Facilitating student learning coteaching ela

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Facilitating student learning coteaching ela

  1. 1. Facilitating Student Learning:<br />Co-Teaching English Language Arts<br />Villa, R., Thousand, J., Nevin, A. (2008) A guide to co-teaching: Practical tips to facilitate student learning. Corwinn Press, Thousand Oaks.<br />What is Co-Teaching?<br />Involves two or more professionals delivering instruction to a diverse or blended group of students in a single physical space <br />A sharing of teaching responsibilities<br />A service delivery model that is based on the philosophy of inclusion and supports collaborative practices among professionals.<br />“Co-teaching arrangements … are one promising option for meeting the learning needs of the many students who once spent a large part of the school day with special educators in separate classrooms.” <br />Friend, 2007, p. 48<br />What benefits are there for students?<br />Access to general education curriculum and classroom teacher<br />Increases individualized instruction and teacher attention<br />Enhances academic performance<br />Reduces stigma associated with the “pull-out” model<br />Stronger peer relationships and social skills<br />Better attitudes about themselves, academic performance and social skills<br />Increased participation of students with disabilities<br />Continuity of instruction during teacher absence<br />Students exposed to positive models of adult collaboration and team work<br />All students have the opportunity to gain an appreciation of diversity within their learning and social community<br />What benefits are there for teachers?<br />Opportunity for professional growth through the sharing of knowledge, skills, and resources ie. teaching strategies, styles, ways to differentiate<br />Increases job satisfaction and decreases feelings of isolation<br />Reduces student-teacher ratio<br />Student support teachers increase their understanding of general education curriculum and classroom expectations<br />General educators increase their ability to adapt/modify lessons <br />Improves communication between special and general education teachers<br />Ability to intensify instruction<br />Second set of eyes valuable for difficult situations…extreme behavior, subtle bullying etc.<br />What does co-teaching look like?<br />There are four approaches to co-teaching:<br /><ul><li>Supportive Co-Teaching - One teacher leads and the other observes or offers assistance
  2. 2. Parallel Co-Teaching - Teachers work with groups and present the same information.
  3. 3. Complimentary Co-Teaching -A teacher enhances the instruction provided by the other teacher (i.e., mini lesson)
  4. 4. Team Teaching- Both teachers share the planning and the instruction in a coordinated fashion.</li></ul>Supportive Co-Teaching:<br />One teacher leads the instruction and the other observes or assists students…similar to teacher/EA partnership<br />Often overused as it requires the least amount of change<br />Does not capitalize on the expertise and talents of both teachers<br />It is important that the supportive teacher not become ‘velcroed’ to individual students<br />Should take place most often in the classroom, but may have short periods of time with a child or group outside the classroom if necessary<br />Parallel Co-Teaching:<br />Involves co-teachers presenting the same or different content to groups of students. <br />In one variation, called “Station Teaching”, co- teachers presents different content to small groups of students. Students rotate through the classroom stations. One of the stations may require students to work independently. <br />This approach provides more individualized support and allows students to receive content from two different teachers using different strategies. (ie. same concept introduced in different ways in order to reinforce)<br />Complimentary Co-Teaching:<br />One teacher enhances the instruction of another. This can be accomplished by performing a demonstration or providing a mini-lesson within a lesson. <br />Capitalizes on the teaching strengths of both teachers, but requires more planning time, more flexibility, and a higher degree of trust than the first two approaches. <br />A variation of this approach is what is called “alternative teaching” where one teacher teaches the whole class, while the other pre-teaches, re-teaches, or enriches the lesson to a small group of students. This approach can provide greater individualized instruction.<br />Team Teaching Co-Teaching:<br /><ul><li>Involves both teachers sharing in the planning and the delivery of the instruction in a coordinated fashion.
  5. 5. Lessons could be divided based on each teacher’s strengths or both teachers could instruct simultaneously in an almost conversational manner.
  6. 6. This approach requires a good working relationship between the teachers and a high level of trust.</li></ul>Considerations for success:<br /><ul><li>Joint planning time – mandatory, regular, scheduled, priority
  7. 7. Schedule co-teachers prep time together
  8. 8. Provide substitute coverage a few times during the year
  9. 9. Use school-wide activity days
  10. 10. Plan before and after school
  11. 11. Combine two classes and release teacher
  12. 12. Release teachers from some committee responsibilities
  13. 13. Administration cover classes from time to time
  14. 14. Joint assessment – student movement, teaching plans
  15. 15. Joint ‘team’ meetings
  16. 16. Classroom management – routines firmly in place
  17. 17. Physical space
  18. 18. Curriculum outcome knowledge – planning with the desired results in mind
  19. 19. Professional development
  20. 20. An understanding of co-teaching
  21. 21. Development of interpersonal, collaborative, and conflict resolution skills
  22. 22. Instructional strategies
  23. 23. Knowledge and skills for differentiating instruction
  24. 24. Characteristics of learners with different learning needs
  25. 25. Administrative support
  26. 26. The three ‘C’s of Co-teaching are:</li></ul>Communicate<br />Communicate in a different way<br />Communicate again!<br />“Do you see what I mean?”<br />“Does that sound right to you?”<br />“Can you share your thoughts about how we should do this?”<br />Building and maintaining positive relationships:<br />Trust and respect<br />Commitment to team goals<br />Effective interpersonal, collaborative, and conflict resolution skills<br />Understanding of self and partner<br />Continuous investment of time<br />Beginning Stage:<br />Communication may be guarded<br />Often one teacher teaches and the other assists<br />One teacher is typically designated the behavior manager<br />Compromising Stage:<br />Communication is more open and interactive<br />Planning is shared<br />Both teachers are involved in the instruction through mini-lessons<br />There is a mutual development of rules and routines for students<br />Collaborative Stage:<br />Effective communication is modeled for students<br />Planning is continual both outside and during instruction<br />Both teachers participate simultaneously in presenting the lesson<br />The teachers have a co-developed classroom management system that includes individual behavior plans<br />Obstacles and Barriers:<br />Fear of conflict<br />Dealing poorly with frustration<br />Lack of a shared vision or an inability to work with colleagues possessing different personalities or philosophies <br />Poor communication among partners<br />Low self-esteem or a lack of PD – train as partners<br />Lack of teacher knowledge & skill in classroom management, research-based instruction & high quality assessment methods<br />Lack of willingness to invest the time or effort<br />Reluctance to ‘lose’ control of the classroom<br />Lack of administrative support or understanding<br />Roles and Responsibilities:<br />“The biggest challenge for educators is in deciding to share the role that has traditionally been individual: to share the goals, decisions, classroom instruction, responsibility for students, assessment of student learning, problem solving, and classroom management. The teachers must begin to think of it as our class.” <br />Ripley, in Cramer, 2006, p.13<br />

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