Document Analysis• Involves the examination of handwriting, ink, and paper to ascertain source or authenticity• Examples include letters, checks, licenses, contracts, wills, passports• Investigations include verification; authentication; characterizing papers, pigments, and inks
Related ﬁeldsHistorical dating—the verification of age and value of a document or objectFraud investigation—focuses on the money trail and criminal intentPaper and ink specialists—date, type, source, and/ or catalog various types of paper, watermarks, ink, printing/copy/fax machines, computer cartridgesForgery specialists—analyze altered, obliterated, changed, or doctored documents and photosTypewriting analysts—determine origin, make, and modelComputer crime investigators—investigate cybercrime
Document Examination• involves the analysis and comparison of questioned documents with known material• identifies, whenever possible, the author or origin of the questioned document
Handwriting AnalysisHandwriting analysis involves two phases: 1. The hardware—ink, paper, pens, pencils, typewriter, printers 2. Visual examination of the writing
Handwriting Characteristics• Line quality• Word and letter spacing• Letter comparison• Pen lifts• Connecting strokes• Beginning/ending strokes • Unusual letter formation • Shading/pen pressure • Slant • Baseline habits • Flourishes or embellishments • Diacritic placement
Handwriting Samples Flourishes or embellishments Connecting strokesDiacritic placement Word and letter spacing Unusual letter formation
Handwriting Characteristics Measuring the slant of handwriting Using a template overlaid the sample
Handwriting SamplesWhen obtaining a writing sample:• The subject should not be shown the questioned document.• The subject is not told how to spell words or use punctuation.• The subject should use materials similar to those of the document.• The dictated text should match some parts of the document.• The subject should be asked to sign the text.• Always have a witness.
Types of ForgerySimulated forgery: made by copying agenuine signatureTraced forgery: made by tracing a genuine signatureBlind forgery: made without a model of the signature
Types of ForgeryCheck fraud • Forgery • Counterfeit • Alterations Credit cards • Theft of card or numberPaper money Art—imitation with intent to deceive • Counterfeit • Microscopic examination • Electromagnetic radiationIdentity • Chemical analysis • Social Security Contracts—alterations of contracts, • Driver’s license medical records
Document AlterationsObliterations: removal of writing by physical or chemical means can be detected by: • Microscopic examination • UV or infrared (IR) light • Digital image processingIndentations can be detected by: • Oblique lighting • Electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA)
Forensic LinguistsExpert who looks at the linguistic content (the waysomething is written) of a questioned documentLanguage used can helpto establish the writer’s• age• gender• ethnicity• level of education• professional training• ideology
Analyzing Ink Ink can be analyzed to help determine the source Chromatography is a method of physically separating the components of inks.Types1. HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography2. TLC: thin-layer chromatography3. Paper chromatography
Paper Chromatography• Two samples of black ink from two different manufacturers have been characterized using paper chromatography.• The different colors, in different ratios, can help to identify the exact type of ink
Retention Factor - Rf• A number that represents how far a compound travels in a particular solvent• It is determined by measuring the distance the compound traveled and dividing it by the distance the solvent traveled.
Retention Factor - Rf• Each dye has a characteristic Rf based on the solvent used during the chromatography.• Can help to individualize the ink
Analyzing PaperAnalysis involves looking at the followingcharacteristics of paper: • Raw material • Weight • Density • Thickness • Color • Watermarks • Age • Fluorescence
Document Evidence Class characteristicsmay include general typesof pens, pencils, or paper. Individual characteristics may include unique, individual handwriting characteristics; trash marks from copiers; or printer serial numbers.
Counterfeiting• In 1996 the government starting adding new security features to paper money• Subtle background colors have been added along with other features to discourage counterfeiting • October 2003 - $20 bill • September 2004 - $50 bill • September 2005 - $10 bill