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# Heat

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• 1. What is thermal energy? Thermal energy describes the motion of atoms and molecules within matter. Temperature tells you how fast or slow those molecules are moving.
• 2. What is thermal energy? High temperatures mean that the molecules are moving very fast and have a lot of energy. Low temperatures mean that the molecules are moving very slowly and have less energy.
• 3. What is heat? Heat is the transfer of of thermal energy from one object to another. Heat flows when an object is warmer than it’s surroundings. HEAT ALWAYS FLOWS FROM HOTTER MATERIALS TO COOLER MATERIALS, NEVER THE OTHER WAY!
• 4. * EXAMPLE OF HEAT TRANSFER When you hold your hands around a mug of hot chocolate, your body gets warmed. This happens because heat flows from the hot mug into your skin. Thermal energy is transferred from the cup to your hands. Your body gains energy, and your temperature rises as a result. Energy is lost from the mug, however. It’s temperature decreases.
• 5. How does heat move? Heat can move in three ways: conduction convection radiation
• 6. Conduction In conduction thermal energy flows through objects as their particles vibrate. It usually occurs in solids and between objects that are touching. Example: Mug of hot chocolate to your hand.
• 7. * EXAMPLE OF CONDUCTION
• 8. Convection In convection thermal energy is transferred by the movement of matter. Convection occurs in liquids and gases. In convection hot parts of a material rise, while cooler parts sink. There is a flow of material and heat.
• 9. * EXAMPLE OF CONVECTION A pot of water is heated by convection, for example. As water is heated on a stove, the water near the burner gets hot and rises to the top of the pan. The cooler water near the top then sinks and gets warmed. Thermal energy is transferred by a cycle of rising and sinking matter.
• 10. * EXAMPLE OF CONVECTION
• 11. Radiation In radiation heat is transferred through electromagnetic rays. Matter is not needed in this energy transfer. All objects around us give off radiation. Radiation can travel through space. Radiation from the sun warms the earth, for example.
• 12. * EXAMPLE OF Radiation