The Western Front At the beginning of the war the Germans came up with the Schlieffen Plan in which they would rush to France on the western front for a quick victory, then move on to the eastern front. This didn’t happen. The first battle of the Marne was a loss for Germany, which foiled the Schlieffen Plan. By this time the Russian forces in the east were already invading Germany. Germany had no choice but to split their army and fight a war on two fronts.
Trench Warfare By early 1915 the Allies and Central Powers had dug miles of parallel trenches along the western front. This was known as trench warfare, soldiers remained in the trenches for long periods of time and fought from in them.
Life in the Trenches Life in the trenches was completely miserable. The trenches were often infested with rats and other vermin. Even in the trenches they weren’t necessarily safe from enemy fire.
The Eastern Front At the beginning of the war Russia had launched an attack on both Austria and Germany. For a while Germany was occupied with France so Russia was able to push Austria back quite a bit. Eventually Germany returned and pushed the Russians out of Austria.
Russia Struggles Unlike most of Europe Russia had not yet industrialized. They were not able to produce supplies quickly enough. Russia’s one advantage was their large numbers. They lost 2 million soldiers by 1915 and were able to keep going.
The Total War Hits Home World War I was a total war which meant it touched every aspect of life. The whole government was devoted to winning the war. In a total war the government controls the economy to benefit the war effort. People were even recruited from other countries to come help in the war effort. Germans forced people from France and Belgium to work in their factories. The French and British recruited people from their colonies to help.
Rationing Since many goods were in short supply governments turned to rationing which is when people could only buy small amounts of certain goods that were needed for the war effort. People were encouraged to have their own gardens so they’d take less food away from the soldiers.
Censoring and Propaganda Governments attempted to suppress anti – war activity to keep morale high. Leaders also censored news about the war so people only heard the positive news. Governments also used propaganda – one sided information designed to persuade someone. War posters portraying the enemy in a negative light became very popular.
Silent Conversation Directions1. Get in groups of 2 -4.2. You will be shown an image up on the projector.3. In your groups take turns writing/circling/drawing on the matching image you have in your packet following the prompts/questions given. DON’T TALK OUT LOUD.4. When time is up you may be asked to share your group’s conversation.
Image # 1 Label the picture using the following words: Good/Hero Bad/Villain What is happening in this image?
Image # 2 Label the picture with the following: British German Victim Perpetrator What is being implied about German women (people in general)?
Image # 3 Label the image with the following: Strong/Powerful Weak What is being implied about Germany’s“We teach you to run!” enemies?
Image # 4 Who does “the Hun” represent? What makes “the Hun” intimidating to the audience? What is the desired result from this image?
“Humorous Map of Europe” – Who is portrayed as good? Who is portrayed asevil? How can you tell?