India before imperialism


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  • Mention Tectonic Plate Theory?SubcontinentA subcontinent is a large, relatively self-contained landmass forming a subdivision of a continent. By dictionary entries, the term subcontinent signifies "having a certain geographical or political independence" from the rest of the continent,[1] or "a vast and more or less self-contained subdivision of a continent."[2]Geographical map of the Indian subcontinentUsed on its own in English, the phrase "the Subcontinent" commonly refers to the Indian subcontinent.[3][4] Generally, the Indian subcontinent includes the countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka. The region largely comprises a peninsula of Asiasouth of the Himalayas and constitutes a geoculturally distinct region within Asia. The region contains desert, plateau, rain forest, mountains and a myriad of languages, races, and religions.
  • -BBC website on Indus Valley Civilization: do not know very much about the IVC because linguists cannot yet read their language.-The IVC is often referred to as “Harappan Civilization” after it’s first discovered city—Harappa.
  • The fact that historians do not have the capability to understand these sources has made it difficult to learn more about the civilization. Historians/archaeologists speculate based on the information they find…but nothing can be proved for certain.
  • Caucasus-area on the border of Europe & AsiaThe Aryan Invasion Theory argues:-Around 1500 BCE, Aryans from Eastern Europe invaded India. (Evidence: Hindu poems-called Rig Veda, written circa 1500 BC, talk about/describe northern invaders taking over cities in the IVC. An archaeologist in the 1940s, Mortimer Wheeler, discovered skeletons at Mohenjo-Daro & believed they were killed by invaders. However, there is no evidence of war/mass killings…which undermines his claim.)Cultural Implications (according to this theory):The Aryans brought with them their own language, called Sanskrit and religious and cultural beliefs. Over time, the culture and traditions of the Aryans and people of the IVC blended together.
  • And, this is where things get complicated.The Aryan Invasion Theory argues:-Around 1500 BCE, Aryans from Eastern Europe invaded India. (Evidence: Hindu poems-called Rig Veda, written circa 1500 BC, talk about/describe northern invaders taking over cities in the IVC. An archaeologist in the 1940s, Mortimer Wheeler, discovered skeletons at Mohenjo-Daro & believed they were killed by invaders. However, there is no evidence of war/mass killings…which undermines his claim.)Cultural Implications (according to this theory):The Aryans brought with them their own language, called Sanskrit and religious and cultural beliefs. Over time, the culture and traditions of the Aryans and people of the IVC blended together.
  • image from The History of Hindu India (Section 1, page 2)---From Indus-Sarasvati to Modern TimesImage shows connections between Indus Valley Civ & Hindu practice
  • Resource: varnas tended to be hereditary, or passed from parents to children.-The system provided order and stability to society.-The varnas were later split into jatis (castes).-Individual jatis developed a strong identity and pride in their occupation.-Movement from jatis to jatis was rare.-Over time, the caste system became very unfair for those at the bottom of the social order.-Though caste is still an important factor in arranging marriages, caste discrimination is illegal in modern India.
  • Mahmud of Ghazni Under Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030 CE) the Ghaznavid Empire, an Islamic dynasty centered in the Afghan city of Ghazni, reached its height. Mahmud's father, a Turkish slave named Sebüktigen, founded the kingdom in the 10th century CE, and Mahmud ruled as sultan from 998 CE to 1030 CE. Invading the Sind and Punjab regions at least once a year between 1000 CE and 1026 CE, the sultan, known as the "Sword of Islam," waged ruthless campaigns into northern India. Mahmud's invasions of India, which never extended to the central, south, and eastern portions of the region, were exceedingly ruthless. He is said to have carried away huge amount of booty on each visit, and among other Indian dynasties, the Chandellas of Khujaraho, the Pratiharas of Kanauj, and the Rajputs of Gwalior all succumbed to his formidable military. Places such as Kanauj, Mathura, and Thaneshwar were plundered, but it is the destruction of the Shiva temple at Somnath, on the southern coast of Kathiawar in Gujarat, which most people in India remember him by even today. Some Muslim chronicles claim that 50,000 Hindus died in the sack of Somnath, and it is said that the Shiva lingam (the main symbol of the god) was destroyed by Mahmud himself. After the battle, Mahmud and his troops are described as having carried away across the desert the equivalent of 6.5 tons of gold. Modern historians have questioned some of the assumptions of the "black legend" of Mahmud. Though there can be no doubt that Mahmud of Ghazni waged ruthless campaigns and terrorized the people who came in his way, there is nothing to suggest that he only attacked Hindus. The Muslim ruler of Multan, an Ismaili, and his subjects were dealt with just as ruthlessly. Revisionist historians argue that Mahmud pillaged Hindu temples because of the wealth in them, that he had Hindus among his commanders, and that Hindu temples were still allowed to function under his rule. But Mahmud remains a deeply controversial and divisive figure in the perceptions of history across the subcontinent today. With the plunder acquired from his raids into India, Mahmud made Ghazni a great cultural center, home to an extensive library and scholars such as Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, a mathematician and philosopher whose Kitab al-Hind was among the earliest literature about India's religious and philosophical traditions. The Muslim Ghorid dynasty succeeded Ghaznavid rule in the 12th century CE and was followed by the Delhi Sultanate, a series of five successive Muslim dynasties that ruled northern India into the 16th century CE.
  • The Story of the Turban (3 minute mark-origins of Sikhism, start of a discussion of the wearing of the turban)
  • Holy Book-Guru Granth SahibThere is only one GodGod is without form, or genderEveryone has direct access to GodEveryone is equal before GodA good life is lived as part of a community, by living honestly and caring for othersEmpty religious rituals and superstitions have no value
  • of the Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire was founded in 1526 CE, peaked around 1700 and steadily declined into the 19th century, severely weakened by conflicts over succession. Mughal rule began with Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur, who invaded northern India from his post in Kabul, and overthrew Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi sultans. At its height, the Mughal Empire included most of the Indian subcontinent and an estimated population of 100 million people. The empire's primary activities of war and expansion were supported by a strong central administrative and political system fully developed under Akbar, the third Mughal emperor. Under Akbar's rule (1556-1605), the empire expanded north to Kabul and Kashmir, east to Bengal and Orissa, south to Gujarat and southwest to Rajasthan. Establishing himself as a spiritual as well as military and strategic leader, Akbar promoted a policy of tolerance for all religions. His son, Jahangir (1605-27), and Jahangir's wife, Nur Jahan, who was highly influential in court politics, carried on Akbar's policies of centralized government and religious tolerance. India's economy grew under the Mughals as a result of the empire's strong infrastructure, expansion and trade with Europeans, who established bases in various Indian ports. Shah Jahan (1627–58), Jahangir's son, diverted wealth away from the military toward magnificent building projects including the Taj Mahal and a new capital city, Shajahanabad, site of a royal fortress and the largest mosque in India, the JamaMasjid. Shah Jahan's reign marked a turn toward a more Muslim-centered government, which his son Aurangzeb favored in contrast with his other son DaraShikoh, who favored a more diverse court. After a two-year fight for succession that resulted in Shah Jahan's imprisonment and Dara's death, Aurangzeb (1658–1707) assumed the throne. He reversed many of Akbar's policies supporting religious tolerance, and Islamic religious law (sharia) became the foundation of Mughal government. By the late 17th century, the empire was in decline, weakened by succession conflicts, an entrenched war waged by Aurangzeb in the south, growing inequality between rich and poor and loss of support from nobles and gentry. By the mid-18th century, the once great Mughal Empire was confined to a small area around Delhi.
  • Mughal miniatures, likeCholan bronzes, are among the most accessible and recognizable forms of Indian art, developed between the 16th and 19th centuries CE. Although there were several schools of Mughal miniature paintings, all of the miniatures share certain characteristics—rich colors, the use of gold paint, and fine brush work. The art form incorporated themes from cultures beyond India especially Persian and Central Asia. Alongside illustrations of Hindu epics, Krishnaand Rama stories, and Mughal court scenes, there are even depictions of stories from Christian theology such as the Virgin Mary, painted in Mughal style. The most distinctive quality of Mughal miniatures is the two-dimensional portrayal of their subjects. Mughal artists did not develop the sense of perspective that revolutionized Western art during the Renaissance. While the names of a few major artists such as Govardhan, Kesu Das, Basawan, and Manohar are known, Mughal miniatures are usually categorized by the period during which they were created, or the court or Emperor who sought to be immortalized. The Emperor Humayun, (died 1556) began the fashion by bringing in artists from Persia. The emperor Akbar is considered to have been the first major patron of the arts and the Mughal style of minature painting really developed in his reign. Miniatures first began as book illustrations but gradually became a more important form of artistic expression. The miniature form tested the artist's facility with brushes no more than a few hairs thick, and continue to test the modern viewer's ability to identify tiny details under a magnifying glass.
  • Jahan Emperor Shah Jahan (1627-58), fifth ruler of the Mughal Empire, became the greatest patron of Indian architecture under the empire, funding magnificent building projects that expressed and celebrated the grandeur of his rule. TheTaj Mahal is the most famous of Shah Jahan's projects and was commissioned as a monument and tomb for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died in 1631 while giving birth to their 14th child. Completed in 1648 and modeled after a paradise garden, the Taj Mahal also includes the largest inscription project of its time, with 25 quotations from the Koran about the Day of Judgment, divine mercy, and paradise depicted on its gate, mausoleum, and mosque. In 1983, the monument was named a UNESCO World Heritage site. Since 1996, excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India have revealed the existence of a lost "Moonlight Garden" mirroring the rectangular enclosure of the Taj on the other side of the river Yamuna: a project aided by the Sackler Gallery in Washington and paleo-botanists from the New York Botanical Garden. Among the magnificent works for which Shah Jahan is known, is the Peacock Throne constructed of gold and hundreds of rubies, emeralds, diamonds (including the famous Koh-i-Noor), and other precious stones. An extensive new capital city, constructed between 1639 and 1648, at Shajahanabad (present-day Old Delhi), included waterways, spacious squares, and bazaars. It was the site of a royal fortress, the Red Fort, and the largest mosque for its time, the JamaMasjid. Shah Jahan's reign ended in a two-year fight for succession between his sons DaraShikohand Aurangzeb that resulted in Shah Jahan's imprisonment, Dara's death by the orders of Aurangzeb, and Aurangzeb’s assumption of the Mughal throne.
  • Aurangzeb (1618-1707) was the third son of Mughal emperor,Shah Jahan. After a false report spread through the empire that Shah Jahan had died, Aurangzeb embarked on a brutal power struggle with his three brothers, including DaraShikoh, which he won in 1659 to become the sixth ruler of the Mughal Empire. He imprisoned his father Shah Jahan for eight years; the old emperor died in captivity. A deeply pious man, Aurangzeb practiced a much more orthodox form of Islam than his father, and was fundamentally intolerant of the Hindu religions. He ushered in a number of anti-Hindu policies, such as the jizya, a tax on non-Muslims, and imposed higher customs duties for Hindus than for Muslims. Worse still, he reversed the policies of Akbar the Great, demolishing many Hindu temples; he also persecuted the Sikhs, executing their ninth guru, prompting the Sikhs to form an "Army of the Pure" (Khalsa) to protect themselves. The transformation of the Sikhs into a militant order dates above all from his time. Aurangzeb expanded the Mughal Empire, conquering additional territories in southern India, but his policies created great unrest within his empire. He was continually forced to put down rebellions from a group of Hindu warrior clans called the Marathas, led by the charismatic Hindu leader ShivajiBhosle, who practiced guerrilla tactics and eventually formed a new Hindu kingdom. After Aurangzeb's death in 1707 CE, the Marathan Kingdom continued to grow, ultimately forming the Marathan Empire. Aurangzeb meanwhile had left four sons, who battled among themselves for power; the wars that he had fought left the treasury empty, which contributed to the Mughal Empire's slow decline, and eventually to its feeble capitulation to the British.
  • Map-Growth of the Mughal Empire, 1526-1707
  • India before imperialism

    1. 1. Resources National Geographic Feature on the Taj Mahal Documentary on the Division of India/Pakistan Slums of India
    3. 3. Geography •India is part of Asia. •It is considered a “subcontinent” because of its size. •In the north are high mountains, the Himalayas and Hindu Kush.
    4. 4. Indus Valley Civilization • The IVC developed along the Indus River around 2500 BCE. • The people of this civilization were mostly farmers. • They built large, well-organized cities. The Indus River is located in modern day Pakistan. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two of the major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.
    5. 5. MohenjoDaro This is a recreation of what the entrance to MohenjoDaro may have looked like.
    6. 6. The Great Bath at MohenjoDaro This is one of the earliest examples of a public bath or water storage system found in the world. The Indus Valley people were great architects and city planners.
    7. 7. Language of the IVC Historians are currently unable to read the language of the IVC. As a result of this, all information about the civilization comes from archaeology.
    8. 8. The Decline and Fall of the IVC •There are currently several theories about the fall of the IVC: •Aryan Invasion (Highly controversial) •Around 1500 BCE, Aryans from the Caucasus invaded & the IVC, (possibly) weakened by natural disasters, was unable to fight them off •Evidence: 1) Hindu poems-Rig Veda, written c. 1500 BCE, which talk northern invaders taking over cities in the IVC 2) 39 skulls found by an archaeologist at Mohenjo-Daro.
    9. 9. The Decline and Fall of the IVC •Environmental Disaster (Flooding, Famine, or perhaps the destruction of the natural environment by the people of the IVC) •Earthquake (Massive earthquake changed course of rivers, drying up tributaries)
    10. 10. Hinduism • Hinduism is considered to be one of the worlds oldest religions. However, the exact origins/early history of the religion are unknown.
    11. 11. Hinduism Cont’d • The central Holy books of Hinduism are the four Vedas, which are considered to be the spoken word of God. • Hindus believe that cows are sacred. • Hinduism is filled with rituals which help people move from the outer physical reality to one of the spirit. Some rituals include the marriage ceremony, naming the child, and carrying him or her to face the rising sun for the first time. • Loud music or singing, and dancing often accompany celebrations.
    12. 12. Caste System • Dates back to roughly 1200 BCE. • The class system (varna) were split into four broad classes: priests, warriors, merc hants, and workers. • Later, the varnas were split into sub-sections called jatis, or castes.
    13. 13. Muslim Invasions (11th-16th centuries) •The first Muslims arrived in India during the 8th century. •Over the course of the 11th and 16th centuries, India experienced a series of invasions by various Mahmud of Muslim nations. Ghazni
    14. 14. Sikhism-Origins • Sikhism originated in what is now India/Pakistan around 1500 BCE. • It was founded by Guru Nanak during a period of religious conflict and division between Hindus and Muslims. • People were drawn to this religion which emphasized one God and the equality of all. Guru Nanak (1469-1539)
    15. 15. Sikhism-Core Beliefs • There is only one God • God is without form, or gender • Everyone has direct access to God • Everyone is equal before God • Empty religious rituals and superstitions have no value Guru Granth Sahib, Sikh holy book
    16. 16. Rise of the Mughal Empire (1526-1858) •Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur established the Mughal Empire in 1526 after a successful raid. •When he died unexpectedly in 1530, he was succeeded by his son, Humayun.
    17. 17. Mughal Empire: Akbar • Barbur’s grandson, Akbar is considered the architect of the Mughal Empire. • He expanded the size of the Empire through various military campaigns. • He pursued religious toleration to alleviate religious tension between Muslims/Hindus.
    18. 18. Mughal Miniatures Akbar was a major patron of the arts. Under his rule, the Mughal style of miniature painting really developed. Miniatures first began as book illustrations but gradually became a more important form of artistic expression.
    19. 19. Mughal Empire: Shah Jahan •He rebuilt the capital (Delhi), giving it large thoroughfares, water ways, stone walls enclosing the city. •While he embarked on major building projects, his people suffered. Shah Jahan, son of ---
    20. 20. Jama Masjid Large mosque built in Delhi during the reign of Shah Jahan.
    21. 21. Taj Mahal Shah Jahan diverted government funds away from the military to various building projects including the Taj Mahal, a tomb for his wife who died during child birth.
    22. 22. Mughal Empire: Aurangzeb •Aurangzeb reversed Akbar’s policy of religious toleration and enacted a number of anti-Hindu policies. He also persecuted Sikhs,killing their ninth guru. •Islamic religious law (shari’a) became the basis of the Mughal government.
    23. 23. The Decline and Fall of the Mughal Empire •As a result of his policies, Aurangzab ended up in numerous wars against Hindu rulers in the South (Marathas), which depleted the imperial treasury. •When Aurangzab died, his successors fought one another. •This weakened the Empire greatly, and the empire slowly went into decline, eventually collapsing after the arrival of the British.