POPULATION ECOLOGY
<ul><li>POPULATION ECOLOGY </li></ul>Population:  all the individuals of a species that live together in an area Demograph...
<ul><li>Population Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Three Key Features of Populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size  </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Three Key Features of Populations </li></ul>1. Size: number of individuals in an    area
<ul><li>Growth Rate = Birth Rate - Death Rate </li></ul><ul><li>(# individuals born - # individuals die) </li></ul><ul><li...
PRE-REPRODUCTIVE REPRODUCTIVE POST-REPRODUCTIVE
Population of a Stable Country   
THREE TYPES OF POPULATIONS
Which is growing faster?  You decide!
<ul><li>Three Key Features of Populations </li></ul>2. Density: measurement of population per unit area or unit volume Pop...
 
<ul><li>1.  Immigration-  movement of individuals into a population   </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Emigration-  movement of indiv...
4 Factors that affect density <ul><li>3.  Density-dependent factors-   Biotic factors in the environment that have a great...
<ul><li>4.  Density-independent factors-   Abiotic factors in the environment that affect populations regardless of their ...
Immigration Emigration Births Deaths Population Change + + - - Factors That Affect Future Population Growth
<ul><li>Three Key Features of Populations </li></ul><ul><li>3. Dispersion: describes the spacing or organisms relative to ...
clumped even (uniform) random THREE TYPES OF DISPERSION
Population Dispersion
OTHER FACTORS THAT AFFECT POPULATION GROWTH <ul><li>Limiting factor -   any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the ex...
OTHER FACTORS THAT AFFECT POPULATION GROWTH <ul><li>Carrying Capacity-   the maximum population size that can be supported...
<ul><li>TWO BASIC PATTERNS OF POPULATION GROWTH </li></ul>Carrying Capacity (k) Nu m b e r Time J-shaped curve (exponentia...
 
CARRYING CAPACITY --------------------------------------------------  CARRYING CAPACITY
2 Life History Patterns <ul><li>1.  R Strategists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short life span  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small ...
2 Life History Patterns <ul><li>2.  K Strategists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large bo...
HUMAN POPULATION THROUGH THE AGES
HUMAN POPULATION THROUGH THE AGES
Human Population Growth
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Population ecology 2011

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  • .
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
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  • Population ecology 2011

    1. 1. POPULATION ECOLOGY
    2. 2. <ul><li>POPULATION ECOLOGY </li></ul>Population: all the individuals of a species that live together in an area Demography: the statistical study of populations, make predictions about how a population will change
    3. 3. <ul><li>Population Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Three Key Features of Populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(clumped, even/uniform, random) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Three Key Features of Populations </li></ul>1. Size: number of individuals in an area
    5. 5. <ul><li>Growth Rate = Birth Rate - Death Rate </li></ul><ul><li>(# individuals born - # individuals die) </li></ul><ul><li>Age Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Number of individuals in different age groups of a population </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates the potential of a population to increase, decrease or remain stable in size over time </li></ul>RATE OF GROWTH & AGE DISTRIBUTION
    6. 6. PRE-REPRODUCTIVE REPRODUCTIVE POST-REPRODUCTIVE
    7. 7. Population of a Stable Country   
    8. 8. THREE TYPES OF POPULATIONS
    9. 9. Which is growing faster? You decide!
    10. 10. <ul><li>Three Key Features of Populations </li></ul>2. Density: measurement of population per unit area or unit volume Pop. Density = # of individuals ÷ unit of space
    11. 12. <ul><li>1. Immigration- movement of individuals into a population </li></ul><ul><li>2. Emigration- movement of individuals out of a population </li></ul>4 Factors that affect density
    12. 13. 4 Factors that affect density <ul><li>3. Density-dependent factors- Biotic factors in the environment that have a greater limiting effect as population size increases </li></ul><ul><li>  Examples: disease </li></ul><ul><li> competition </li></ul><ul><li> parasites </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>4. Density-independent factors- Abiotic factors in the environment that affect populations regardless of their density </li></ul><ul><li>  Examples: temperature </li></ul><ul><li> storms </li></ul><ul><li>habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><li> drought </li></ul>4 Factors that affect density
    14. 15. Immigration Emigration Births Deaths Population Change + + - - Factors That Affect Future Population Growth
    15. 16. <ul><li>Three Key Features of Populations </li></ul><ul><li>3. Dispersion: describes the spacing or organisms relative to each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clumped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>even or uniform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>random </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. clumped even (uniform) random THREE TYPES OF DISPERSION
    17. 18. Population Dispersion
    18. 19. OTHER FACTORS THAT AFFECT POPULATION GROWTH <ul><li>Limiting factor - any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Amount of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of living space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be density dependent or independent </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. OTHER FACTORS THAT AFFECT POPULATION GROWTH <ul><li>Carrying Capacity- the maximum population size that can be supported by the available space and environmental resources </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity can change as limiting factors become more or less severe for a given population </li></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>TWO BASIC PATTERNS OF POPULATION GROWTH </li></ul>Carrying Capacity (k) Nu m b e r Time J-shaped curve (exponential growth) S-shaped curve (logistic growth)
    21. 23. CARRYING CAPACITY -------------------------------------------------- CARRYING CAPACITY
    22. 24. 2 Life History Patterns <ul><li>1. R Strategists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small body size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduce quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have many young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>little parental care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: cockroaches, weeds, bacteria </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. 2 Life History Patterns <ul><li>2. K Strategists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large body size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduce slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have few young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides parental care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: humans, elephants </li></ul></ul>
    24. 26. HUMAN POPULATION THROUGH THE AGES
    25. 27. HUMAN POPULATION THROUGH THE AGES
    26. 28. Human Population Growth

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