Unit Testing in JavaScript with MVC and QUnit

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While more and more application code move from the back-end to a JavaScript-based front-end, we still need to test this code efficiently. Testing JavaScript is often done using browser automation frameworks, but system-level testing is slow and brittle.

Here we present a way to structure your JavaScript application according to the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern and how this enables us to write unit tests for a large part of the application logic, using a testing framework like QUnit.

Sample source code available at http://www.zealake.com/public/javascript-unit-testing.zip

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Unit Testing in JavaScript with MVC and QUnit

  1. 1. Unit Testing in JavaScript with MVC and QUnitLars ThorupZeaLake Software ConsultingJune 14, 2011
  2. 2. Who is Lars Thorup?● Software developer● Coach: Automated testing and other agile practices● Advisor: Assesses software projects and companies● Founder and CEO of BestBrains and ZeaLake
  3. 3. Agenda● Sample application under test● How to use QUnit● Asynchronuous testing● How to use Model-View-Controller● Assumes knowledge about JavaScript● Assumes knowledge about unit testing
  4. 4. JavaScript must be tested in the browser
  5. 5. Example app: Collaborative Dialog● Front end entirely in JavaScript● Back end service methods implemented in C#
  6. 6. How do tests look like?● util.test.html● ok(actual, message)● equal(actual, expected, message)● same(actual, expected, message) ● deep equivalence● raises(expected, function, message)
  7. 7. How to modularize tests?● view.test.html● module(name, fixture)● all following tests will have this being a newly created fixture object with setup() and teardown() run before and after the test
  8. 8. Testing ajax● svc.test.html● call expect(number-of-assertions) to verify that callbacks was actually called● call stop(timeout) before first ajax call● call start() when test is complete ● typically inside ajax callback● if more than one asynchronous call in one test: ● call stop() before each ● call start() in callback of each
  9. 9. Make your JavaScript testable● MVC design pattern: Model - View - Controller● Dependency injection● Isolated testing controller view model svc
  10. 10. View● view.js controller ● injected html ● load html page from the server ● html becomes directly stylable view model● Responsibilities svc ● manipulate html ● generate html from templates ● dispatch events to listeners ● nothing more!● References ● a set of event listeners (typically the controller)
  11. 11. Controller● controller.js controller● Responsibilities ● handle all events from the view model view ● poll model for change events if relevant svc ● convert events to commands against the model ● repaint strategy ● error handling strategy● References ● the model (to execute commands, polling) ● the view (to do repainting)
  12. 12. Model● model.js controller● Responsibilities ● cache state to minimize round view model trips ● provide view and controller with a useful interface of the svc data model● References ● the service proxy
  13. 13. Service Proxy● svc.js controller● Responsibilities ● provide a javascript api view model mapping of the server api● References svc ● the physical server via ajax
  14. 14. Testing the view● view.test.js test● Inject ● controllerStub ● canvas controllerStub● Invoke methods view● Assert ● canvas ● controllerStub
  15. 15. Testing the controller● controller.test.js test● Inject ● viewStub controller ● modelStub● Invoke methods viewStub modelStub● Assert ● viewStub ● modelStub
  16. 16. Testing the model● model.test.js test● Inject ● serverStub model● Invoke methods● Assert svcStub ● state ● serverStub
  17. 17. Testing the service proxy● svc.test.js test● Invoke methods● Assert ● results svc
  18. 18. Callbacks in JavaScript● Ajax means asynchronous ● Server methods become asynchronous ● Model methods become asynchronous ● To return a value you must supply a callback● Error handling ● Include in every callback
  19. 19. this in JavaScript● Avoid using this in callbacks, since this probably refers to the object that invokes the callback, not the object that contains the code for the callback.● Instead use jQuerys $proxy() method ● Example: controller.js
  20. 20. Bootstrap● bootstrap() function ● see collabForm.js● creates model, view and controller and ties them together● start polling engine (if relevant)● called by onload or $(document).ready() ● see Index.aspx
  21. 21. Run tests on build server● QUnit tests needs to run in a browser● On WIndows, the browser requires a WinStation ● So the build server must be logged on at all times for this to work● Hard to avoid tests that hang● Consider running tests manually instead
  22. 22. Testing the backend● Test your webservices● Use QUnit and assert on the returned JSON ● Or use your backend testing tool
  23. 23. Real World Example● WizerPro, in JavaScript, using MVC pattern
  24. 24. Further reading● Documentation ● http://docs.jquery.com/Qunit● Book ● "Test-Driven JavaScript Development", Christian Johansen● QUnit Presentation ● http://benalman.com/talks/unit-testing-qunit.html
  25. 25. Future meetups● TDD coding dojo with C++ and Ruby ● Thursday June 24th (in a week!)
  26. 26. Feedback● Give your evaluation at meetup.com

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