syllabus 9696 paper 1 human core unit 1 population
Paper 1 Human CoreUNIT 1 PopulationRecommended Prior Knowledge None is essential although some of the concepts will be familiar from IGCSE.Context Population studies depend upon an understanding of population structure and the factors which contribute to its growth. There will be closeconnections with Units 2 and 3, as population change is often clearly related to migration and may impact on settlement growth, change and pattern.Outline The elements of growth are the starting point. However, the appreciation that movement is an integral aspect of growth and change is essential, sothe second section focuses on migration as a discrete unit. Without the link between population and resources however, the study is merely academic, so anunderstanding of the final section is fundamental to this unit. Content Objectives Terminology Teaching Strategies (TS) and Activities (A) Resources1.1 Natural Population distribution Distribution Distinguish between these two definitions. Essential to an Nov 2006 Q. 3 Fig. 3 usesincrease as a and density across an area understanding of overpopulation and underpopulation. several ideas of populationcomponent Density of They are fundamental to an understanding of spatial change, useful teaching aid.of population population distributions. Carr p.5 - v.good definitionschange Global distribution showing densities is the ideal starting Prosser p.154 point. Aerial photos of people sitting on a beach can be a Chrispin pp.48-50 Very good on useful teaching aid -people are rarely evenly distributed. all definitions Also introduces choropleth maps as a technique. Could Witherick p.270 also show topological map of the data. Knowledge and Crude birth rate TS Introduce basic terminology: birth rate, death rate, understanding of Crude death rate mortality rates, fertility rates and replacement level. natural increase and Fertility rate natural decrease of Mortality rate Introduce the idea of overall population growth/decline population and how Natural increase through the equation Geofactsheet 175 Global this leads to Population Pop change = Natural increase/decrease +/- migration. population trends to 2050 population change change Population Bomb or Birth of Migration Spatial distribution of population growth rates, i.e. global death? Replacement level distribution. Look at statistics to compare growth rates for different countries and groups of countries, e.g. MEDCs Understanding of and LEDCs. Guinness and Nagle pp.174-182 replacement level to A This could be an opportunity for students to practise Bowen and Pallister pp.147-50 maintain populations interpretation of choropleth maps June 2007 Q. 4
Explanation of birth rates and death rates. Emphasise the Coverage on Population role of factors and the ways in which they may change change and growth in: over time. Hart pp.127-130 Note Gender is also an important part of the population Ross pp.102-7 change argument Carr p.4, 5, 7, 12, 14 Contrast population decline in Scandinavia and Waugh pp.357-360 Continental Europe with rapid increase of population in Witherick pp.271-5 some LEDCs Prosser pp.159-161 Good on factors influencing natural• Factors that Age/sex pyramid Structure of population change influence birth rate Infant mortality TS Population pyramids. Description - Compare two Chrispin pp.53-4 and death rate rate basic shapes: the wide based-steep sided, low, narrow Geofactsheet 562 Jan 2008• Economic, social Life expectancy topped pyramid of LEDCs and the wider based, straight Population: US Update environmental and Dependency ratio sided, higher, wider topped pyramid of MEDCs. Nagle has detail of age-specific political factors (a Age-specific birth birth rate p.229 long list). Ideally rate/death rate Could also consider rural and urban pyramids and Nov 2006 Q. 9 BR and DR as they should be Cohort regional variations, e.g. South coast of England with an instrumental in pop change supported by facts, ageing population is narrow-based and relatively wide at June 2007 Q. 10 (a) and (b) countries and data, the top. Geofile 500 Sept 2005 to illustrate and Annotate with explanation and discuss the characteristics Demographic change and exemplify showing higher pyramid = longer life expectancies. population policy in India and June 2006 Fig. 3 Pyramids for China, 1990 and 2004 China Nov 2006 life expectancy data Fig. 4 for Q. 4 Carr p.8 Fig. 2.6• Knowledge and Ross pp.110-111 understanding of Consider a range of different age/sex pyramids which Hart pp.132-135 contrasting have particular characteristics, for instance illustrating the Guinness and Nagle pp.183-185 population following factors: influence of wars, baby booms, Nagle p.228 structures HIV/AIDS, etc. e.g. France, UK, countries in Africa. Waugh pp.353-4 Also stage of technological development will link to the Prosser pp.163-4 Four very demographic transition model (DTM). good contrasting pyramids Chrispin p.55 Note Remember to include migration as part of the The International Data Base of reasoning. the US Census Bureau is an excellent resource www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb Geofactsheet Contemporary Population Issues: 3 Case Studies: China, Italy and India
Witherick p.281 Figs 21 and 22 Chrispin p.51 Fig.3.24 and p.52 Fig 3.25 Waugh p.350 - a range of countries considered Nagle p.2301.2Demographic Historical growth of Demographic Historical perspectivetransition population transition The demographic transition Bowen and Pallister p.151 A model to show the stages in population growth over Limitations and good detail time. about each phase TS Annotated diagram can be the best way to approach Prosser p.156 fig.5.12 the model. Guinness and Nagle p.165 fig A Students should draw it for themselves. It concentrates 7.6 their minds and engages them directly with the material. Hart p.131 Fig.5.16 Limitations Pyramids to illustrate each stage plus examples of and p.132 countries in each stage. Ross p.108 Fig 4.10 Emphasise the fact that it is a model and a simplification Carr p.28 Very good on of reality. Application to contrasting countries, e.g. the UK limitations – also links to and China. development. Consider the usefulness and limitations of the model. June 2006 Fig. 6 Q. 9 DTM (This critical appraisal is important and may be examined). diagram – useful question Take into consideration application to cities as well as countries and remember that the model does not have migration built in. Chrispin p.51 1 Compare population pyramids for each stage Nagle p.232 Pakistan of the model Guinness and Nagle p.171 2 Consider different methods of depicting the Brazil and p.186 China transition Carr pp.20-3 China and pp.23-5 Tanzania Links to development should be considered Prosser pp.157-8 China and throughout. p.162 Botswana Witherick pp.275-7 India Relationship to population change should be borne in Ross pp.116-18 China and mind throughout the teaching of this unit and mentioned Singapore frequently.
Stage 5 of the model. Discuss with reference to specific countries. Carr pp.11-12 Ageing This may be inserted wherever it is felt appropriate. Ross p.112 populations TS and A Debate/discussion ideal on the subject of Both these books are detailed ageing populations. Suggested title: on ageing populations Ageing population: a blessing or a problem? June 2007 Q. 9(b) and (c) Prediction of ageing populations. Discussion about Geofactsheet 196 The limited value of prediction June 2007 Q. 9(c) useful guide Globalisation of Ageing1.3 for class discussion or piece of written work.Population-resource • Appreciation of a Carrying capacity Chrispin pp.80-2relationships debate between Population ceiling Malthusian theory Guinness and Nagle pp.196-7 the pessimists and Population boom Using a series of diagrams. By increasing the population Ross pp.114-5 the optimists, or and crash level it can be seen that resources are exceeded. Fig. 3 ecologists versus Famine economists Constraints: e.g. Consider Paul Simon’s view (economist and optimist) and Chrispin p. 83 war, hazards that of Paul Ehrlich (environmentalist and pessimist) Lead into a discussion of consequences of rapid uncontrolled population increase. Limitations of the theory. Solutions Chrispin pp.86-90 • Manage population growth Chrispin pp.83-4 • Knowledge and • Increase production - land under cultivation, yield understanding of per hectare June 2008 Q. 9 specifically basic concepts Introduce Boserup’s more optimistic model of changing about over/under/optimum relating population technology. population to resources Look at the graph of population in relation to GDP per Overpopulation person to ascertain concepts of over-, under- and Nagle p.241 good source Underpopulation optimum population. Waugh p.378 Optimum TS It is important that case study material is geared Carr pp.35-6 population to the control of growth and the management of the • Understanding of results of change as stated in the syllabus. Waugh p.374 sustainability It is also important to understand that these are relative Carr p.34 concepts; discovery of new resources/technology could relieve overpopulation whilst maintaining the same Nagle pp.239-241 Sustainability absolute numbers, but the quality of life would improve. recommended
Carrying capacity Food shortage Subsistence Nov 2005 Q. 9 farming Look at relationship between population growth and June 2008 Q. 9 - a popular growth of food production. Compare arithmetic increase question Appropriate of food production with geometric increase of population technology (Malthus). Intermediate Case studies of Bangladesh - technology Introduce idea of carrying capacity of land in relation to its overpopulation and Canada - population. underpopulation. Use other local Desertification examples if more suitable. Pollution Quality of life Green Revolution Ecological footprints1.4 The A case study of any History of population growth and change.management ONE country, may be Substantiate with population data. June 2005 Q. 4of natural an LEDC or an Study population structure over time. Compare ageincrease MEDC. cohorts; gender. Compare BR and DR. Life expectancies. Analysis of change over time and discussion of reasons. June 2008 Q. 10 This is an • Appreciation of excellent question to use as a population change Note Death rate is a vital component of population springboard for teaching this within chosen change and is often forgotten by candidates when aspect of population change. country discussing management/policies for controlling population • Difficulties and growth i.e. managing natural increase. This is so management important because maximum marks cannot be achieved solutions unless death rates are considered. Population policies e.g. China ‘one child’ policy, Singapore, Russia, Germany, UK, Italy or home country. Consequences: especially discussion of success and/or failure e.g. gender imbalance, ageing, rural/urban migration. The controls, the changes and then how the country has managed the changes.