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Anatomical positioning notes


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Anatomical positioning notes

  1. 1. Anatomical PositionsAdvanced Biology Class Notes Mrs. Morgan
  2. 2. Human Body Organization• Human Body is organized into 2 main sections – Each section has cavities which house organs• Viscera: organs within a cavity
  3. 3. Body SectionsAxial Skeleton: head, neck and trunkAppendicular Skeleton: upper and lower limbs
  4. 4. Body Cavities The Axial Skeleton is made up of 4 cavitiesCranial cavity - houses the brainVertebral canal - houses the spinal cord
  5. 5. Body CavitiesThoracic cavity - above the diaphragm (houses heart and lungs)Abdominopelvic cavity - below the diaphragm (houses digestive/urinary organs)
  6. 6. Abdominopelvic CavityThis cavity isbroken into 9 regionsshown at right
  7. 7. Types of Body Cavities• Open cavities: open to the outside environment, lined with mucous membrane – Examples: digestive and respiratory• Closed cavities: do not open to the outside, lined with serous membranes – Example: cavities with heart, liver, etc.
  8. 8. Anatomical Positioning Correct anatomicalpositioning of a body is as follows: • standing upright • facing forward • arms at the side • palms facing upward
  9. 9. Anatomical Terminology• Common terms used to describe the positioning of body parts • Superior - above • Inferior - below • Anterior - in front of • Posterior - behind
  10. 10. More anatomical Positioning• Proximal - closer to the middle• Distal - further from the middle• Medial - toward the middle• Lateral - to the side – Ipsilateral: on the same side – Contralateral: on the opposite side
  11. 11. More Anatomical Positioning• Superficial - on the surface• Deep - below the surface This is deep (yuck, internal rat organs!)
  12. 12. Body SectionsSagittal Section - lengthwise cut dividing the body into right and left halvesTransverse Section - crosswise cut dividing the body into inferior and superior portionsCoronal Section - frontwise cut dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions