Voice-Print Analysis is a combination of both aural (listening) and spectrographic (instrumental) comparison of one or more known voices with an unknown voice for the purpose of identification or elimination. Used in many criminal cases A part of a larger branch of forensics analysis called acoustic analyses.
It is said the technology is much like that of fingerprinting in that it creates a unique standard of comparison between subjects.
Based on the concept that every voice is individually unique.
movement of speech muscles
Voice Print Analysis was first developed at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey Main purpose military intelligence Technique adopted by Michigan State Police.
Modern-day use of technique adopted
AFIS Automated Fingerprint Identification System Jess Gambino
Automated Fingerprint Identification the process of automatically matching one or many unknown fingerprints against a database of known and unknown prints primarily used by law enforcement agencies for criminal identification strategies identifying a person suspected of committing a crime
linking a suspect to other unsolved crimes.
Background 1892: Argentina creates fingerprint system 1896: Edward Henry develops prototype fingerprint classification system now used in U.S. & Europe 1900: Scotland Yard officially adopts Galton-Henry system 1903: NYPD starts to create fingerprint files of arrested people
1996: Computerized searches of AFIS fingerprint database are implemented by the FBI
More Background 1999: AFIS is further refined to IAFIS 2007: largest AFIS repository in America is operated by the Department of Homeland Security’s U.S. Visit Program
Contains over 63 million people’s fingerprints
IAFIS National automated fingerprint identification and criminal history system
largest biometric database in the world
Services Law enforcement agencies can request a search in IAFIS to identify crime scene fingerprints obtained during criminal investigations For civil searches the FBI charges a small fee and the response time is slower automated fingerprint search capabilities latent searching capability
electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses
Conclusion The FBI has announced plans to replace IAFIS with a Next Generation Identification system
developed by Lockheed Martin
CODIS Emil Gombos
What is CODIS? Combined DNA Index System
Computer system that stores DNA profiles from Federal, State, and Local crime labs
More CODIS An expansion of the Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods Originally consisted of the Forensics Index and the Convicted Offender Index
Added the Arrestee Index, the Missing or Unidentified Persons Index, and the Missing Persons Reference Index.
CODIS Breakdown LDIS – Local DNA Index System SDIS – State DNA Index System
NDIS – National DNA Index System
Numbers Over 9 million offender profiles Over 300,000 forensic profiles
Has helped assist over 100,000 investigators
IBIS: Integrated Ballistics Identification System James Larisch
Guns/Ballistic Significance Guns have unique traces, like signatures Barrel, firing pin, firing chamber, extractor, ejector, etc. leave traces on bullet/cartridge Often these signatures must be compared
Find similar crimes, crimes committed by same people, gun registration, etc
In the Old Days…
Scientist would compare the ballistics found at crime scene to hundreds upon hundreds of ballistics on file
Automated Firearms Identification 1993: FBI, Mnemonics Systems Inc. – Drugfire Cartridge Casings, eventually bullet imaging Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms built Integrated Ballistic Identification System based on platform by Forensic Technology WAI Inc.
1999: Drugfire is no longer used, IBIS standard for both
What does it do? (Wikipedia) Ballistic Scanner: captures images of bullets and cartridges Signature Extraction Unit: algorithm to detect unique signature Data Storage: stores all collected data
Correlation Server: compares newly scanned data to database
Conclusion IBIS is an incredibly useful, efficient 10 possible matches, 75%-95% accuracy
Used in almost all gun-crimes in US
DNA Profiling Some history… First reported in 1984 by Sir Alec Jeffreys of England Made commercially available in 1987 with the opening of a blood testing center
What is DNA Profiling? Also known as DNA testing, DNA typing, genetic fingerprinting A technique used to aid in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles Sets of numbers that reflect a persons DNA makeup
Can be used in parental identification and criminal investigation
The Process First begins with a reference sample (individuals DNA found in blood, hair, saliva, etc.) Sample is analyzed using various methods to create a unique profile DNA Family Relationship Analysis
Compared against another sample to determine genetic match
DNA Databases Hold records of DNA profiles As of 2007, the United States had over 5 million profiles Can be private but most are government controlled In the UK, police can keep profiles on record even after an acquittal
U.S. Patriot Act gives U.S access to international databases