Kurt Kohn, Collaborative Authentication - A Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP Learning and Teaching, Taipei 20-21 April 2013

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My talk is placed against the backdrop of the English language rapidly becoming a global lingua franca for a wide range of communication contexts and purposes including English for Special Purposes …

My talk is placed against the backdrop of the English language rapidly becoming a global lingua franca for a wide range of communication contexts and purposes including English for Special Purposes (ESP). Based on a social constructivist understanding of language learning and teaching, I first discuss some of the pedagogical implications of English as a lingua franca (ELF) (Kohn 2011). In this connection, special attention is given to the concept and principle of collaborative authentication and its manifestation in content and language integrated learning (CLIL). From a complementary angle, I then explore the pedagogical potential of web 2 enhanced virtual learning environments (VLEs) for supporting language learning and teaching in general and collaborative authentication in particular. In a third step, I move on to pedagogically designed web corpora of video-recorded ‘natural narrative’ interviews available from the European Lifelong Learning project BACKBONE (Kohn 2012). The interviews were conducted with native and non-native speakers of English and cover a wide range of general and specific subjects. Since they have been annotated with regard to pedagogically relevant thematic and linguistic characteristics, they can be flexibly searched for ESP learning and teaching purposes from listening comprehension to topic-related lexical and phraseological explorations. Pedagogical integration of BACKBONE corpus activities within e.g. a Moodle-enhanced blended learning environment offers further possibilities for written and spoken communicative interaction, thus creating a basis for truly collaborative and authenticated language learning experiences.

Kohn, Kurt. 2011. English as a lingua franca and the Standard English misunderstanding. In Annick De Hower & Antje Wilton (eds.), English in Europe today. Sociocultural and educational perspectives, 71-94. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Kohn, Kurt. 2012. Pedagogic corpora for content and language integrated learning: insights from the BACKBONE project. The Eurocall Review 20 (2). [http://www.eurocall-languages.org/review/20_2/index.html]

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  • 1. Collaborative AuthenticationA Social Constructivist Perspective onESP Learning and TeachingKurt KohnUniversity of Tübingen (DE) Steinbeis Transfer Center (DE)kurt.kohn@uni-tuebingen.de Language Learning Mediahttp://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de www.sprachlernmedien.deTwitter: @kurtkohn – LinkedIn - Facebook2013 International Conference on English Education, 20-21 April 2013, Shih Chien University, Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C.1
  • 2. The many faces of EnglishEnglish as anative languageEnglish as alingua francaEnglish as aforeign languageEnglish as asecond language Increasingly, people find themselves in interculturalcontact zones with English as a necessary and naturalmeans of communication for non-native speakers In private and vocational contexts of communication fromculture and education to business and technologyEnglish is developing into a culturally and economicallyrelevant means for global communicationKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 20132
  • 3. English as a lingua franca The language metaphor Typical definitions ELF as a “thing” – a language? However, is ELF a language at all? Or rather, how usefulit is (for my purposes) to regard it as a language? Imagine a group of speakers in an intercultural contact situation Colin, Khurshid, Yvonne and Felix Each of them will speak his/her OWN English:native language – second language – foreign language Everyone tries their level best to make things work Accommodation, meaning negotiation, handling misunderstandings, ‘let it pass’ ELF communication IS intercultural communication IS communicationTo better understand all this let us go back to the roots** How do we acquire languages? **"instance of language in a postmodernworld" (James 2005), "a contactlanguage“ (Jenkins 2006), “a non-codified form of English” (Dewey 2012)Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 20133
  • 4. My language – my English – my ESP[Kohn 2011, 2014; http://youtu.be/yCfpD49YhSg]How do I acquire a language? I acquire a language by developing/constructing/CREATING my own version of it inmy mind, my heart and my behavior Oriented toward my perception of the target language Influenced by my native language, my attitudes & motivation, my goals &requirements, my learning approach, the effort I invest, and the people I talk to andwant to be with Not in idiosyncratic isolation, but in communicative and social interaction with othersThe English I develop is my own. And it is inevitably different from any targetlanguage toward which it is oriented.– The social constructivist “My English” condition –[part of the human condition for knowledge and learning]Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 20134
  • 5. Teaching ELF is about helping learners … to develop their English (lexis, grammar) so that they are able to meet theirown requirements of performance Comprehensibility (⇒ feasibility) Grammatical accuracy (⇒ possibility) Situational appropriateness (⇒ acceptability, probability) Participation and self-expression to develop their (individual & social) identity orientation and requirements to acquire strategies for making best use of their English in communication Accommodation – meaning negotiation – handling misunderstandings – ‘let it pass’ to explore and trust one’s own non-native speaker creativity However, is there a conflict between NNS’ creativity and their SE orientation?o NO! A constructivist argument for a “weak” SE orientationo Teaching ELF does NOT mean teaching incorrect English For pedagogical purposes the variety view is misleading Models and purposes: the sun and the earth example An “ELF = variety” model seems to suggest the teaching of incorrect EnglishKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 20135
  • 6. Collaborative authentication Authentication in and through communicative collaboration Authenticity, genuineness, and authentication [Widdowson 2003] Understanding more than what is explicitly said [Sperber & Wilson 1995] Accommodation and negotiation of communicated meaning Participation and group coherence: peer groups and communities of practice Interdependence of communication and language learning Communication is the goal of language learning Language learning is mediated through communication Lexis before grammar [Lewis 1993] Backwash of communication on language learning Blending of general communication into ESP communication (> soft ESP) Insights about communicative processing can be generalized De-standardization of terms through communication Implications for ESP translation competence Standardization and communication I am NOT arguing against standardization in ESP However, de-standardization effects of natural ESP communicationKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 20136
  • 7.  From pedagogically used descriptive corpora (⇒ data-driven learning)[Repper 2010] to pedagogic corpora, i.e. corpora designed forpedagogical purposes [Kohn 2012a] Pedagogically relevant (interview) topics Corpus search [http:purl.org/backbone/searchtool] Browse, Section search, Co-occurrences, Concordances, Lexical lists Enrichment resources: video/sound, exercises, learning instructions Pedagogical application: from corpus search to blended e-learning Tools for “do it yourself” corpus creation Corpus enrichment: Virtual Resource Pool (VRP) Pedagogical transcription, annotation & managementBACKBONEPedagogical design, use and creationhttp://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de/backbone/moodleKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 20137
  • 8.  Cultural issuescustoms/traditions - arts – sports - new technologies Economic issuesfishing & agriculture, automotive industry, world of labour, trade unions Urban and rural life Social issuesminorities and fringe groups, immigration multicultural society Health & social securitynational health system, hospitals, health professions, welfare and socialbenefits Educationeducational system & institutions, vocational education, educationalmobility The environmentclimate change, traffic & pollution, renewable energies, environmentalpolicy Government & politicspolitical system, institutions & parties, mayor, city council, localgovernmentBACKBONE interview topics8Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 9.  From pedagogically used descriptive corpora (⇒ data-driven learning)[Repper 2010] to pedagogic corpora, i.e. corpora designed forpedagogical purposes [Kohn 2012a] Pedagogically relevant (interview) topics Corpus search [http:purl.org/backbone/searchtool] Browse, Section search, Co-occurrences, Concordances, Lexicallists Enrichment resources: video/sound, exercises, learning instructions Pedagogical application: from corpus search to blended e-learning Tools for “do it yourself” corpus creation Corpus enrichment: Virtual Resource Pool (VRP) Pedagogical transcription, annotation & managementBACKBONEPedagogical design, use and creationhttp://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de/backbone/moodleKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 20139
  • 10. BACKBONE Search – “Browse” function10Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 11. BACKBONE Search – „Section Search“ function11Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 12. BACKBONE Search – „Section Search“ results12Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 13. BACKBONE Search – „Co-occurrence“13Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 14. BACKBONE Search – „Concordance“Users can enter up to 3key words and restricttheir search to selectedthematic domains14Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 15. BACKBONE Search – „Lexical lists“15Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 16. BACKBONE Search – „Lexical lists“16Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 17.  From pedagogically used descriptive corpora (⇒ data-driven learning)[Repper 2010] to pedagogic corpora, i.e. corpora designed forpedagogical purposes [Kohn 2012a] Pedagogically relevant (interview) topics Corpus search [http:purl.org/backbone/searchtool] Browse, Section search, Co-occurrences, Concordances, Lexical lists Enrichment resources: video/sound, exercises, learninginstructions Pedagogical application: from corpus search to blended e-learning Tools for “do it yourself” corpus creation Corpus enrichment: Virtual Resource Pool (VRP) Pedagogical transcription, annotation & managementBACKBONEPedagogical design, use and creationhttp://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de/backbone/moodleKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 201317
  • 18. BACKBONE Search – Enrichment resources Learning modules for listeningcomprehension and focus onform and vocabulary Instructions for exploratory andcommunicative activities18Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 19. BACKBONE enrichment resources: Telos exercisesListening comprehensionand focus on form19Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 20. BACKBONE enrichment resources: instructions forexploratory and communicative activitiesCollaboration (Wiki)Forum discussionsExploring interviewsInternet research20Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 21.  From pedagogically used descriptive corpora (⇒ data-driven learning)[Repper 2010] to pedagogic corpora, i.e. corpora designed forpedagogical purposes [Kohn 2012a] Pedagogically relevant (interview) topics Corpus search [http:purl.org/backbone/searchtool] Browse, Section search, Co-occurrences, Concordances, Lexical lists Enrichment resources: video/sound, exercises, learning instructions Pedagogical application: from corpus search to blended learning Tools for “do it yourself” corpus creation Corpus enrichment: Virtual Resource Pool (VRP) Pedagogical transcription, annotation & managementBACKBONEPedagogical design, use and creationhttp://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de/backbone/moodleKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 201321
  • 22. E-Learning for Languages ⇒ Blended learning E-learning can play an enhancing role in foreign language learning and teaching provided pedagogic exploitation proceeds from a sound understanding of the HUMANNATURE of the needs, conditions and processes involved There is clearly a need for language teacher education regarding both educationaltechnology and the human dimension of language learning and teaching Pedagogical affordances Multimedia practice & authoring ⇒ linguistic/communicative knowledge & skills Pedagogic corpus explorations of (real) communication ⇒ awareness raising,skills practice and lexical searches VLE platforms ⇒ e.g. Moodle Tele/web-collaborationo Forum, wiki, blog, sound/video conferencing (e.g. Skype, BigBlueButton), 3Dvirtual worlds (SecondLife, OpenSim), webinarso REAL-LIFE contact and intercultural(ELF) communicationo Collaborative interaction:networking, sharing, community buildingo Learning – teaching – teacher education e.g. TILA: Telecollaborationfor intercultural languageacquisition[www.tilaproject.eu]Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 201322
  • 23.  From pedagogically used descriptive corpora (⇒ data-driven learning)[Repper 2010] to pedagogic corpora, i.e. corpora designed forpedagogical purposes [Kohn 2012a] Pedagogically relevant (interview) topics Corpus search [http:purl.org/backbone/searchtool] Browse, Section search, Co-occurrences, Concordances, Lexical lists Enrichment resources: video/sound, exercises, learning instructions Pedagogical application: from corpus search to blended e-learning Tools for “do it yourself” corpus creation Corpus enrichment: Virtual Resource Pool (VRP) Pedagogical transcription, annotation & managementBACKBONEPedagogical design, use and creationhttp://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de/backbone/moodleKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 201323
  • 24. BACKBONE Virtual Resource Pool (VRP) Enrichment resources in a Virtual Resource Pool Links to video + audio files Links to learning modules (e.g. TLP packages)and blended learning patternsaccessible viaresource sheets24Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 25.  From pedagogically used descriptive corpora (⇒ data-driven learning)[Repper 2010] to pedagogic corpora, i.e. corpora designed forpedagogical purposes [Kohn 2012a] Pedagogically relevant (interview) topics Corpus search [http:purl.org/backbone/searchtool] Browse, Section search, Co-occurrences, Concordances, Lexical lists Enrichment resources: video/sound, exercises, learning instructions Pedagogical application: from corpus search to blended e-learning Tools for “do it yourself” corpus creation Corpus enrichment: Virtual Resource Pool (VRP) Pedagogical transcription, annotation & managementBACKBONEPedagogical design, use and creationhttp://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de/backbone/moodleKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 201325
  • 26. The BACKBONE transcription26Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 27. BACKBONE annotation Annotation Annotation at section level Annotation categories customized tocapture, e.g. topics, grammatical, lexical,textual characteristics, and CEF level Drag & drop annotation Collaborative annotation27Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 28. The BACKBONE annotation28Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 2013
  • 29.  From pedagogically used descriptive corpora (⇒ data-driven learning)[Repper 2010] to pedagogic corpora, i.e. corpora designed forpedagogical purposes [Kohn 2012a] Pedagogically relevant (interview) topics Corpus search [http:purl.org/backbone/searchtool] Browse, Section search, Co-occurrences, Concordances, Lexical lists Enrichment resources: video/sound, exercises, learning instructions Pedagogical application: from corpus search to blended e-learning Tools for “do it yourself” corpus creation Corpus enrichment: Virtual Resource Pool (VRP) Pedagogical transcription, annotation & managementBACKBONEPedagogical design, use and creationhttp://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de/backbone/moodleKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 201329
  • 30. ReferencesDewey, M. (2012). Towards a post-normative approach: learning the pedagogy of ELF. JELF 1/1, 141 – 170.Glombitza A. (2012). A blended practice-enterprise course for language learning in an international business community.Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 8 (3), 67-77. [download ]Hymes, D.H. (1972). On communicative competence. In Pride & Holmes, (eds.). Sociolinguistis. Penguin, 269-293.James, A. (2005). The challenges of the lingua franca: English in the world and types of variety. In: C. Gnutzmann & F.Intemann (eds). The Globalisation of English and the English Language Classroom. Tübingen: Narr, 133-144.Jenkins, J. (2006). Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL Quarterly 40/1,157-181.Kohn, K. (2009). Computer assisted foreign language learning. In: Knapp, K. & B. Seidlhofer (eds.). Foreign LanguageCommunication and Learning. [Handbooks of Applied Linguistics, volume 6]. Mouton-de Gruyter, 573 - 603. [download ]Kohn, K. (2011). ELF and the Standard English misunderstanding. In De Houwer & Wilton (eds.). English in Europe Today.Sociocultural and Educational Perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 72-94. [download]Kohn, K. (2012a). The BACKBONE project: pedagogic corpora for content and language integrated learning. Objectives,methodological approach and outcomes. Eurocall Review 20/2. [download ]Kohn, K. (2012b). ‘My English’ - Second language learning as individual and social construction. TESOL Convention,Philadelphia, 28-31 March 2012. [play video]Kohn, K. (2014). A pedagogical space for ELF in the English classroom. In Bayyurt and Akcan (eds.). Current Perspectiveson pedagogy for ELF. De Gruyter Mouton. [draft version] [download]Kohn, K. & C. Warth (2011). Web Collaboration for Intercultural Language Learning. A Guide for Language Teachers,Teacher Educators and Student Teachers. MV-Wissenschaft. [download]Leung, C. (2005). Convivial communication: recontextualizing communicative competence. International Journal of AppliedLinguistics 15/2, 119-144.Lewis, M. (1993). The Lexical Approach. The State of ELT and the Way Forward. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.Repper, R. (2010). Using Corpora in the Language Classroom. Cambridge UP.Sperber, D. & D. Wilson (1995). Relevance: Communication and Cognition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Widdowson, H. (2003). Defining Issues in English Language Teaching. Oxford UP.Kurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 201330
  • 31. Thank youAccess to my presentation slides:⇒ www.sprachlernmedien.de⇒ Slideshare⇒ Facebook and LinkedinKurt.kohn@uni-tuebingen.deKurt Kohn, “Collaborative Authentication: a Social Constructivist Perspective on ESP, Taipei, 20-21 April 201331