SUDAN LOCATION : Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea. AREA: 1,861,484 sq km MAJOR CITY: KHARTOUM (capital) 5.021 million people POPULATION: (including South Sudan) 45,047,502 ETHNIC GROUPS : Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata. RELIGION : Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority LANGUAGE: Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur.
PEOPLE AND SOCIETY FACTSBIRTH RATE: 36.12 births/1,000 populationDEATH RATE: 11 deaths/1,000 populationLIFE EXPECTANCY: 55.42 yearsINFANT MORTALITY: 68.07 deaths/1,000 live birthsHEALTH:PHYSICIAN DENSITY: 0.28 physicians/1,000 populationMAJOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES:•Malaria.• Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, andtyphoid.• Fever-vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, African trypanosomiasis (sleepingsickness.)•Water contact disease: schistosomiasis (snail fever).• Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitisanimal.•Contact disease: rabiesPEOPLE LIVING WITH AIDS: 260,000 peopleCHILDREN UNDERWEIGHT UNDER 5 : 31.6 %
HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDMilitary regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politicssince independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil warsduring most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in thenorthern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arabsouthern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. Thesecond war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displacedand, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of twodecades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. Thefinal North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, grantedthe southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence forSouthern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelmingsupport for independence. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region ofDarfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from theAfrican Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize thesituation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability toeastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countriesprimarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack ofgovernment support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistanceto affected populations.
THE DARFUR SITUATIONKEY PLAYERS IN THE CURRENT CRISIS:•Khartoum Government with Omar al Bashir•Janjaweed, Popular Defense Force (PDF)•The Darfur rebel groups:- Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A)- Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)BRIEF SUMMAYGovernment neglect has left the people throughoutSudan poor and voiceless. In February 2003, the non-Arab ethnic groups of Darfur launched an uprisingagainst the Kartoum government accusing it ofoppressing non-Arab sudanese in favor of SudaneseArabs. The government responded by implementingtheir campaign of genocide, enlisting the help of Arabmilitia in Darfur called the Janjaweed. The ongoingconflict has made a large number of victims fromeither direct combat or starvation and diseaseinflicted by the conflict. There have also been massdisplacements and coercive migrations, forcingmillions into refugee camps or over the border andcreating a large humanitarian crisis and is regardedby many as a Genocide.
DESTRUCTION OFVILLAGES BY THEJANWAWEED ARMY
Villages destroyed by theconflict in Darfur region .
EFFECTS OF THE CONFLICTDEATH: As of January 2010: number of deaths is estimated between 178,258 and 461,520 with80% due du diseases.REFUGEES (country of origin): 162,000 (Eritrea); 43,000 (Chad); 11,009 (Ethiopia)INTERNALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE: (as of January 2011) Total: between 4,5 and 5,2 IDPs plus unknown numbers of IDPs. In Darfur: 1,9 (2.7) million (from 2003 to 2009) and 268,000 newly displaced in 2010. Widespread human rights abuses by the government and armed groups are a dailyoccurrence in Sudan including killing, torture, looting and destroying of property. All sides tothe conflict continue to commit violations of international humanitarian law, such as attackson civilians and on humanitarian convoys. Violence against women, including rape, remainswidespread, particularly in Darfur. Throughout Sudan, the government routinely represseshuman rights defenders, political opponents and ordinary civilians, subjecting many to tortureand other forms of ill-treatment. Though the International Criminal Court has issued arrestwarrants for Crimes Against Humanity widespread, systematic, and grave abuses persist.the government continues to restrict humanitarian aid, Darfuris also continue to face arbitraryarrest and detention, and people continue to be killed everyday.
THE REFUGEE CAMPSMain problems:• Upon arriving in the camps, the refugees have to wait sometimes for months in orderto enter the camps and get a shelter. Although space is not an issue, this is due to thelack of tents available. In order to maximize the space, people are grouped, withpriority to the women and young children and only then the group able to get a shelter.People outside the camps deal with extremely hot days and very cold night with barelyany protection.•African Union troops insure the security of the refugees, but militia raid through thecamps are still an occurring event.• water and food shortage create tensions among the refugees, which could lead toethnic dispute in the camp threatening the security of the people.• No shade, lack of trees within the camps. Indeed most of them have been cut due tothe necessity of material in order to build, or to create a fire.• Spread of diseases.•No sense of protection: Indeed as opposed to natural disasters, the war situation isongoing, the refugees are not starting over/ rebuilding after a one time event theyconstantly threatened by new conflict breakouts and thus have no sense of security inthe camps.
The IDP camps are all located on the fringesof town, facing waterless plains
Typical environment of the IDP’scamps.
WATER CONTAINER QUEUE AT WELLPOINT IN ABU SHOUK CAMP
Traditional IDP’s camp
FOOD DISTRIBUTION AT THE BOR WAYSTATIONfamilies are supplied with two months worthof foodstuffs, seeds, tools and other items
School children in the Mandela camp for internallydisplaced persons in Khartoum state
SET OF CRITERIA-FAST TO MAKE-EASY TO MAKE, for everyonechildren, adults, elders-LIGHT because the health condition of mostrefugees does not allow them to lift heavymaterials.-TRANSPORTABLE: the refugees are often movedfrom one area of the camp to another for safetyreasons-INSECT REPELENT: in order to fight the spread ofmalaria or tsetse fever.-ADAPTABLE TO CLIMATE: warm during thenight/cold during the days.-COMFORTING: to bring the refugee a sense ofcomfort, safety, peace.-LOCAL: using only local and sustainable materials:the ecological situation in Sudan is also a reasonfor displacement.