...
Application Objects: Numbers                          Precision        ROUND           Format   Numbers                  ...
AlphabetsHow many letters are there in the alphabet?This is a trick question. You need to ask: Which alphabet? Early     U...
Application Objects: Text   Text                                 Typeface Classification    ◦ Attributes                 ...
Resolution                            32                                       1624                                    12 ...
Resolution and Color             100 dots per inch                                 6 inches                               ...
Common Resolution Numbers  Video Displays Video     Pixels              Computer displays are based on a 4/3 VGA       640...
Aspect Ratio Aspect Ratio is the relationship between width and  height. Early films and NTSC televisions (U.S.) had an ...
ColorsRGB: Red Green Blue, 1 byte each (0-255 values)Visualize as lights:        255, 0, 0 is all red        0, 128, 0 is ...
Sample Vector Image                                       Displays well at                                       any scale...
Bitmap Images: Adobe Photoshop                                        (1) Set a light source.    Emboss                   ...
Audio: Cakewalk MIDI                                             MIDI editors                                             ...
Audio capture: Cakewalk                                                   When you capture                                ...
Audio Samplesfrequency (pitch)                      lower / higher440.01                    Frequency: (hertz) cycles per ...
Video: Adobe PremiereVideo captureor animationTransitionVideo overlaySuperimpose textSuperimpose textAudio (2 channels)wit...
Application Objects   Pictures & Video           Sound    ◦ Attributes                ◦ Attributes       Size & resolut...
Size Complications Object                               Raw            Compressed Lossy Text and numbers                  ...
Data Compression Storing every single pixel requires a huge amount of space. Compression looks for patterns. For example, ...
Computer Components   Input                       Process                  Outputseconds - milliseconds                   ...
Motherboard     Basic Computer Board                      Disk drives  RAM                                                ...
Physical Size   Processor and RAM internal distances determine    the size of internal components and the number    of it...
Intel Processor Speeds by Year         SysMark 2007 Intel Processor Performance300                                        ...
RAM Costs                             Cost of RAM         400         350         300         250  $/GB         200       ...
Parallel Processing       11   24   32  15   +   27   33   57  84   =   ___________________ Are 4 parallel processors ...
Cache MemoryProcessor                   Cache on                     File                   Processor                    N...
Connecting ComponentsMethod                         Max Speed                       Primary PurposePCI-e 2.0/x16          ...
PCI EXPRESS
SATA versus IDE
Comparison chart                IDE                          SATAStands for /    IDE: Integrated Drive        Serial Advan...
Advantages:      Maximum compatibility        SATA cables are also                                              smaller in...
FIBER CHANNEL
FIREWIRE 2.0
INTEL’S THUNDERBOLT
Input: Keyboards There have been increasing complaints about injuries ―caused‖ by repetitive typing tasks. Several manufac...
Input: Multi-touch Jeff Han Presentation February 2006 time: 9:31     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QKh1Rv0PlOQ
Input: Scanners   Scanners    ◦ Format      Hand-held      Page      Flatbed    ◦ Optical Character       OCR ―reads‖ ...
Input: Voice   Voice                                     Speak in    ◦ Microsoft Office               complete      inclu...
Output: Printers       Quality (resolution: dots per inch)        ◦ Ink Jet                   300 - 1200 dpi        ◦ Las...
Secondary Storage     Drive        Capacity        Speed         Initial Cost     Cost/GB                 (gigabytes)    (...
SSD and USB Flash       USB Flash/thumb driveYear     Capacity         Price          Read MB/s Write MB/s         (GB)200...
SSD Extreme: Fusion IO http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=9J5xGwdmsuo20 servers, 12 processors each, d...
What is a Server? Reliability Easy backup Easy maintenance Multi-user Scalability    ◦ Product family consistency (IB...
What is a Client/Browser? Display device/standards User interface Data collection New: Wireless    ◦ Cell phones    ◦ ...
Compatibility                                                                           Bal ance Sheet f or 199           ...
Software Categories   Operating System   Utilities   Programming Languages and Tools   Application    ◦ General purpos...
Operating Systems                                 Device                                 driver          Device           ...
Operating Systems: User Interface                           Gr a phica l user int er face            Com m a n d-lin eTa s...
Multitasking & Components   Components operate at different    speeds    ◦ Processor        nanoseconds    ◦ Input       ...
Multitasking                Single Tasking Task 1          Task 2          Task 3               Multitasking
Virtual Machine (VM)One set of computer hardware configured torun multiple, independent operating systems.             Mul...
Early Computer Languages   1st generation:        Machine    ◦ 1110   1101     get data at 1101    ◦ 1001   1111     add ...
Computer Languages   3rd generation:            Procedural    ◦ Four popular variations        FORTRAN        Basic    ...
Application Software   Research: Databases   Analysis: Calculations (spreadsheets    and more)   Communication: Writing...
Augmented Reality   Layering data on images and video.   TED 2010: Blaise Aguera y Arcas (Microsoft)     http://www.ted.co...
Paper Consumption                     Paper Consumption: Kg/Person/Year1816141210                                         ...
Open Software Issues   Operating Systems: Linux (and others)   Applications: Sun Star Office (and others)   Development...
Cloud Computing Server and data              Display               browser               application
Cloud Computing: Google Docshttp://docs.google.com Spreadsheet Word processor Presentation Drawing FormFree (limited space...
Cloud Computing: Office Web Appshttp://office.microsoft.com/en-us/web-apps/ Spreadsheet Word processor Presentation OneNot...
Technology Toolbox: Voice Input   Install and setup    ◦ Get a decent headset microphone.    ◦ Set aside time to train th...
Technology Toolbox: Voice InputCommandsCommand         Character/Resultperiod or dot               .comma                 ...
Quick Quiz: Voice InputUse the help system to find the commands for thefollowing:1. !, ?, #, $2. Make a word boldface or i...
Technology Toolbox: Effective ChartsChart Type      Purpose                 Common MistakesBar or Column   Show category v...
Technology Toolbox: Effective ChartsExample
Quick Quiz: Effective ChartsCreate the following charts:1. Use the export data form in Rolling Thunder bicycles   to gener...
Cases: Computer Industry                                                      Annual Revenue             140             1...
MIS - Chapter 02
MIS - Chapter 02
MIS - Chapter 02
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  • The simultaneous use of more than one CPU to execute a program. Ideally, parallel processing makes a program run faster because there are more engines (CPUs) running it. In practice, it is often difficult to divide a program in such a way that separate CPUs can execute different portions without interfering with each other.Most computers have just one CPU, but some models have several. There are even computers with thousands of CPUs. With single-CPU computers, it is possible to perform parallel processing by connecting the computers in a network. However, this type of parallel processing requires very sophisticated software called distributed processing software.Note that parallel processing differs from multitasking, in which a single CPU executes several programs at once.Parallel processing is also called parallel computing.The ability to execute more than one task at the same time, a task being a program. The terms multitasking and multiprocessing are often used interchangeably, although multiprocessing implies that more than one CPU is involved.In multitasking, only one CPU is involved, but it switches from one program to another so quickly that it gives the appearance of executing all of the programs at the same time.There are two basic types of multitasking: preemptive and cooperative. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system parcels out CPU time slices to each program. In cooperative multitasking, each program can control the CPU for as long as it needs it. If a program is not using the CPU, however, it can allow another program to use it temporarily. OS/2, Windows 95, Windows NT, the Amiga operating system and UNIX use preemptive multitasking, whereas Microsoft Windows 3.x and the MultiFinder (for Macintosh computers) use cooperative multitasking.
  • Fibre Channel is a technology for transmitting data between computer devices at data rates of up to 4 Gbps (and 10 Gbps in the near future). Fibre Channel is especially suited for connecting computer servers to shared storage devices and for interconnecting storage controllers and drives. Since Fibre Channel is three times as fast, it has begun to replace the Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) as the transmission interface between servers and clustered storage devices. Fibre channel is more flexible; devices can be as far as ten kilometers (about six miles) apart if optical fiber is used as the physical medium. Optical fiber is not required for shorter distances, however, because Fibre Channel also works using coaxial cable and ordinary telephone twisted pair.
  • A FireWire connection lets you send data to and from high-bandwidth digital devices such as digital camcorders, and it's faster than USB.
  • Thunderbolt (codenamed Light Peak)is an interface for connecting peripheral devices to a computer via an expansion bus. Thunderbolt was developed by Intel and brought to market with technical collaboration from Apple. It was introduced commercially on Apple's updated MacBook Pro lineup on February 24, 2011, using the same connector as Mini DisplayPort. Though the Thunderbolt trademark was registered by Apple, full rights belong to Intel which subsequently led to the transfer of the registration from Apple to Intel.Thunderbolt combines PCI Express and DisplayPort into a serial data interface that can be carried over longer and less costly cables. Thunderbolt driver chips multiplex the data from these two sources for transmission then de-multiplex them for consumption within the devices. This makes the system backward compatible with existing DisplayPort hardware upstream of the driver. A single Thunderbolt port supports hubs as well as a daisy chain of up to six Thunderbolt devices; up to two of these devices may be displays using DisplayPort. Existing Mini Display Port adapters for DVI, dual-link DVI, HDMI, and VGA are compatible with Thunderbolt, allowing backwards compatibility and no loss of functionality compared to Mini DisplayPort.Thunderbolt means you can now transfer an entire Blu-ray disc in 30 seconds or a year's worth of back-to-back MP3s in 10 minutes. And it's dual-channel, which means information can flow both ways, as you can see here:
  • MIS - Chapter 02

    1. 1. Introduction to MIS Chapter 2 Information Technology Foundations Jerry PostTechnology Toolbox: Voice InputTechnology Toolbox: Creating Effective ChartsCases: The Computer Industry
    2. 2. Outline What types of computers are needed for business applications? What are the basic objects that computers process? What are the main components of a computer? Why is the operating system so important? How does the Internet change the role of computers? What are the main software applications used in business?
    3. 3. Changing Technology Selections Desktop: $400-2,000 Workstation: $2,000-7,000 Sun (extinct)Laptop:$600-2,000 Cell phone:$200-700 Tablet:$500-2,000 AppleEnterprise Server: Motorola$10,000-$1,000,000 Super computer: $1,000,000+ Cray HP
    4. 4. Trends Hardware ◦ Size (capacity) ◦ Speed (performance) ◦ Reliability ◦ Mobility and physical size ◦ Price ◦ Data types: Text, Images, Audio, Video Software and Operating System Trends ◦ Original: User/Programmer ◦ Early: Sequential Questions ◦ Easier: Menus ◦ Current: User/Event Driven
    5. 5. Technology Trends Cost of workers increasing Cost of technology decreasing Capabilities increasing ◦ Processing speed ◦ Storage capacity ◦ Types of data  text  image  sound  video ◦ Quality and reliability ◦ Communications
    6. 6. Brief History of Computing Forerunners ◦ 1642 Pascals mechanical adding machine ◦ 1694 Leibnitz calculator ◦ 1750 Industrial Revolution in England ◦ 1834 Babbages analytical engine ◦ 1880 Holleriths punched-card system 1940 ◦ 1942 Atanasoff Berry Computer ◦ 1946 ENIAC electronic digital computer ◦ 1949 EDSAC stored program computer 1950 ◦ 1951 UNIVAC I: U.S. Bureau of Census ◦ 1954 IBM 650: popular 1st generation 1960 ◦ 1965 IBM System/360: 3rd generation ◦ 1965 DEC PDP-8: 1st minicomputer
    7. 7. Computing History 1970 ◦ 1970 IBM System/370 announced ◦ 1975 MITS Altair 8800: micro kit ◦ 1976 Cray I shipped supercomputer ◦ 1978 TRS-80/I, Apple II introduced 1980 ◦ 1982 IBM Personal Computer ◦ 1984 Apple Macintosh ◦ 1988 32 bit microprocessors (I486 & M 68040) ◦ 1989 RISC processors, LANs 1990 ◦ Rapidly declining cost of small computers ◦ Software integration ◦ The Internet expansion, Web browsers 2000 ◦ Ubiquitous computing ◦ Web 2.0 (interactive) and Social Networks ◦ Cell phones and mobile computing 2010 ◦ Cloud computing? ◦ Touch and voice interfaces?
    8. 8. Binary Data: bits and BytesSingle bit: one or zero (on or off)8 bits = 1 Byte: 101010101 byte holds values from 0 – 255220 = 1,048,576210 = 1024 Bytes bits Power of 228 = 256 1 8 25627 = 128 2 16 65,53626 = 6425 = 32 3 24 16,777,21624 = 16 4 32 4,294,967,29623 = 8 8 64 18,446,744,073,709,551,622 = 4 1621 = 220 = 1 Note that 32-bit hardware/software cannot address more than 4 GB of memory. Windows 7/32 max is 3 GB.
    9. 9. Big Numbers (Terminology)Term Approximat Powe Powe IEC Binary value e r of r of 2 term 10Kilo Thousand 3 10 Kibi 1024Meg Million 6 20 Mebi 1,048,576aGiga Billion 9 30 Gibi 1,073,741,824Tera Trillion 12 40 Tebi 1,099,511,627,776Peta Quadrillion 15 50 Pebi 1,125,899,906,842,624Exa Quintillion 18 60 Exbi 1,152,921,504,606,846,976Zetta Sextillion 21 70 Zebi 1,180,591,620,717,411,303, 424Some people use different names for powers … ten versus two. ofYotta Septillion 24 80 YobiPowers of ten use a base of 1000.Powers of two use a base of 1024.The IEC (electrical) standard in 1999 defines different terms for decimalversus binary numbers.
    10. 10. Data Types Input Process Output 000001100Numbers 12 + 8 = 20 000001000 --------------- 000010100 20 Text This is a test 84 104 73 115 … This is a test 0010000000000000000 0100000000000001001 0110000011000011011 0111111111111001111 1111111111111011111 Images 1111111111100011111 pitch or Time volume Sound 8905… 000001000 000001001 000010100 … 00101010111 00101010111 00101010111 Video 11010101010 01010101010 11110100011 11010101010 01010101010 11110100011 11010101010 01010101010 11110100011 00101011011 00101011011 00101011011 00101010111 00101010111 11010101010 11010101010 01010101010 01010101010 11110100011 11110100011 00101011011 00101011011
    11. 11. Application Objects Primary Objects  Primary Functions ◦ Text ◦ Cut ◦ Numbers ◦ Copy ◦ Pictures ◦ Paste ◦ Sound ◦ Edit ◦ Video ◦ Save and Retrieve ◦ Align Object At t r ibut es Funct ions All Cut , copy, past e, edit, sa ve, r et r ieve, align. Num bers Pr ecision, sca le. Tot a l, ca lculat e, com par e. Text Typefa ce, size, bold, it a lic, etc. Sea r ch, form a t , spell-check. Im a ge Resolut ion, num ber of colors Color a nd light cha nges bit -m ap or vect or. r esca le, r ot a t e, blend, et c. Sound Sa m ple r at e, fr equency & am plit ude, Recor d, pla yba ck, fr equency a nd MIDI or sa m ple. a m plit ude shifts. Video Inher it im a ge a nd sound a t tr ibut es Recor d, pla yba ck a nd fu nct ions, fr a m es per second. com pr ess a nd decom pr ess.
    12. 12. Application Objects: Numbers Precision ROUND Format Numbers function function ◦ Attributes 5.563 5.56 5.56  Display format 0.354 0.35 0.35  Precision + 6.864 + 6.86 + 6.86  Value limits 12.781 12.77 12.78 ◦ Functions Is the display Yes No  Computations precision the same as Spreadsheet: the computation =Round(5.563,2)  Aggregation  Sorting precision?  Comparisons Internal data formats decimal places Integer -32,768 to 32767 0 Float +/- 3.4 x 10 38 7 Double +/- 1.797 x 10 308 15
    13. 13. AlphabetsHow many letters are there in the alphabet?This is a trick question. You need to ask: Which alphabet? Early U.S. and England ASCII and EBCDIC 127 characters => 7 bits/1 byte 1980s Latin-based Code pages and extended characters: tilde, character sets accent, umlaut, … 255 characters => 8 bits/1 byte ñ, é, ö 1990s+ Asian ideograms, Unicode plus any language All modern languages and most 日本語 中文 dead languages Российская 1 character => 2 (or 3) bytes
    14. 14. Application Objects: Text Text Typeface Classification ◦ Attributes Sans serif Arial 20  Typeface Courier 18 (monospace)  Point size  Color Serif Garamond 24  Bold, italic New Century Schoolbook 16  Underline . . . Times 22 ◦ Functions Ornamental Braggadocio 18  Spelling  Grammar Brush Script 20  Searching  Sorting leading 72 points, 1 inch A
    15. 15. Resolution 32 1624 12 32/24 = (8/8)*(4/3) 16/12 = (4/4)*(4/3)Total pixels: 24*32=768 Total pixels: 16*12=192768 = 4*192If the rectangles are measured in inches: 4‖ x 3‖the resolution is 8 ppi and 4 ppi
    16. 16. Resolution and Color 100 dots per inch 6 inches 6*100 = 600 dots per line 400*600 = 240,000 pixels4 inches 4*100 = 400 dots per column How many colors per pixel? How many colors can the human eye distinguish? 16,000,000: 2^24 = 16,777,216 24 bits = 3 bytes: Red + Green + Blue (RGB) 3 bytes per pixel => 3*240,000 raw data bytes = 720,000 Double resolution to 200 dpi => 4*720,000 = 2,880,000
    17. 17. Common Resolution Numbers Video Displays Video Pixels Computer displays are based on a 4/3 VGA 640 x 480 aspect ratio from the older TV standard. XGA 1024 x 768 HDTV uses a 16/9 aspect ratio. SXGA 1280 x 1024 Actual resolution depends on the UXGA 1600 x 1200 physical size of the screen. WSXGA 1680 x 1050 Look at what happens to resolution with HDTV 1920 x 1080 the camera prints as the size increases. PrintersDigital Camera: 7 megapixels3072 x 2304 Method Pixels Per InchPrint Size Pixels Per Inch Fax 100-2003‖ x 4‖ 768 Ink jet 300-7004‖ x 6‖ 512 Laser 600-12008‖ x 10‖ 307 Typeset 2400
    18. 18. Aspect Ratio Aspect Ratio is the relationship between width and height. Early films and NTSC televisions (U.S.) had an aspect ratio of 4:3, so initial computer displays copied that ratio. ◦ 640 x 480  4/3 ◦ 1600 x 1200  4/3 ◦ Photographs often used the same ratio. But movies were created with a much wider screen and an aspect ratio closer to 1.85:1 or 2.40:1(check the back of a movie package). HD TV was designed to come closer to the movie industry and standardized on 16:9. ◦ HD 1080p is 1920 x 1080  16:9 ◦ Many computer screens have adopted that ratio.
    19. 19. ColorsRGB: Red Green Blue, 1 byte each (0-255 values)Visualize as lights: 255, 0, 0 is all red 0, 128, 0 is half green 255, 255, 0 is yellow 0, 0, 0 = black Hue LuminosityCMYK: Cyan Magenta Yellow KeyUsed for printing (Key is black)Expressed as a percentage of pure color.0, 0, 0, 0 = no color (white page) SaturationHSL: Hue, Saturation, LuminosityUsed in video/television.x, 0, 0 = black
    20. 20. Sample Vector Image Displays well at any scale.Stored internally as mathematical objects: Lines Points Rectangles Circles
    21. 21. Bitmap Images: Adobe Photoshop (1) Set a light source. Emboss (2) Twirl. Hundreds of tools and options. You can add and delete items from photographs. Professional editing is hard to detect. You need a really good monitor to edit photos.
    22. 22. Audio: Cakewalk MIDI MIDI editors provide complex editing tools for music. You can assign instruments, set musical features, even edit individual notes. Entire piece (1:39): 17,441 bytes
    23. 23. Audio capture: Cakewalk When you capture audio, you can edit it. Detailed options exist to match conventional audio studio facilities. Or you can edit individual samples. CD quality audio (44.1 KHz, stereo): 150 KB/sec or 9 MB/min (6 MB/min compressed)
    24. 24. Audio Samplesfrequency (pitch) lower / higher440.01 Frequency: (hertz) cycles per second time amplitude (volume) 37.15 Amplitude: height of the wave time How many measurements per second? Two numbers, 16 bits each, times two for stereo.
    25. 25. Video: Adobe PremiereVideo captureor animationTransitionVideo overlaySuperimpose textSuperimpose textAudio (2 channels)with volume fade. NTSC Video, full screen, 30 fps: 3 MB/sec (compressed)
    26. 26. Application Objects Pictures & Video  Sound ◦ Attributes ◦ Attributes  Size & resolution  Amplitude/volume  Colors  Frequency/pitch ◦ Functions  MIDI v samples  Display/Play ◦ Functions  Edit  Record  Play
    27. 27. Size Complications Object Raw Compressed Lossy Text and numbers 5 KB/page 2.3 KB/page N/A Image (300 dpi, 24-bit color, 4 6.32 MB 2.4 MB 78 – 245 KB x 6 in.) 1958 x 1128 Sound (44.1 KHz stereo) 352 KB/sec 170 KB/sec 0.01 KB/sec Video (DV 720 x 480 at 29.97 25 MB/sec 3.7 MB/sec 1 MB/sec fps, stereo) HDTV (1080p: 1920 x 1080) 6.8 GB/min 1.5 MB/sec (MP4) Compression: Text uses a ZIP folder. Image is JPEG at high quality (12), low (0) – medium (6) Sound is WAV at 44.1 kbps and WMA at 64 kbps Video is DV AVI and Microsoft WMV at 6383 kbps HDTV is MP4 HDTV: http://www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia/howto/articles/ understandinghdformats.aspx
    28. 28. Data Compression Storing every single pixel requires a huge amount of space. Compression looks for patterns. For example, instead of storing 1000 black dots in a row, it is much shorter to store a note that says 1000 black dots come next. The JPEG standard supports lossy compression, which matches patterns if they are close—saving more space, but reducing quality.
    29. 29. Computer Components Input Process Outputseconds - milliseconds nanoseconds seconds - milliseconds• Keyboard • Processor • Video monitor• Mouse • RAM • Printer• Optical scanner • Device controllers • Plotter• Voice input • Process control• Bar code • Voice output Secondary• Touch screen • Music synthesizers• Light pen storage milliseconds • Other computers• MICR • Magnetic Disk• Magnetic strips • Floppy Disk• Card reader • Optical Disk• Other computers • Tape Drive • USB Drive
    30. 30. Motherboard Basic Computer Board Disk drives RAM IDEProcessor—under the SATAfan andheat sink Power supply Keyboard, video, Graphics Expansion and other connectors Onboard and slots external
    31. 31. Physical Size Processor and RAM internal distances determine the size of internal components and the number of items. ◦ 2011 common distance was 32 nanometers (nm). ◦ Next goal is 22 nm. ◦ Placing items closer together means more capacity per chip and it can reduce heat and power consumption, and improve performance. Comparisons ◦ A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. ◦ Paper thickness (20 pound): 0.004 inches = 0.1 millimeter = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nm. ◦ A green laser pointer has a wavelength of 532 nm. ◦ X-ray wavelength is from 0.01 to 10 nm.
    32. 32. Intel Processor Speeds by Year SysMark 2007 Intel Processor Performance300 Multi-core25020015010050 0 1999 2008 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011
    33. 33. RAM Costs Cost of RAM 400 350 300 250 $/GB 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1990 $250 for .008 GB $32,000/GB 2007: $59 for 1 GB 800 MHz $59/GB 2010: $45 for 4096 1333 MHz DDR3 $11.25/GBwww.newegg.com Conclusion: RAM is free.
    34. 34. Parallel Processing 11 24 32 15 + 27 33 57 84 = ___________________ Are 4 parallel processors four times faster than 1? Crucial assumptions: ◦ There are multiple processors. ◦ Task can be split into as many parts as there are processors. ◦ Coordinating results does not take more time than processing. 23 xx +54 +92 xx yyy
    35. 35. Cache MemoryProcessor Cache on File Processor Needed Might need Read aheadFast Cache Memory Processor is faster than disk drive. Disk Drive Reads ahead and stores several pieces Slow of the file into cache memory. Pulls data from cache as needed. Cache is used as a buffer between two devices of different speeds. Disk- >RAM, RAM->Processor
    36. 36. Connecting ComponentsMethod Max Speed Primary PurposePCI-e 2.0/x16 500 M Bytes/s*16 Connect 64 G bits/sec peripherals, graphics cardsSATA II 3 G bits/sec Disk drivesSATA 3 6 G bits/sec Disk drivesFibre Channel 20 G bits/sec SAN/external drivesFirewire 2.0 800 m bits/sec Video, drivesHDMI 3.4 G bits/sec *3 HDTV videoUSB 2.0 480 m bits/sec External devicesUSB 3.0 4.8 G bits/sec External devicesIntel: Light Peak 10 – 100 Gbits/sec External devices(Thunderbolt)Max speed is never achieved, but it can reveal bottlenecks.LAN/gigabit rates are often limited by drive write speeds. Computers, drivesHard drive transfer 1 G bits/secBut, the newer methods (SATA 3 and USB 3.0) will improve the performance of large datatransfers. These methods become more useful when connecting to a large solid state drive.
    37. 37. PCI EXPRESS
    38. 38. SATA versus IDE
    39. 39. Comparison chart IDE SATAStands for / IDE: Integrated Drive Serial AdvancedAKA: Electronics / PATA: Technology Attachment Parallel Advanced Serial ATA Technology AttachmentLineage: Superseded by SATA Supersedes Parallel ATA (PATA) aka IDEYear Created: 1986 2003Hot plugging IDE interface does not SATA interface supports(add/remove support hot plugging hot pluggingcomponentwhile thecomputer isrunning):Speed: data transfers at the rate data transfers at the rate of up to 133Mb/sec of 150Mb/sec to 6Gbits/secData cable: Ribbon-like, wide, can be Narrow, can be up to 39 up to 18 inches long inches long
    40. 40. Advantages: Maximum compatibility SATA cables are also smaller in size than a PATA cable, allowing for increased airflow inside the computer case and decreased heat build up. This can help improve the overall life of a computer.Disadvantages: Lacks support for new 1. SATA hard drives will technologysuch as native sometimes require a command queuing and hot- specific driver to be loaded plugging hard drives to a computer when installing an operating system 2.SATA is that the cable allows for only one SATA hard drive to be connected at a time. Whereas a PATA cable allows for hookinJumpers: In a computer system, its SATA drives dont use possible to have more than jumpers. Each drive one harddrive. To connect connects directly to the multiple IDE drives, you motherboard. To set the need to chain the ribbon primary drive, you can cables from one to the access the settings from next. The computer system the computers BIOS has no idea which is the (special software that runs main drive, from which to when you start the load the OS. computer).
    41. 41. FIBER CHANNEL
    42. 42. FIREWIRE 2.0
    43. 43. INTEL’S THUNDERBOLT
    44. 44. Input: Keyboards There have been increasing complaints about injuries ―caused‖ by repetitive typing tasks. Several manufacturers have experimented with new keyboard designs (like this one from Microsoft) that are claimed to relieve physical stress.
    45. 45. Input: Multi-touch Jeff Han Presentation February 2006 time: 9:31 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QKh1Rv0PlOQ
    46. 46. Input: Scanners Scanners ◦ Format  Hand-held  Page  Flatbed ◦ Optical Character OCR ―reads‖ pixels and converts Recognition to letters and words.  Text and Graphics But mistakes arise. Text  Columns In  Proportional v Fixed Bitmap Fonts Pixels  Training v Preprogrammed ◦ Gray scale and colors
    47. 47. Input: Voice Voice Speak in ◦ Microsoft Office complete includes a decent sentences voice input system. ◦ It must be trained so that it adapts to your speech patterns. ◦ It is not perfect, but is Speak in relatively fast. complete ◦ It works best if you sentences. speak in full sentences—enabling the system to choose words based on context.
    48. 48. Output: Printers  Quality (resolution: dots per inch) ◦ Ink Jet 300 - 1200 dpi ◦ Laser 600 - 1200 dpi ◦ Typeset/offset press 2400 dpi  Speed (pages per minute)  Cost  Duty cycle: Pages per week or month Printer Initial Cost Cost Per Page Quality Speed (dollars) (cents) (dots/inch) (pages/min.)Laser: B&W 300 – 20,000 0.6 – 3 600 – 1200 4 – 8 – 17 – 150+Laser: Color 500+ 5 – 75 600 – 1200 1 – 30Ink jet: Color 100 - 500 5 - 150 300 – 1200 1 - 20 Check Kodak’s strategy (2007) for lower-cost ink.
    49. 49. Secondary Storage Drive Capacity Speed Initial Cost Cost/GB (gigabytes) (Write MB/s) (dollars) (dollars) Magnetic hard 80 – 3,000 60 – 200 65 – 200+ 0.07 SSD 16 – 512 60 – 320 200 – 900 1.76 USB drive 2-64 25 – 150 10 – 115 1.80 Tape 250 – 800 20 – 120 300 – 5,000+ 0.05 – 1.00 CD-ROM 0.70 2–8 50 0.18 DVD 4.77 (8.5 DL) 2 – 21 50 0.04 Blu-Ray 25 (50 DL) 4.5 – 36 80 0.12 Blu-Ray 128 BDXL, IH-BD Conclusion: Storage is free But high-speed storage costs moreCD/DVD Speeds: http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/dvdqa4.htm
    50. 50. SSD and USB Flash USB Flash/thumb driveYear Capacity Price Read MB/s Write MB/s (GB)2007 2 50 8 52010 16 55 25 182011* 64 200 100 70 *2011=> USB 3.0 SSD (laptop)Year Capacity Price Read Write Brand (GB) MB/s MB/s2010 64 725 250 170 Intel2011 512 1400 230 180 Kingston2011 512 1500? 415 260 Micron
    51. 51. SSD Extreme: Fusion IO http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=9J5xGwdmsuo20 servers, 12 processors each, delivering 225 videos each = 4500 videos.All of them delivered from a single (monster) SSD.The SSD has 8 controllers each capable of delivering 750 MB/s for a totalof 6 gigabytes per second!
    52. 52. What is a Server? Reliability Easy backup Easy maintenance Multi-user Scalability ◦ Product family consistency (IBM) ◦ Server Farm (Microsoft)
    53. 53. What is a Client/Browser? Display device/standards User interface Data collection New: Wireless ◦ Cell phones ◦ Tablets
    54. 54. Compatibility Bal ance Sheet f or 199 Cash 33, 562 Account s Payabl e Hardware Recei vabl es I nvent or i es Tot al Cur r ent Asset s 87, 15, 136, 341 983 886 Not es Payabl e Accr ual s Tot al Cur r ent Li standards? Bonds Com on St ock m Net Fi xed Asset s 45, 673 Ret ai ned Ear ni ng Operating systems Tot al Asset s 182, 559 Li abi l i t i es + Eq ◦ Unix ◦ Windows-NT Software & Data ◦ Binary incompatibility ◦ File compatibility & Error reading file conversion Invalid format.  Leading software  Limited standards (e.g., ASCII)
    55. 55. Software Categories Operating System Utilities Programming Languages and Tools Application ◦ General purpose examples  Word processing  Spreadsheets  Graphics ◦ Single purpose examples  Accounting  Tax preparation  Games  CAD-CAM Database Management Systems (DBMS)
    56. 56. Operating Systems Device driver Device driver Device Operating System driver Device Operating system tasks. driver ◦ Identify user (security). ◦ User interface. ◦ Load applications. ◦ Coordinate devices. Device drivers for independence.  Input.  Process.  Output.  Secondary storage.
    57. 57. Operating Systems: User Interface Gr a phica l user int er face Com m a n d-lin eTa sk Win dows, Ma cin t osh DOS, UNIX, IBM CMSSt a r t a pplica tion Click on icon Type t h e n a m e (m emor ize)Copy a file Dr a g icon wh ile h oldin g CTRL copy file n ew keyList files Gr a phica l explorer dir *.*E dit file Mou se, keyboar d, men u s keyboa r d com m a nds (m em or ize)Im a ges, a u dio, et c. E m bedded in syst em n ot a va ila bleSt a n da rds Ven dor s volu n t ar ily im plem en t E ver y pr ogr am is differ en t . st a n dar d act ions.St r en gt hs E a sier t o lea r n. F a st er for some t asks. Mu lt im edia. Less over h ead (ch ea per syst em).
    58. 58. Multitasking & Components Components operate at different speeds ◦ Processor nanoseconds ◦ Input seconds or milliseconds ◦ Output seconds or milliseconds ◦ Secondary Storage milliseconds Time comparison ◦ 1 ns / 1 sec == 31.7 years ◦ 1 micro / 1 sec == 11.6 days
    59. 59. Multitasking Single Tasking Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Multitasking
    60. 60. Virtual Machine (VM)One set of computer hardware configured torun multiple, independent operating systems. Multiple core processor VM1: Windows Server 1 processor, 4 GB RAM Shared VM2: Linux Database Server Memory 2 processors, 8 GB RAM Allocated disk VM3: Windows PC space Shared network 1 processor, 2 GB RAM One physical Computer You have to purchase operating systems and software for each VM, but only one set of hardware.
    61. 61. Early Computer Languages 1st generation: Machine ◦ 1110 1101 get data at 1101 ◦ 1001 1111 add value at 1111 ◦ 1101 0111 put result in 0111 2nd generation: Assembly ◦ MOV AX,[011E] get value at 011E ◦ ADD AX,[0100] add value at 0100
    62. 62. Computer Languages 3rd generation: Procedural ◦ Four popular variations  FORTRAN  Basic  COBOL  C total = net + taxes; 4th generation: Database ◦ SQL: select net+taxes from sales; 5th generation: Not Exist Yet ◦ Artificial Intelligence ◦ Natural Language ◦ Example: What were gross sales last month?
    63. 63. Application Software Research: Databases Analysis: Calculations (spreadsheets and more) Communication: Writing (word processors and more) Communication: Presentation and Graphics Communication: Voice and Mail (e-mail and more) Organizing Resources: Calendars and Schedules
    64. 64. Augmented Reality Layering data on images and video. TED 2010: Blaise Aguera y Arcas (Microsoft) http://www.ted.com/talks/blaise_aguera.html
    65. 65. Paper Consumption Paper Consumption: Kg/Person/Year1816141210 World 8 USA 6 4 2 0http://earthrends.wri.orgRaw data from Food and Agriculture Organization of the UNhttp://faostat.fao.org/site/626/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=626
    66. 66. Open Software Issues Operating Systems: Linux (and others) Applications: Sun Star Office (and others) Development: GNU A bunch of open questions: ◦ Total cost? ◦ Service and support? ◦ Training? ◦ Upgrades? ◦ Security? These can be ―religious‖ issues for some. The Internet solved many of the issues with the client platform, can it solve the application battles?
    67. 67. Cloud Computing Server and data Display browser application
    68. 68. Cloud Computing: Google Docshttp://docs.google.com Spreadsheet Word processor Presentation Drawing FormFree (limited space)Business Apps:$50/user/yearCalendar, e-mail
    69. 69. Cloud Computing: Office Web Appshttp://office.microsoft.com/en-us/web-apps/ Spreadsheet Word processor Presentation OneNoteFree (limited space)Business Apps:$50/user/yearCalendar, e-mail
    70. 70. Technology Toolbox: Voice Input Install and setup ◦ Get a decent headset microphone. ◦ Set aside time to train the system in a quiet environment. ◦ Within Word (or use the Control Panel):  Tools/Speech.  Follow the installation instructions. ◦ Train it by reading several stories. Using the system ◦ Dictate in complete sentences. ◦ Use the keyboard and mouse to edit. ◦ Use the toolbar to turn off the microphone to cough. ◦ Use the toolbar to switch to command mode for menus.
    71. 71. Technology Toolbox: Voice InputCommandsCommand Character/Resultperiod or dot .comma ,new line Enternew paragraph Enter twiceopen paren (close paren )force num, pause, digits numbers (for several numbers in a row)spell it or spelling mode spell out a wordmicrophone turn microphone on or offcorrect that change or delete the last phrase enteredscratch that delete the last phrase enteredgo to top move to top of the document (or bottom)move up move up one line (also down, left, right)backspace delete one character to the leftselect word select a word (several options/phrases)
    72. 72. Quick Quiz: Voice InputUse the help system to find the commands for thefollowing:1. !, ?, #, $2. Make a word boldface or italic.3. Print the current page.
    73. 73. Technology Toolbox: Effective ChartsChart Type Purpose Common MistakesBar or Column Show category values Too many series Unreadable colors Not zero-basedPie Compare category Too many percentages observations/slices Unreadable features/3-D Poorly labeledLine Show trends over time Too many series Poor or missing legend Not zero-basedScatter Show relationship Poor choice of variables between two variables Not zero-based
    74. 74. Technology Toolbox: Effective ChartsExample
    75. 75. Quick Quiz: Effective ChartsCreate the following charts:1. Use the export data form in Rolling Thunder bicycles to generate sales by state. Create a column chart and a pie chart for this data. Briefly explain why one chart is better than the other one.2. Using Bureau of Labor Statistics data, plot the unemployment rate and the hourly wage rate over three years. http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ec
    76. 76. Cases: Computer Industry Annual Revenue 140 120 HP 100 IBM$ Billion 80 Dell 60 Apple Sun 40 Acer 20 Lenovo 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Net Income / Revenue 20 15 HP IBM 10 Dell Ratio Apple 5 Sun Acer 0 Lenovo 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 -5

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