Government policies on incresing fertility rate.ppt
GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON INCRESING FERTILITY RATE.<br />
POLICIES.<br />Governments are trying to come up with policies to increase birth rate, due to the factors that are arising which are affecting their economies for example having fewer people in the working dependant thus affecting the growth of the economy. The level of infrastructure and services being poor.<br />
Different governments are trying to come up with different methods so as to boost the birth rates of their economies. Certain measure have been put in place such as government benefits in form of:<br /><ul><li>tax credits which is the payment of people with children, weather they are in work or not.
guaranteed job security even if women plan on having children their jobs are secure and also they are offered maternity leave. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>make it easy for parents to balance their careers and families this can be done in form of opening sufficient day care services.
offering of financial incentives for babies this is done so as to prevent parents from becoming poor. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>baby bonus this is done so as to cater for family expenses that arise due to the bring up of children.
provision of state matchmaking programs this is done so as create couples thus encouraging marriage and child baring. </li></li></ul><li>CASE STUDY:MEDC.<br />GERMANY; STAGE 4 IN THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION STAGE.<br /> Germanys the birth rate is actually lower than the death rate. This means there is a decrease in population or a natural increase of -0.1%. As of 2005, the birthrate in Germany was reported at 1.36 children per woman, a major decrease from its rate ten years earlier of 1.24. The current fertility rate in Germany ranks as one of the lowest birthrates in the world. <br />
This decreasing birth rate is thought to have resulted from several attitude changes amongst women, particularly women of child-bearing age. Various causes for these changes in women’s attitudes towards having children have been reported such as, economic uncertainty, later marriages, and a desire for a different lifestyle.<br />
Germanys work and family policies.<br />In Germany today, the general governmental attitude towards work and family policy is one of individuality. In other words, the government of Germany, through its work and family policies, stresses that services should not be centralized. However, in recent years, largely due to its role within the European Union, Germany has established a few integrated policies that relate to work and family issues.<br />
Maternity and Paternity Leave<br />Maternity and paternity leave is a job-protected leave in which mothers or fathers are excused for their jobs for 14 weeks before or after the birth of a child. Fringe benefits continue without payment of contributions or taxes for 14 weeks as well. This leave includes the 6 weeks before giving birth for women. Employed mothers can get up to 12.78 Euros/day and the employer is required to pay the remaining amount of the wage during this initial leave period. <br />
Parental Leave; is a two year, income-tested leave. Parents are also granted a 3 year job-protected leave following childbirth. This pertains only to parents whose employers have more than 15 employees. Parents can work part-time during this leave and continue to get child-rearing benefits if they work for 30 hours or less. Parents may also collect unemployment benefits while getting the child-rearing allowance.<br />
Early Childhood Education and Care in Germany<br />Availability of childcare is a major problem in Germany, especially for younger children because of Germany's views that mothers should stay home and care for children before they reach school age. Only 1/3 of children age 5 and under have a slot in full-time childcare in Germany. <br />
Family and Child Allowances<br /> Families that are not eligible for child tax exemptions in Germany can get child allowances, which are implemented to try and encourage families to have children. Child benefits are the same amount for the first two kids and go up for every child after the first two. Benefits are available until kids reach age 18, and can remain available until kids are 21 if they are unemployed, and 27 if they are continuing their education. There is no age limit for disabled youth.<br />
Child and Family Tax Benefits<br /> Income tax child benefit exists for families who have children under age 16 or disabled children. They can claim this income tax allowance only if their child benefits are less than full exemptions allowed under German law.<br /> Parents who have a child or children in school or vocational training can receive an education tax allowance from 920 to 2147 Euros per child per year. They may also get public educational grants.<br /> If a single parent gets one of the child-related tax benefits or allowances, they may also get a household tax allowance.<br />
Child Support Policies <br />Parents who do not live with their children are required under German law to pay child support. <br />