Interprofessional Practice


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  • Going through our own process of training was similarly an intense and emotional experience for all of the participants, leaving many feeling vulnerable and exposed. Team members came out of that workshop with very different feelings, varying between feeling traumatised, enlightened, frustrated and invigorated. Not all agreed about the workshop, or about its resolution, as one team member commented in an interview in the third year of the project:   You know there were different perceptions of how the training was seen … and I think it was important that we did speak face-to-face, and that we did write things about it, but I noticed that there is quite a silence about it, that we haven’t really gone back to any depth, and I’m wondering why and whether we will ….   This comment demonstrates that although the team have come a long way in learning to deal with uncertainty and discomfort, it has not reached a point of full resolution of dealing with the difficulties associated with talking about difference and diversity. One possibility for the difficulties associated with the training, is that the safe space that the team had created for its members did not “protect” them from interacting on matters of diversity, with individuals outside of that space.   Treacher (2001), a mixed race teacher who addresses issues of ethnicity in the classroom, writes that to be on ‘uncertain and shaky ground’ when talking about matters of race and ethnicity is ‘the only place to be’ (pg.325). These intensely and communal experiences assisted us to strengthen our sense of solidarity and to consolidate the team as a collaborative community of enquiry. It allowed us to focus our combined energies on making the final year of the course a more successful one. This was not unlike the experiences of many of the student groups, where despite finding the learning process challenging, they developed a sense of common purpose. Thus the team members were mirroring some of the processes that we were expecting the students to undergo, and were trying to “practice what we preached” to the students.   Team members expected to gain intellectually from planning the course collaboratively and across disciplines, but not to the extent that they did gain. In a series of interviews conducted with team members towards the end of the second year of the project, one team member reported, “I envisaged the thing as more teaching , I didn’t realise we would think so much”. Working together and across disciplines was also difficult, as another team member indicated that she experienced “stepping out of my comfort zone”. Another team member, who is a very experienced lecturer and researcher, and a head of department, said in an interview, “ I don’t feel quite so out of my depth so often … which is a good thing …it is nice because I’m learning”.   The beneficial impact of participating in the project was described by team members variously as: having our knowledge bases and sources of expertise broadened; having our understanding of theoretical as well as interpersonal issues deepened; and finally, team members experienced having their professional identities as teachers and researchers validated. It is fair to say that the team members, like the students, gained from learning through conditions of uncertainty. Team members had become aware that the experience of learning across boundaries was an intensely emotional one for students, but had not realised how emotional learning in an uncertain terrain would be for us too. Trowler (2008:110) refers to Dirkx on the emotional nature of learning: “ The process of meaning making ... is essentially imaginative and extrarational, rather than merely reflective and rational.”
  • For students to learn within a pedagogy of discomfort, it is also true that the lecturers themselves have to be prepared to learn. The ‘Community, Self and Identity’ project became a valuable personal and educational experience for the team involved in directing it, even more so than initially anticipated. The initial form of learning was amongst the team members, who each drew from varying disciplines and life and work experiences, which were shared with other members of the team. The research approach adopted was that of participatory action research, which emphasises research as a practical and collaborative social process, which is emancipatory, critical, reflexive, and which aims to transform both theory and practice . The project was set up as a response to the problem described by the team as that of isolated learning and each cycle of the action was documented for further reflection and improvement.
  • PLA techniques are group based, open ended, flexible visual methods which are used in the learning process Examples of such techniques are visioning, mapping, matrix ranking, problem and objective trees, etc
  • Interprofessional Practice

    1. 1. Exploration of professional and social identities of Allied Health students: A Joint Research Project involving Stellenbosch Honours Psychology and Fourth Year UWC Social Work and Occupational Therapy Students SANPAD PROJECT INVOLVING UWC AND STELLENBOSCH UNIVERSITIES
    2. 2. World wide concerns in higher education <ul><li>At one time, issues of identity and citizenship were seen as incidental to most higher education activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, though, theorists in the field of higher education world-wide understand that it is part of the role of the university to prepare graduates to play a role in a rapidly changing and globalising world – a role which goes beyond the application of technical skills as narrowly understood </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>The question of how to make higher education more inclusive has been a central concern in South African post-apartheid policy documents, which reflect an intention to embrace values such as democracy, openness and a human rights approach to education (Department of Education, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>However, there remains a disjuncture between these policy intentions and the actual experiences of students and staff in the higher education sector. </li></ul>South African concerns in higher education
    4. 4. <ul><li>The continuing impact of apartheid-designed segregated higher education institutions and lack of imaginative attention to issues of difference in teaching and learning remains a stumbling block for achieving participatory parity amongst students in this sector. </li></ul>SA concerns in higher education
    5. 5. <ul><li>The higher education sector in South Africa currently has an overall attrition rate of over 50%. The sector is only catering successfully for under 5% of the black (and coloured) age group (Scott et al., 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Key factors seen to be within the higher education sector’s control are affective factors arising from institutional culture and teaching and learning processes followed in HEIs </li></ul>The importance of addressing the problem in the current context
    6. 6. <ul><li>There is an urgent need for innovative approaches to curriculum design which traverse both institutional and professional boundaries so that students and educators have the opportunities to engage in genuine encounters across differences. </li></ul><ul><li>These encounters are necessary for students to be able to develop the graduate attributes to function effectively as professionals in the twenty first century, engaged in complex social problems which demand multi-pronged responses </li></ul>What can be done about the identified problems
    7. 7. <ul><li>In order to begin to address these issues and to provide a laboratory for wider-scale educational innovation, for three years we have run an interprofessional, interuniversity course entitled ‘Community, Self and Identity’ </li></ul><ul><li>Students in psychology at Stellenbosch University and in social work and occupational therapy at University of the Western Cape participated in a course which offered a combination of face to face workshops and online workgroups. </li></ul><ul><li>A range of participatory techniques, blended learning, theatre, art, film, workshops and presentations were used to support students to explore their own, and their colleagues’ personal, social and professional identities. </li></ul>Community,Self and Identity module as example of addressing these concerns
    8. 8. The Community, Self and Identity Project; An Inter-institutional, inter-disciplinary teaching & research collaboration between : <ul><li>Vivienne Bozalek (Social Work Dept, UWC) </li></ul><ul><li>Ronelle Carolissen (Psychology Dept, Stellenbosch University) </li></ul><ul><li>Poul Rohleder (Psychology Dept, Anglia Ruskin University </li></ul><ul><li>Lindsey Nicholls (Occupational therapy Dept, Brunel University) </li></ul><ul><li>Leslie Swartz (Psychology Dept, Stellenbosch University) </li></ul><ul><li>Brenda Leibowitz (Centre for Teaching and Learning, Stellenbosch University) </li></ul><ul><li>And Linda Biersteker (ELRU), elearning team UWC and facilitators UWC and Stellenbosch </li></ul>
    9. 9. THE COMMUNITY, SELF AND IDENTITY PROJECT <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the strengths and challenges of working across boundaries of race, class, gender, institution, profession in a collaborative inter-institutional teaching project in the human service professions </li></ul><ul><li>Explore how we could extend critical reflexivity in students (and educators) </li></ul><ul><li>Explore value of innovative curriculum (face-to- face and e-learning formats of instruction) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Team process <ul><li>Action research </li></ul><ul><li>2005-2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundraising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006-2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul>2006 2007 2008 2009
    11. 11. Development and implementation of module <ul><li>Planning: second semester of 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>First pilot: first term of 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection on pilot and changes made </li></ul><ul><li>Second pilot: first term of 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Third pilot: first term of 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>2009 – plans for higher educators course </li></ul>
    12. 12. Project Activities: Outline <ul><li>Training on E-learning site </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning February: First face-to-face workshop at UWC </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing online activities in workgroups </li></ul><ul><li>End February: 2 nd face-to-face workshop at UWC </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration in workgroups in preparing a group project </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-March: Final face-to-face workshop at SUN </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Reflective Essay. </li></ul><ul><li>(Evaluation and consent) </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Project: Participants 2008 Item Stellenbosch Western Cape Discipline Psychology Social Work OT Total No. of students 17 54 22 93 Age Not known Not known Not known Gender Female 17 46 18 81 Male 0 8 4 12 Race African 0 28 8 36 Coloured 6 18 11 35 White 9 0 0 9 Indian 0 0 2 2 Not specified 2 8 1 11 Language African 0 23 7 30 Afrikaans 7 7 2 16 English 8 21 13 42 Other 3 3 0 6 (Dutch, Norwegian) Not known
    14. 15. First workshop at UWC <ul><li>Input on Participatory Learning Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Students divided into 17-19 groups of 6 to 7 students </li></ul><ul><li>Students engaged small group experiential exercises involving two participatory learning techniques – community mapping and rivers of life </li></ul>
    15. 16. PLA techniques: Community mapping Step 1 Draw a picture/map of your home and neighbourhood including the resources that are there. Step 2 Identify and label three things that you would like to change (could be physical or relate to attitudes, social issues). Put these in order by choosing to give the one you feel is most important the most tokens. Step 3 Share in your group, explaining your picture/map and the reasons for wanting things to change.
    16. 17. “ I have learnt about more about another culture and community. In South Africa, as we grow to learn about ourselves and others, we are constantly reminded of the diversity that is unique to our country- the eleven languages; the turbulent histories; and the many races to name but a few. Our diversity is a fact. However, it is not often that we are literally thrown together with people from diverse backgrounds to actually have first-hand experience of diversity” (‘Samantha’)
    17. 20. Learning about South African communities
    18. 21. WHY DO THE PROJECT?
    19. 26. E-learning component of course
    20. 27. Some challenges with elearning <ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Computer literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-existing online identities (facebook vs no experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a safe emotional ‘space’ that is delinked from time and place </li></ul>
    21. 28. <ul><li>2 nd Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Input by Bernie Searle on her identity as a coloured woman </li></ul><ul><li>Small group discussions on race and ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for group project </li></ul><ul><li>Final Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Student presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture on difference by guest speaker/play by Remix Theatre Group </li></ul><ul><li>Student evaluation forms and Research consent forms </li></ul>
    22. 30. Remix Theatre Company
    24. 32. Learning about Professional roles
    25. 33. Conclusion In a multi-dimensional society, it is important to embrace that people, even professionals, are individuals and have different ideas about life, but that everyone has an unique and important contribution to make. (This is the main lesson we learned from being a part of this programme). It does not mean that we cannot have our own opinion, the importance is accepting our own identities while acknowledging and respecting others. Like the puzzle, every piece is a different colour, but together it forms a whole. All the pieces have one purpose, to form a puzzle. All of us differ, but we all share the same goal – to help people in need.
    26. 34. Student Feedback 2008 <ul><li>Would you recommend repeating the idea of learning with students from another university? </li></ul><ul><li>84 yes; 1 no </li></ul><ul><li>Would you recommend repeating the idea of learning with students from another discipline? </li></ul><ul><li>83 yes; 1 no </li></ul><ul><li>Would you recommend using a mix of workshops and electronic communication? </li></ul><ul><li>72 yes; 6 no; 2 unsure </li></ul>
    27. 35. <ul><li>Student feedback on the course was overwhelmingly positive. The course was embedded within a rigorous research framework and the research team has published extensively, including co-publishing with students. </li></ul><ul><li>Notwithstanding some concerns we have about the depth of student learning in a short course, we believe that a participatory approach which requires students to explore their own multiple identities is preferable to a techniques-based approach in which cultural competence is taught as a set of skills. </li></ul>Results and Ways Forward
    28. 36. Publications of the Research Team <ul><li>Bozalek, V. & Biersteker, L. (2009) ‘ Exploring Power and Privilege using Participatory Learning and Action Techniques’ Social Work Education, iFirst Article:1-22 . </li></ul><ul><li>Bozalek, V., Rohleder, P., Carolissen, R., Leibowitz, B., Nicholls, L., & Swartz, L. (2007). Students learning across differences in a multi-disciplinary virtual learning community. South African Journal of Higher Education, 21(7):812-825. </li></ul><ul><li>Leibowitz, B., Bozalek, V., Rohleder, P., Carolissen, R., & Swartz, L. (in press). “Whiteys Love to Talk About Themselves”: Discomfort as a pedagogy for change. Race, Ethnicity and Education . </li></ul><ul><li>Leibowitz, B., Rohleder, P., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., & Swartz, L. (2007). “It doesn’t matter who or what we are, we are still just people”: Strategies used by university students to negotiate difference. South African Journal of Psychology, 37 (4), 702-719. </li></ul><ul><li>Rohleder, P., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., Leibowitz, B., & Swartz, L. (2008). Students’ evaluations of e-learning as a tool in a collaborative project between two South African universities. Higher Education, 56 (1), 95-107 . </li></ul><ul><li>Rohleder, P., Swartz, L., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., & Leibowitz, B. (2008). Community, self and identity: Participation action research and the creation of a virtual community across two South African universities. Teaching in Higher Education, 13 (2), 131-143. </li></ul><ul><li>Rohleder, P., Swartz, L., Carolissen, R., Bozalek, V., & Leibowitz, B. (2008). “Communities isn’t just about trees and shops”: Students from two South African universities engage in dialogue about ‘community’ and ‘community work’. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 18 (3), 253-267. </li></ul><ul><li>Rohleder, P., Fish, W., Ismail, A., Padfield, L. & Platen, D. (2007). Dealing with diversity in a virtual learning community across two South African universities. South African Journal of Higher Education. 21(7):893-918. </li></ul><ul><li>Swartz, L., Rohleder, P., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., Leibowitz, B., & Nicholls, L. (2009). “Your mind is the battlefield”: South African trainee health workers engage with the past. Social Work Education, 28(5):488-501. </li></ul>
    29. 37. Future publications <ul><li>In Press: </li></ul><ul><li>Leibowitz, B., Bozalek, V., Rohleder, P., Carolissen, R., & Swartz, L. (in press). “Whiteys Love to Talk About Themselves”: Discomfort as a pedagogy for change. Race, Ethnicity and Education . </li></ul><ul><li>Leibowitz, B., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., Nicholls, L., Rohleder, P. & Swartz, L., & (In Press) Bringing the Social into Pedagogy; Unsafe learning in an uncertain world. Teaching in Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Edited book HSRC Press is being compiled </li></ul>
    30. 38. Conference Presentations <ul><li>Forthcoming </li></ul><ul><li>Bozalek, V., Leibowitz, B., Swartz, L. Carolissen, R., Rohleder, P. & Nicholls, L. Community, Self and Identity: A cross-institutional collaborative teaching and learning research project promoting inclusivity.SANORD 2ND International Conference ‘Inclusion and Exclusion in Higher Education’ Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa 7-9 December 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Leibowitz, B., Bozalek, V., Carollissen, R., Swartz, L., Nicholls, L. & Rohleder. P. (2009). The Community, Self and Identity Project (South Africa ). Paper presented at the American Education Research Association (AERA) 2009 Conference on 13 – 17 April, 2009, in San Diego, United States of America. </li></ul><ul><li>Bozalek, V., Leibowitz, B., Swartz, L. Carolissen, R., Rohleder, P. & Nicholls, L. Community, Self and Identity: Innovative Pedagogical Practices in a Cross-Disciplinary, Cross-Institutional Endeavour NSWC2009 1st Joint National Social Workers Congress ASASWEI & NASW Conference, Drakensburg, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa 14 – 16 October 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Rohleder, P., Swartz, L., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., Leibowitz, B., & Nicholls, L. (2009). “We as the new generation should not allow the past to shape our present and future”: South African trainee health workers discuss race and apartheid . Paper submitted for presentation at the 6th biennial conference of the International Society of Critical Health Psychology (ISCHP) on 8-11 July, 2009, Lausanne, Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><li>Swartz, L., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R, Leibowitz, B., Nicholls, L., & Rohleder, P. (2009). Educating for (New) South African Citizenship: Engaging Trainee Health Workers with Issues of Difference . Paper submitted for presentation at the 16th International Conference on Learning on 1-4 July, 2009, Barcelona, Spain. </li></ul>
    31. 39. Conference Presentations <ul><li>2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Bozalek, V., Biersteker, L., Swartz, L., Leibowitz, B., Carolissen, R., Nicholls, L., & Rohleder, P. (2008) Depicting Difference through Community Mapping: Using PLA Techniques in Higher Education Contexts . Paper presented at the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) 2008 conference on 1-4 July 2008, Rotorua, New Zealand. [Award for most scholarly paper at conference]. </li></ul><ul><li>Bozalek, V., & Smolders, T. (2008) Community, Self and Identity: Learning about Differences and Inequalities across Disciplines in Higher Education Institutions in South Africa and Europe. Paper presented at International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) Conference, 20-24 July, Durban, South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Bozalek, V., Swartz, L., Carolissen, R., Leibowitz, B. Rohleder, P., & Nicholls, L. (2008). Pedagogical practices that foster conversations across disciplinary and institutional boundaries . Paper presented at the ISSoTL 5th Annual Conference Celebrating Connections ~ Learning, Teaching, and Scholarship October 16~19/2008, Edmonton~Alberta~Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Carolissen, R., Bozalek, V., Swartz, L., Rohleder, P., Nicholls, L., & Leibowitz, B. (2008) Teaching community as pedagogy of hope in an interdisciplinary space: the community, self and identity project. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual Conference on the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning on 20-21 May 2008, Stellenbosch, South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Carolissen, R., Swartz, L., Rohleder, P., Bozalek, V., Nicholls, L., & Leibowitz, B. (2008) Using participatory action research to teach community in a diverse and interdisciplinary community: the case of the community, self and identity project. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Community Psychology on 4-6 June 2008, Lisbon, Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>Leibowitz, B., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., & Swartz, L. (2008) Bringing the Social into Pedagogy . Paper presented at the Higher Education Close Up 4 Conference on 26-28 June 2008, Cape Town. </li></ul><ul><li>Leibowitz, B., Carolissen, R., Rohleder, P., Swartz, L., Bozalek, V., & Nicholls, L. (2008). Engaging students in the health and social sciences across disciplinary and institutional boundaries . Paper presented at the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Conference on 18-21 June 2008, University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Leibowitz, B., Rohleder, P., Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., & Swartz, L. (2008). “It doesn’t matter who or what we are, we are still just people”: Strategies used by university students to negotiate difference . Paper presented at the annual joint conference of the Linguistics Society of Southern Africa (LSSA), the South African Association for Language Teaching (SALT) and the South African Applied Linguistics Association (SAALA) convened by Stellenbosch University on 17-19 January 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholls, L., Rohleder, P., Bozalek, V., Swartz, L., Carolissen, R., & Leibowitz, B. (2008). “Apartheid was your past …not mine”; experiences of denial, shame and unending grief in teaching an inter-racial and inter-professional course across two South African Universities . Paper presented at the OPUS Conference – Organizational and social dynamics: International Perspectives from Group Relations, Psychoanalysis and Systems Theory on 21-22 November 2008, London, United Kingdom . </li></ul>
    32. 40. Conference Presentations <ul><li>2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Bozalek, V., & Biersteker, L. (2007). The value of participatory learning techniques for educating human service professionals in higher education . Paper presented at the SANPAD Poverty Conference on 26-29 June 2007, Durban. </li></ul><ul><li>Bozalek, V., Carolissen, R., Leibowitz, B., Nicholls, L., Rohleder, P., & Swartz, L. (2007) Crossing boundaries: Interdisciplinary collaboration in allied health and social sciences . Paper presented at the South African Association of Health Educationalists 4th Annual Regional Health Sciences Education Conference on 1-2 June, Cape Town, South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Carolissen, R., Swartz, L., Leibowitz, B., Bozalek, V., & Rohleder, P. (2007). “Community psychology is for poor, black communities”: pedagogy and community psychology teaching in South Africa. Paper presented at the 1st Annual Conference on Teaching and Learning on 22-23 May, Stellenbosch, South Africa [award for best presentation at conference </li></ul>
    33. 41. Contacts <ul><li>Vivienne Bozalek </li></ul><ul><li>(Director of Teaching and Learning, UWC): </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Leslie Swartz </li></ul><ul><li>(Psychology Dept, SUN): </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Brenda Leibowitz </li></ul><ul><li>(Centre for Teaching and Learning, SUN): </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Ronelle Carolissen </li></ul><ul><li>(Psychology Dept, SUN): </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Lindsey Nicholls </li></ul><ul><li>(Occupational therapy Dept, Brunel University, UK): </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Poul Rohleder </li></ul><ul><li>(Psychology Dept, Anglia Ruskin University, UK): </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>