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Proceedings of INDEST 2014

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Proceedings of INDEST Meeting & Workshop 2014.

Proceedings of INDEST Meeting & Workshop 2014.

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  • 1. INDEST 2014INDEST 2014INDEST 2014INDEST 2014INDEST 2014 1010101010ththththth Annual Meet and WAnnual Meet and WAnnual Meet and WAnnual Meet and WAnnual Meet and Workshoporkshoporkshoporkshoporkshop of INDEST - AICTE Consortiumof INDEST - AICTE Consortiumof INDEST - AICTE Consortiumof INDEST - AICTE Consortiumof INDEST - AICTE Consortium (May 05-06, 2014)(May 05-06, 2014)(May 05-06, 2014)(May 05-06, 2014)(May 05-06, 2014) Jointly Organised byJointly Organised byJointly Organised byJointly Organised byJointly Organised by National Institute of TNational Institute of TNational Institute of TNational Institute of TNational Institute of Technologyechnologyechnologyechnologyechnology, Silchar, Silchar, Silchar, Silchar, Silchar &&&&& INDESTINDESTINDESTINDESTINDEST-----AICTE Consortium, IIT DelhiAICTE Consortium, IIT DelhiAICTE Consortium, IIT DelhiAICTE Consortium, IIT DelhiAICTE Consortium, IIT Delhi PPPPPrrrrroceedingsoceedingsoceedingsoceedingsoceedings EditorEditorEditorEditorEditor DrDrDrDrDr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy. Kishor Chandra Satpathy. Kishor Chandra Satpathy. Kishor Chandra Satpathy. Kishor Chandra Satpathy National Institute of TNational Institute of TNational Institute of TNational Institute of TNational Institute of Technologyechnologyechnologyechnologyechnology SilcharSilcharSilcharSilcharSilchar- 788010, Assam- 788010, Assam- 788010, Assam- 788010, Assam- 788010, Assam
  • 2. No part of this publication can be reproduced in any form by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher.All data, views, opinions etc. being published are the sole responsibility of the authors. Neither the publisher nor the editors in anyway are responsible for them. ISBN: 978-93-84275-06-8 Published by National Institute of Technology Silchar- 788010, Assam & N E Books & Publishers National Highway, Silchar-788005, Assam Printed by Avishek Printers & Publishers Ambicapatty, Silchar-788004 email: virendrajain_silchar@yahoo.co.in INDEST 2014INDEST 2014INDEST 2014INDEST 2014INDEST 2014 C NIT, Silchar
  • 3. ContentContentContentContentContent PPPPPage Noage Noage Noage Noage No..... Opening ROpening ROpening ROpening ROpening Remarks fremarks fremarks fremarks fremarks from the Directorom the Directorom the Directorom the Directorom the Director, IIT Delhi, IIT Delhi, IIT Delhi, IIT Delhi, IIT Delhi Message frMessage frMessage frMessage frMessage from the Directorom the Directorom the Directorom the Directorom the Director, NIT Silchar, NIT Silchar, NIT Silchar, NIT Silchar, NIT Silchar Message frMessage frMessage frMessage frMessage from the Coordinatorom the Coordinatorom the Coordinatorom the Coordinatorom the Coordinator, INDEST, INDEST, INDEST, INDEST, INDEST Message frMessage frMessage frMessage frMessage from the Chairperson, LSC, NIT Silcharom the Chairperson, LSC, NIT Silcharom the Chairperson, LSC, NIT Silcharom the Chairperson, LSC, NIT Silcharom the Chairperson, LSC, NIT Silchar Message frMessage frMessage frMessage frMessage from the Organising Secretarom the Organising Secretarom the Organising Secretarom the Organising Secretarom the Organising Secretaryyyyy PPPPPrrrrrofile of the Editorofile of the Editorofile of the Editorofile of the Editorofile of the Editor About the hostAbout the hostAbout the hostAbout the hostAbout the host LibrarLibrarLibrarLibrarLibrary@ Silchary@ Silchary@ Silchary@ Silchary@ Silchar Organising CommitteeOrganising CommitteeOrganising CommitteeOrganising CommitteeOrganising Committee PPPPPapersapersapersapersapers INDESTINDESTINDESTINDESTINDEST: An over: An over: An over: An over: An overviewviewviewviewview INDESTINDESTINDESTINDESTINDEST-----AICTE Consortium: A RAICTE Consortium: A RAICTE Consortium: A RAICTE Consortium: A RAICTE Consortium: A Reporteporteporteporteport DrDrDrDrDr. Bibhuti B. Sahoo. Bibhuti B. Sahoo. Bibhuti B. Sahoo. Bibhuti B. Sahoo. Bibhuti B. Sahoo RRRRResearch output of Core members of INDESTesearch output of Core members of INDESTesearch output of Core members of INDESTesearch output of Core members of INDESTesearch output of Core members of INDEST-----AICTE Consortium:AICTE Consortium:AICTE Consortium:AICTE Consortium:AICTE Consortium: A Bibliometric analysis (2009-2013)A Bibliometric analysis (2009-2013)A Bibliometric analysis (2009-2013)A Bibliometric analysis (2009-2013)A Bibliometric analysis (2009-2013) DrDrDrDrDr. Neeraj Kumar Chaurasia and Mr. Neeraj Kumar Chaurasia and Mr. Neeraj Kumar Chaurasia and Mr. Neeraj Kumar Chaurasia and Mr. Neeraj Kumar Chaurasia and Mr. Shank. Shank. Shank. Shank. Shankar B. Chavanar B. Chavanar B. Chavanar B. Chavanar B. Chavan Managing change: libraries, technologies and innovationManaging change: libraries, technologies and innovationManaging change: libraries, technologies and innovationManaging change: libraries, technologies and innovationManaging change: libraries, technologies and innovation K. RK. RK. RK. RK. Rama Pama Pama Pama Pama Patnaikatnaikatnaikatnaikatnaik Best practices to enhence the use of e-Best practices to enhence the use of e-Best practices to enhence the use of e-Best practices to enhence the use of e-Best practices to enhence the use of e-resources in librariesresources in librariesresources in librariesresources in librariesresources in libraries DrDrDrDrDr. Sunil Kumar Satpathy. Sunil Kumar Satpathy. Sunil Kumar Satpathy. Sunil Kumar Satpathy. Sunil Kumar Satpathy E-journals: rE-journals: rE-journals: rE-journals: rE-journals: role and challenges for social science librarole and challenges for social science librarole and challenges for social science librarole and challenges for social science librarole and challenges for social science library &y &y &y &y & information centreinformation centreinformation centreinformation centreinformation centre DrDrDrDrDr. Sada Bihari Sahu and Dr. Sada Bihari Sahu and Dr. Sada Bihari Sahu and Dr. Sada Bihari Sahu and Dr. Sada Bihari Sahu and Dr. Santosh Kumar Satapathy. Santosh Kumar Satapathy. Santosh Kumar Satapathy. Santosh Kumar Satapathy. Santosh Kumar Satapathy Bibliometric study on patent filing in IndiaBibliometric study on patent filing in IndiaBibliometric study on patent filing in IndiaBibliometric study on patent filing in IndiaBibliometric study on patent filing in India M. VM. VM. VM. VM. Vijaya kijaya kijaya kijaya kijaya kumar and S L Sangamumar and S L Sangamumar and S L Sangamumar and S L Sangamumar and S L Sangam Copyright ACopyright ACopyright ACopyright ACopyright Act and information literacyct and information literacyct and information literacyct and information literacyct and information literacy Moorttimatee SamantarayMoorttimatee SamantarayMoorttimatee SamantarayMoorttimatee SamantarayMoorttimatee Samantaray Intellectual prIntellectual prIntellectual prIntellectual prIntellectual property rights in Indiaoperty rights in Indiaoperty rights in Indiaoperty rights in Indiaoperty rights in India Abdul RAbdul RAbdul RAbdul RAbdul Rashidashidashidashidashid RRRRRole of Intellectual prole of Intellectual prole of Intellectual prole of Intellectual prole of Intellectual property rights in Iinstitutional repositoriesoperty rights in Iinstitutional repositoriesoperty rights in Iinstitutional repositoriesoperty rights in Iinstitutional repositoriesoperty rights in Iinstitutional repositories DrDrDrDrDr. Subarna Kr. Subarna Kr. Subarna Kr. Subarna Kr. Subarna Kr. Das and Narendra Bhattachar. Das and Narendra Bhattachar. Das and Narendra Bhattachar. Das and Narendra Bhattachar. Das and Narendra Bhattacharyayayayaya CCCCCitation analysis as a tool to model pritation analysis as a tool to model pritation analysis as a tool to model pritation analysis as a tool to model pritation analysis as a tool to model progress of science:ogress of science:ogress of science:ogress of science:ogress of science: A case study on Antarctic Ozone hole researchA case study on Antarctic Ozone hole researchA case study on Antarctic Ozone hole researchA case study on Antarctic Ozone hole researchA case study on Antarctic Ozone hole research DrDrDrDrDr.P.P.P.P.Prabir G.Dastidarrabir G.Dastidarrabir G.Dastidarrabir G.Dastidarrabir G.Dastidar SponsorsSponsorsSponsorsSponsorsSponsors AAAAAdvertisementdvertisementdvertisementdvertisementdvertisement About SilcharAbout SilcharAbout SilcharAbout SilcharAbout Silchar
  • 4. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology Consortium INDEST-AICTE Consortium Opening ROpening ROpening ROpening ROpening Remarksemarksemarksemarksemarks On behalf of INDEST and my own behalf, I welcome you to this 10th Annual Meet of INDEST– AICTE Consortium which is providing electronic resources to various science, engineering and management institutions of the country. The idea of creation of the library consortia took shape at the “National Seminar on Knowledge Networking in Engineering & Technology Education and Research” held at IIT Delhi in December 2000 under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development. The seminar was attended by more than 150 participants from engineering and technological institutions from all over the country. Based on the feedback, ministry decided to set-up the expert group in April 2002 for the consortia– based subscription to electronic resources for Technical Education System in India. The “Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST) Consortium” was set up in 2003 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) on the recommendation of an Expert Group appointed by the Ministry. IIT Delhi was designated as the Consortium Headquarter to coordinate its activities. The Ministry provides funds required for subscription to electronic resources for about 65 centrally-funded Government institutions including IITs, IISc Bangalore, NITs, IIITs, IIMs and few other Institutions that are considered as core members of the Consortium. The benefit of consortia-based subscription to electronic resources is not confined to its core members but is also extended to all educational institutions under its open-ended proposition. About 60 Govt./Govt.-aided engineering colleges are provided access to selected electronic resources with financial support from AICTE. The INDEST-AICTE Consortium administered through various committees like National Steering Committee, National Advisory Committee, National Review Committee and Negotiation committee. INDEST-AICTE Consortium is an active partner in Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) jointly with UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, INFLIBNET Centre (NME-ICT/N-LIST) and provides: PPPPPrrrrrofofofofof. R.K. Shevgaonk. R.K. Shevgaonk. R.K. Shevgaonk. R.K. Shevgaonk. R.K. Shevgaonkararararar Chairman, National Steering Committee & Director, IIT Delhi
  • 5. i) Cross subscription to e-resources subscribed by the two Consortia, i.e. subscription to INDEST- AICTE Consortium resources for universities and UGC-INFONET resources for technical institutions, and ii) Access to selected e-resources to colleges. Initially there were 37 core members of the consortium but due to the opening of new centrally funded institutions like IITs, IIMs, IISERs, NITs, NITTRs the number has increased to 65. Due to the increase in the number of institutions, prices of the e-resources and currency conversion rate the consortium is facing an uphill task to run the show in the best possible way. The budget has not been increased in the same proportion. Despite these factors, the year gone by has witnessed an all round improvement in its performance. Not even one e-resource has been dropped from the list of subscribed resources till 2013. I hope that the INDEST-AICTE Consortium will flourish more and achieve many more milestones with the inclusion of the new centrally funded institutions and with support from all quarters especially MHRD. INDEST-AICTE Consortium is also actively participating in the concept of National consortium. The Annual meet, like the one we are having today and tomorrow, is an important annual event being organized in the core institutions since its establishment. IIT Delhi hosted first 4 annual meet, later this event was hosted by other institutions like IIT Roorkee (2007), IIT Bombay (2008), IIT Kharagpur (2009), IIT Madras (2010) and IIM Ahmedabad (2013). I am grateful to these institutes for agreeing to hold this meet. This is an important platform where member institutions share their best practices, concerns and issues during the event. The consortium gets feedback from these meets and addresses various issues faced by the member community. Since the last 10 years the consortia derived lots of benefits from these meets. It is seen that in India the research output of the country has increased after development of various consortia in India. I hope that 10th Annual Meet of the INDEST-AICTE Consortium which is being held first time in any of the NITs and first time in the North Eastern region of the country will deliberate various issues in details and will give a road map to future management of consortia and e-resources for the fulfillment of the objectives of various institutions and as a whole to help in the development of the society. With this I wish to congratulate the organizer of this meet and convey my best wishes for its success. PPPPPrrrrrofofofofof. R.K. Shevgaonk. R.K. Shevgaonk. R.K. Shevgaonk. R.K. Shevgaonk. R.K. Shevgaonkararararar
  • 6. MessageMessageMessageMessageMessage It is a privilege on our part to host the 10th Annual Meet and Workshop of INDEST-AICTE Consortium jointly organized by NIT Silchar and INDEST-AICTE Consortium, IIT Delhi during 05-06 May, 2014 at NIT, Silchar. The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has been one of the most remarkable and ambitious steps ever taken in the country. The incorporation of digital means in imparting resources among the various engineering and technological institutes will ensure an adequate documentation, dissemination and management of information, thereby provide unprecedented platform for research and innovation, fostering today’s knowledge-based economy. It is my strong belief that the detailed discussions, analyses from various dimensions and the resultant findings of this annual meet will have the power to drive our nation to a brighter, prosperous and thriving future. The National Institute of Technology, Silchar has been successful in creating a distinct bench mark of excellence in the field of professional and technical education through Research, Training, Consultancy and Innovation. I sincerely hope that this annual meet and workshop will help in creating a long term partnership between NIT Silchar and INDEST-AICTE Consortium, IIT Delhi. I wish the Annual Meet and Workshop a grand success. I also wish the participants a pleasant stay at Silchar. Pro. N.V. Deshpande NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (An Institute of National Importance) Silchar, Assam, India, PIN:- 788010 Ph: +91-03842-224879; Fax: +91 - 03842-224797 Web: www.nits.ac.in Email: nishu1952@gmail.com PPPPPrrrrrofofofofof. N.V. N.V. N.V. N.V. N.V. Deshpande. Deshpande. Deshpande. Deshpande. Deshpande Director
  • 7. MessageMessageMessageMessageMessage I am pleased that NIT Silchar agreed to organize the 10th Annual Meet & Workshop of INDEST- AICTE Consortium during 5th -6th May 2014. This is for the first time that the Annual Meet is being organized in the North Eastern Region of the country and in an NIT. INDEST-AICTE Consortium, since its inception in 2003, has been playing a vital role to provide online access of many e-resources to its member institutions. Inclusion of some of the AICTE approved institutions to the Consortium has added to its color. In the beginning only 37 MHRD funded institutions were the core members of the consortium but now the total number of members has increased to 65 due to the addition of new opened centrally funded technical institutions. Although it has affected the budget of the consortium, the year gone has witnessed an all round improvement in its performance. Not even one e-resource has been dropped from the list of subscribed e-resources till 2013. I hope that the INDEST-AICTE Consortium will flourish more and achieve many more milestones with the inclusion of the new centrally funded institutions and with support from all quarters especially MHRD. E-Resources are being increasingly used by the students, faculty and researchers. The change in user’s behavior and use pattern are forcing libraries to rethink and align their operation. Focus on use and management of e-resources will no doubt help the Librarians, library users and participants of the workshop. I wish that the consortium will continue to flourish and provide the services to its clientele to the highest level of their satisfaction. I wish the Workshop a great success. PPPPPrrrrrofofofofof. B. D. Gupta. B. D. Gupta. B. D. Gupta. B. D. Gupta. B. D. Gupta Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology Consortium INDEST-AICTE Consortium PPPPPrrrrrofofofofof. B.D. Gupta. B.D. Gupta. B.D. Gupta. B.D. Gupta. B.D. Gupta National Coordinator, INDEST-AICTE Consortium
  • 8. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (An Institute of National Importance) Silchar, Assam, India, PIN:- 788010 Ph: +91-03842-240055; Fax: +91-03842-224797 Website: www.nits.ac.in Email: ashim_kanti@yahoo.co.in MessageMessageMessageMessageMessage We feel privileged to host the 10th Annual Meet and Workshop of INDEST-AICTE Consortium which is going to be held at NIT, Silchar during 05-06 May, 2014. The concept of digital library for the engineering and technological institutes has been an innovative step in order to raise quality of education and research activities and is crucial for the economic development of our country. The use of modern amenities in libraries and their digitization has indeed redefined the ways of learning. I hope that this Annual Meet and Workshop will fulfil its main objective by providing a platform for exchange of knowledge, views and ideas among the librarians, information specialists, scientists, students and other participants from different specializations. To look into its growth, the Ministry of Human Resource Development on the recommendation of an Expert Group had set up the INDEST in 2003. Since then there were 65 centrally-funded Government institutions including IITs, IISc Bangalore, NITs, ISM, IIITs, IIMs, NITTTR’s and few other institutions that are considered as core members of the Consortium with the IIT Delhi been designated as the Consortium Headquarters to coordinate its activities. In 2005, the consortium was renamed as INDEST-AICTE Consortium. Today, it has reached to that arena, where the Consortium subscribes to over 12,000 electronic journals from a number of publishers and aggregators. I feel proud to be associated with this Annual Meet and Workshop. I wish the Annual Meet a grand success. PPPPPrrrrrofofofofof. F A T. F A T. F A T. F A T. F A Talukdaralukdaralukdaralukdaralukdar PPPPPrrrrrofofofofof. F A T. F A T. F A T. F A T. F A Talukdaralukdaralukdaralukdaralukdar Dean (Academic) & Chairman, LSC National Institute of Techonology Silchar - 788010, Assam
  • 9. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (An Institute of National Importance) Silchar, Assam, India, PIN:- 788010 Ph: +91-03842-240055; Fax: +91 - 03842-224797 Web: www.nits.ac.in Email: ksatpathy@gmail.com MessageMessageMessageMessageMessage It is indeed a proud privilege for us here at National Institute of Technology Silchar to organize the 10th Annual Meet and Workshop of INDEST-AICTE Consortium on May 05-06 May 2014. I extend my hearty welcome to all the resource persons and delegates participating in the consortium. The principal objective of this consortium is to provide a platform to all INDEST members to interact and share their experience. Through this INDEST-AICTE consortium, members can update their activities, development, future plans and it also provide an opportunity to discuss and deliberate on emerging trends and technology in libraries. Further, also to promote use of e-resources, resources sharing & inter library networking. I offer my wholehearted compliments to Prof. R.K. Shevgaonkar, Director & Chairman, INDEST- AICTE Consortium, IIT New Delhi for allowing to hold this meet in NIT Silchar, I am also thankful to Prof. B.D.Gupta, National Coordinator, INDEST-AICTE, IIT Delhi for joining hands to make this meet a success. We are confident and hopeful that the consortium will give you an opportunity to interact with the INDEST members and other delegates who will be attending the consortium from various parts of India. I take this opportunity to thank Prof. N V Deshpande, Director, NIT Silchar for his constant advice, support & encouragement. I thank Prof. F A Talukdar, Chairman, LSC for the support. I also wish to express my gratitude to my colleagues in the library for their valuable help & support. I would also like to thank Rupa Rani Sonowal, for her assistance in the proceeding. I would like to thank M/s Abhishek Printers, Silchar for bringing out this proceeding in a shortest possible time. Last but not the least I would like to thank my parents, my beloved wife Deeposree and my lovely daughters Ritu & Diya for their constant mental support and help. I wish you all enjoyable stay in Silchar. DrDrDrDrDr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy. Kishor Chandra Satpathy. Kishor Chandra Satpathy. Kishor Chandra Satpathy. Kishor Chandra Satpathy Dr. K. C. Satpathy Organising Secretary, INDEST-2014
  • 10. PROFILE OF THE EDITOR FFFFFields of Interestields of Interestields of Interestields of Interestields of Interest Library Management and Networking, Digital Library, e-learning Dr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy (1972) did his Post Graduation in Education and Library & Information Science from Panjab University, Chandigarh with a Diploma in Population Education from Panjab University, Chandigarh & Post Graduate Diploma in Library Automation and Networking from the University of Hyderabad. Recently, he was awarded PhD Degree for his thesis entitled “Technical Education in North East India with Special reference to Information service: An exploratory Study” to Assam (Central) University, Silchar. He has undergone several advance training programmes in IT, information management & related fields under SAARC-SDC & UNESCO/Vidyanidhi fellowships. He has, to date to his credit, over Twelve years of professional experience including teaching & research experience of several national level organization of the country. His major contributions include use of information technology in information management and use of educational technology for improving classroom teaching and learning process. At present he holds the position of Librarian and Coordinator, DL & e-learning Project National Institute of Technology (A Central Deemed University), Silchar. Dr. Satpathy has successfully implemented RFID Technology & ERMSS at NIT Silchar & IIM Indore Library. Apart from this, currently Dr. Satpathy is coordinating two projects namely “Education to Home (eth) Project meant for IT for all & BARC-Akruti Project” meant for Technology Transfer to the rural sector. He is the Coordinator for INDOLIBNET (Indore Library Network), SICILIBNET (Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute Library Network) & worked as a consultant for revamping the public library of Indore (Govt. Ahilya Library) on behalf of Govt. of Madhya Pradesh. He has prepared a Vision Document for Govt. Ahilya Library. Currently, he is working on project of Govt. of Assam for development of Silchar Normal School Library & Museum. He is the founder core committee member of NIT Consortia & member of National Price Negotiation Committee of INDEST. Earlier he worked as Librarian, Indian Institute of Management, Indore; Panjabi University, Patiala; Centre for Environmental Education, Ahmedabad; Centre for Management Training and Research, Chandigarh. He also acted as Coordinator of Centre for Educational Technology; Coordinator, Continuing Education Cell & Programme officer, National Service Scheme, NIT, Silchar during 2001- 2004 & Honorary Project Officer; State Rural Technology Promotion Council, Govt. of Assam; Coordinator, Environmental Education Resource Centre, NIT, Silchar. He has delivered lectures in several training programmes organized by UNDP, QCI, AICTE, MSME & Entrepreneurship DrDrDrDrDr. KISHO. KISHO. KISHO. KISHO. KISHOR CHANDRA SR CHANDRA SR CHANDRA SR CHANDRA SR CHANDRA SAAAAATPTPTPTPTPAAAAATHYTHYTHYTHYTHY Librarian & Coordinator, Digital Library & eth Project Email: kishor_satpathy@yahoo.com & ksatpathy@gmail.com Tele: +91-3842-240055 (Off) +91-9435175531 (M) Address: Central Library National Institute of Technology Silchar P.O-NIT Silchar Assam, Pin-788010 INDIA
  • 11. Development Institute, Bhopal etc. He is a frequent consultant for wide range of clients and developing programmes in the area of Career Counseling, Information Management and Educational Technology. He has 30 publications to his credit. He has edited four workshop proceedings and co-edited four books published by McMillan India, Indian Society for Technical Education, Delhi, NE Books & Publisher and National Library, Kolkata. He has presented several papers in national and international conference in the country and abroad. He has visited Czech Republic, Portugal & USA for academic purpose. In December 2013, he attended “Higher Education Leadership Programme” at University of Urbana Champaign, USA. He has successfully completed two major projects entitled ‘Virtual Classroom’ & ‘Digital Library’ sponsored by MHRD, Govt. of India. He has transformed the Central Library, NIT Silchar in to a “state of the art library” in the North Eastern Region. This is the first library in the entire NE Region to implement RFID & DVR Technology for Library Security purpose & to have Digital Library. He has implemented the e-learning solution in the Institute under World Bank TEQIP grant. His areas of interest are Information Management, ICT, Digital Library, Educational Technology & Technical Education. He has coordinated several national level training programmes, workshops & seminars sponsored by CSIR, NISTAD, ICSSR, DST, SICI, NCTE, ISTE, AICTE, USEFI, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs & Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports etc. He is a life and executive member of several Associations/Societies such as Society of Information Science, Indian Society for Technical Institution, All India Association for Educational Research, Indian Academy for Social Sciences, Indian Library Association, Indian Association for Special Libraries & Information Centres (IASLIC), MANLIBNET and Indian Distance Education Association etc. He was an executive member of IASLIC (2005-06) & AIAER, Assam Chapter. He is an active member of “ICTD Community’ of Solution Exchange (An UN Agency). He was elected as a member, LPAC, Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute for the year 2008-09. FFFFFor his outstanding contribution to the field of Libraror his outstanding contribution to the field of Libraror his outstanding contribution to the field of Libraror his outstanding contribution to the field of Libraror his outstanding contribution to the field of Library & Information Sery & Information Sery & Information Sery & Information Sery & Information Service prvice prvice prvice prvice profession, he wasofession, he wasofession, he wasofession, he wasofession, he was awarded Society for Information Science (SIS) -awarded Society for Information Science (SIS) -awarded Society for Information Science (SIS) -awarded Society for Information Science (SIS) -awarded Society for Information Science (SIS) -YYYYYoung Information Scientist award for 2006 &oung Information Scientist award for 2006 &oung Information Scientist award for 2006 &oung Information Scientist award for 2006 &oung Information Scientist award for 2006 & SSSSSAAAAATKTKTKTKTKAL YAL YAL YAL YAL Young Librarian Aoung Librarian Aoung Librarian Aoung Librarian Aoung Librarian Award for 2008. Some of his work can be found at:ward for 2008. Some of his work can be found at:ward for 2008. Some of his work can be found at:ward for 2008. Some of his work can be found at:ward for 2008. Some of his work can be found at: http://indest2014.blogspot.in/ http://iiworkshop.blogspot.in/ http://sis2012conference.blogspot.in/ http://nerlibnet.blogspot.in/ http://sicilibnet.blogspot.com/ http://iimindorelibrary.blogspot.com/ http://indorepubliclibrary.blogspot.com/ http://indolibnet.blogspot.com/ http://sis2008conference.blogspot.com/ http://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsp http://nerlibnet.blogspot.com/ http://www.librariesrevolution.com/emagazine
  • 12. IIT DelhiIIT DelhiIIT DelhiIIT Delhi The concept of the IITs was first introduced in a report in the year 1945 by Sh. N. member of Education on Vicerory’s Executive Council. Following his recommendations, the first Indian Institute of Technology was established in the year 1950 in Kharagpur. In his report, Shri Sircar had suggested that such Institutes should a country. The Government having accepted these recommendations of the Sircar Committee decided to establish more Institutes of Technology with the assistance of friendly countries were prepared to help. The first offer of help came from USSR who agreed to collaborate in the establishment of an Institute through UNESCO at Bombay. This was followed by the Institutes of Technology at Madras, Kanpur and Delhi with collaborations with W respectively. Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati was established in 1995 and the University of Roorkee was converted into an IIT in 2001. The Government of India negotiated with the British Government for collaboration in sett an Institute of Technology at Delhi. The British Government agreed in principle to such collaboration, but was inclined initially to start in a modest way. It was therefore agreed that a College of Engineering & Technology should be established at D called the Delhi Engineering College Trust was established with the help of the UK Government and the Federation of British Industries in London. Later H.R.H. Prince Philips, Duke of Edinburgh, during his visit to India, January 28, 1959. The College of Engineering & Technology was registered as a Society on 14th June 1960 under the Societies Registration Act No. XXI of 1860 (Registration No.S1663 of 1960 admissions were made in 1961. The students were asked to report at the College on 16th August 1961 and the College was formally inaugurated on 17th of August 1961 by Prof. Humayun Kabir, Minister of Scientific Research & Cultural Affairs. The College Delhi. The College of Engineering & Technology established in 1961 was declared an Institution of National Importance under the “Institute of Technology (Amendment) Act 1963” and was renamed “Indian Institute of Technolo with powers to decide its own academic policy, to conduct its own examinations, and to award its own degrees. According to Section 4 of the Act, each of the Institutes shall be a body corporate hav perpetual succession and a common seal and shall, by its name, sue and be sued. The body corporate constituting each of the members of the Board for the time being of the Institute. IIT Delhi ABOUT HOSTABOUT HOSTABOUT HOSTABOUT HOST IIT DelhiIIT DelhiIIT DelhiIIT Delhi The concept of the IITs was first introduced in a report in the year 1945 by Sh. N. member of Education on Vicerory’s Executive Council. Following his recommendations, the first Indian Institute of Technology was established in the year 1950 in Kharagpur. In his report, Shri Sircar had suggested that such Institutes should also be started in different parts of the country. The Government having accepted these recommendations of the Sircar Committee decided to establish more Institutes of Technology with the assistance of friendly countries were prepared to help. The first offer of help came from USSR who agreed to collaborate in the establishment of an Institute through UNESCO at Bombay. This was followed by the Institutes of Technology at Madras, Kanpur and Delhi with collaborations with West Germany, USA and UK respectively. Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati was established in 1995 and the University of Roorkee was converted into an IIT in 2001. The Government of India negotiated with the British Government for collaboration in sett an Institute of Technology at Delhi. The British Government agreed in principle to such inclined initially to start in a modest way. It was therefore agreed that a College of Engineering & Technology should be established at Delhi with their assistance. A trust called the Delhi Engineering College Trust was established with the help of the UK Government and the Federation of British Industries in London. Later H.R.H. Prince Philips, Duke of Edinburgh, during his visit to India, laid the foundation stone of the College at Hauz Khas on The College of Engineering & Technology was registered as a Society on 14th June 1960 under the Societies Registration Act No. XXI of 1860 (Registration No.S1663 of 1960 admissions were made in 1961. The students were asked to report at the College on 16th August 1961 and the College was formally inaugurated on 17th of August 1961 by Prof. Humayun Kabir, Minister of Scientific Research & Cultural Affairs. The College was affiliated to the University of The College of Engineering & Technology established in 1961 was declared an Institution of National Importance under the “Institute of Technology (Amendment) Act 1963” and was renamed “Indian Institute of Technology Delhi”. It was then accorded the status of a University with powers to decide its own academic policy, to conduct its own examinations, and to award According to Section 4 of the Act, each of the Institutes shall be a body corporate hav perpetual succession and a common seal and shall, by its name, sue and be sued. The body corporate constituting each of the Institutes shall consist of a Chairman, a Director and other members of the Board for the time being of the Institute. IIT Delhi is an autonomous statutory 1 ABOUT HOSTABOUT HOSTABOUT HOSTABOUT HOST The concept of the IITs was first introduced in a report in the year 1945 by Sh. N. M. Sircar, then member of Education on Vicerory’s Executive Council. Following his recommendations, the first Indian Institute of Technology was established in the year 1950 in Kharagpur. In his report, lso be started in different parts of the country. The Government having accepted these recommendations of the Sircar Committee decided to establish more Institutes of Technology with the assistance of friendly countries that were prepared to help. The first offer of help came from USSR who agreed to collaborate in the establishment of an Institute through UNESCO at Bombay. This was followed by the Institutes of est Germany, USA and UK respectively. Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati was established in 1995 and the University The Government of India negotiated with the British Government for collaboration in setting up an Institute of Technology at Delhi. The British Government agreed in principle to such inclined initially to start in a modest way. It was therefore agreed that a elhi with their assistance. A trust called the Delhi Engineering College Trust was established with the help of the UK Government and the Federation of British Industries in London. Later H.R.H. Prince Philips, Duke of laid the foundation stone of the College at Hauz Khas on The College of Engineering & Technology was registered as a Society on 14th June 1960 under the Societies Registration Act No. XXI of 1860 (Registration No.S1663 of 1960-61). The first admissions were made in 1961. The students were asked to report at the College on 16th August 1961 and the College was formally inaugurated on 17th of August 1961 by Prof. Humayun Kabir, was affiliated to the University of The College of Engineering & Technology established in 1961 was declared an Institution of National Importance under the “Institute of Technology (Amendment) Act 1963” and was gy Delhi”. It was then accorded the status of a University with powers to decide its own academic policy, to conduct its own examinations, and to award According to Section 4 of the Act, each of the Institutes shall be a body corporate having perpetual succession and a common seal and shall, by its name, sue and be sued. The body shall consist of a Chairman, a Director and other is an autonomous statutory
  • 13. 2 organisation functioning in terms of the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 amended vide the Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Act, 1963 and the Statutes framed there under. Responsibility for the general superintendence, direction and control of the affairs of the Institute is vested in the Board of Governors. The Board of Governors functions through its Standing Committees - Finance Committee, Building & Works Committee and such other adhoc committees which are constituted by it from time to time to consider specific issues. The control and general regulation for the maintenance of standards of instruction, education and examination in the Institute vests in the Senate. The Senate is responsible for formulation of the academic policies and to design curricula, the courses of studies and the system of examination. The Senate functions through its Standing Boards/Committees and Sub-committees that may be constituted by it to look into the specific matters arising from time to time. Objectives of the InstituteObjectives of the InstituteObjectives of the InstituteObjectives of the Institute:::: • The aims and objectives of IIT Delhi, as assigned by the IIT Council are: • To offer instruction in Applied Science and Engineering of a standard comparable to the best in the world. • To provide adequate facilities for postgraduate study and research to meet the needs of specialized research workers and teachers. • To provide leadership in curriculum planning, laboratory development and examination systems. • To institute programmes for faculty development both for their own staff and for the teachers of other engineering colleges. • To establish teaching and research programmes of an interdisciplinary nature. • To develop close co-operation with industry through the exchange of personnel, continuing education programmes, and consultancy services to solve live industrial problems. • To develop strong collaborative links with other Institutions and organizations including National Laboratories and Government Departments. • In addition to these seven objectives, the following were added in the context of the new education policy: • To develop continuing education programmes for employed engineers and make them available both on campus and by distance learning techniques at off-campus locations. • To anticipate the technological needs for India and plan and prepare to cater to them. • To prepare instructional resource material in the conventional as well as the audio-visual; the video and the computer based modes. • To interact with the community at large to inculcate in our country men and women a feel for scientific thought and endeavor. • To cater to the development of a culture for maintenance and conservation. • To organize our study programmes to prepare manpower also for the unorganized sector and for self-employment. VisionVisionVisionVision:::: To contribute to India and the World through excellence in scientific and technical education and research; to serve as a valuable resource for industry and society; and remain a source of pride for all Indians.
  • 14. 3 MissionMissionMissionMission:::: • To generate new knowledge by engaging in cutting-edge research and to promote academic growth by offering state-of-the-art undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral programmes. • To identify, based on an informed perception of Indian, regional and global needs, areas of specialization upon which the institute can concentrate. • To undertake collaborative projects which offer opportunities for long-term interaction with academia and industry. • To develop human potential to its fullest extent so that intellectually capable and imaginatively gifted leaders can emerge in a range of professions. ValuesValuesValuesValues:::: • Academic integrity and accountability. • Respect and tolerance for the views of every individual. • Attention to issues of national relevance as well as of global concern. • Breadth of understanding, including knowledge of the human sciences. • Appreciation of intellectual excellence and creativity. • An unfettered spirit of exploration, rationality and enterprise. INDESTINDESTINDESTINDEST----AICTE CONSORTIUMAICTE CONSORTIUMAICTE CONSORTIUMAICTE CONSORTIUM The INDEST-AICTE Consortium is the most ambitious initiative taken so far in the country. The “Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST) Consortium” was set up in 2003 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) on the recommendation of an Expert Group appointed by the Ministry. The IIT Delhi was designated as the Consortium Headquarters to coordinate its activities. The Ministry provides funds required for subscription to selected electronic resources for (65) institutions including IISc, IITs, NERIST,ISM, IIIT, IIITM, IISERs, NITs, NITTTR, IIMs and a few other centrally-funded Government Institutions through the consortium headquarters set-up at the IIT Delhi. Besides, 60 Government or Government-aided engineering colleges and technical departments in universities have joined the Consortium with financial support from the AICTE. The Consortium was re- named as INDEST-AICTE Consortium in December 2005 with the AICTE playing a pivotal role in enrolling its approved engineering colleges and institutions as members of the Consortium for selected e-resources at much lower rates of subscription. The Consortium enrolls engineering and technological institutions as its members and subscribe to electronic resources for them at discounted rates of subscription and favorable terms and conditions. The consortium has served over 1235 institutions under its Self supported member. The consortium website at http://paniit.iitd.ac.in/indest hosts searchable databases of journals and member institutions to locate journals subscribed by the Consortium, their URLs and details of member institutions.
  • 15. 4 NIT SILCHARNIT SILCHARNIT SILCHARNIT SILCHAR The National Institute of Technology, Silchar (An Institute of National Importance) is one of the premier national level institutions for technical education in North-East India. The institute was established as a joint venture between Government of India and Government of Assam as Regional Engineering College, Silchar in 1967 with the objective of imparting quality engineering education, providing cosmopolitan outlook among students and fostering a spirit of National Integration. This institution has been transformed and upgraded to National Institute of Technology, Silchar with a Deemed University Status with effect from 28.06.2002. The institute has subsequently been made into a fully Government funded institution of India with the Institute of National Importance Status by an Act of Parliament. The institute is situated in a campus which spans across 540 acres of undulating land and lakes surrounded by tea estates and hillocks providing an ideal environment for studies. NIT Silchar is a fully residential Institution. At present it offers six undergraduate courses in Engineering and a number of Post-Graduate courses in civil, mechanical, electrical, electronics & telecommunication and computer science engineering apart from MSC, MBA & PhD programmes. CENTRAL LIBRARY@NIT SILCHARCENTRAL LIBRARY@NIT SILCHARCENTRAL LIBRARY@NIT SILCHARCENTRAL LIBRARY@NIT SILCHAR The Central Library which is the heart of the Institute was established in 1977. It provides one of the important academic services to the Institute. It is a well equipped Library, centrally located with easy access and does provide right impetus for the intellectual growth of the students, teachers, research scholars & others around. Presently, the Library is a part of the LTT building & having around 95,000 collections of documents of both print & non print materials. The new library building is under construction. The Central Library with its modern collection of knowledge resources and innovative information services supports a complementary role for students, faculty, and the surrounding community in their intellectual pursuits. It is a hybrid library with the state-of-the-art
  • 16. 5 technological applications. The Library holds knowledge resources predominantly related to Science and Technology, Social Sc & other allied subjects. The Library is now fully computerized with an integrated system connected to the Campus Network providing e-resource facility to the institutional community. The entire Library collection including the CD-ROM databases and the online databases are made available through Institute’s network. Users can access the online databases through Institute’s network. OPAC (On-line Public Access Catalogue) facility is available at the ground Floor of the Library. OPAC can also be accessed through any terminal on the Campus Network. Library collection can also be searched through Web OPAC. The Library offers a range of information services to support the learning process set to the highest professional standards. The Library is holding membership of DELNET, New Delhi for inter library loan. National Institute of Technology Silchar Library is an active member of INDEST Consortium through which online full text journals can be accessed. In addition to that, library is also a member of ACL (American Centre Library) for inter-library loan as well as resource sharing purpose.
  • 17. 6 LIBRARY@NIT SILCHARLIBRARY@NIT SILCHARLIBRARY@NIT SILCHARLIBRARY@NIT SILCHAR A proud partner in institute’s march towards its vision…A proud partner in institute’s march towards its vision…A proud partner in institute’s march towards its vision…A proud partner in institute’s march towards its vision… Dr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy Librarian National Institute of Technology Silchar-788010, Assam, India Tel: +91-3842-240055 (Off) +91-9435175531(M) E-mail: ksatpathy@gmail.com InstituteInstituteInstituteInstitute:::: The National Institute of Technology, Silchar (An Institute of National Importance) is one of the premier national level institutions for technical education in North East India. Government of India as a joint venture with Government of Assam established Regional Engineering College, Silchar in 1967 with the objective of imparting quality-engineering education, providing cosmopolitan outlook among students and development of National Integrity. This institution has been transformed and upgraded to National Institute of Technology, Silchar with a Deemed University Status with effect from 28.06.2002. The institute has been subsequently made into a fully funded Government of India institution with Institute of National Importance Status. The institute is situated in an extending campus about 540 acres of undulating land and lakes surround by tea estates and hillocks providing an ideal environment for studies. The Objectives of the Institute areThe Objectives of the Institute areThe Objectives of the Institute areThe Objectives of the Institute are:::: • To impart instruction, training and awareness to students to meet technological and socio-economic needs of the country. • Train students with world class competency and cutting edge proficiency to face challenges of global markets with confidence. • Build top of the line faculty through appropriate human resource policies and • Create effective interface with industry, business and community to make education responsive to changes. The Mission of the Institute isThe Mission of the Institute isThe Mission of the Institute isThe Mission of the Institute is:::: To develop in to the systematic leader and pivot for excellence in technical education sector and catalyzing absorption, innovation, diffusion and transfer of high technology for improved productivity, quality of life and improved empowerment there by effecting regional growth LibraryLibraryLibraryLibrary:::: The Central Library which is the heart of the Institute was established in 1977. It provides one of the important academic services to the Institute. It is a well equipped Library, centrally located with easy access and does provide right impetus for the intellectual growth of the students, teachers, research scholars & others around. Presently the Library is a part of the LTT building with 997 Sq. mt. floor area & having more than 90,000 collections of documents. The new building is under construction. The National Institute of Technology Silchar Library with its modern collection of knowledge resources and innovative information services fills an essential role for students, faculty, and the surrounding community in their intellectual pursuits. It is a hybrid library with the state-of-the-art
  • 18. 7 technological applications. The Library holds knowledge resources predominantly related to Science and Technology, Social Sc & other allied subjects. The Library is now fully computerized with an integrated system connected to the Campus Network providing e-resource facility to the institute community. The entire Library collection including the CD-ROM databases and the online databases are made available through Institute’s network. Users can access the online databases through Institute’s network. On-line Public Access Catalogue facility is available at the ground Floor of the Library. OPAC can also be accessed through any terminal on the Campus Network. Library collection can also be searched through OPAC. The Library offers a range of information services to support the learning process set to the highest professional standards. The Library is holding membership of DELNET, New Delhi for inter library loan. National Institute of Technology Silchar Library is an active member of INDEST Consortium through which online full text journals can be accessed. Objectives of the Library:Objectives of the Library:Objectives of the Library:Objectives of the Library: • To support the Institute in imparting quality education in the field of engineering & technology. • To provide latest research information, electronically to various users community. • To provide quality service to users, disseminate technical knowledge and offer modern tools for access of information. • Bring about cooperative working among the libraries & information centre in North East India through sharing of resources. • To develop inter-institute links within the country to facilitate effective exchange of information resources. • To form a library consortia for libraries & information centre in North East India. • To develop a digital library that collects information across the globe through internet for effective dissemination of the same in the North Eastern Region. • To integrate with other digital libraries that are set up in various parts of India and abroad world to minimize the recurring cost of journals and other conventional print media. • Organize conference, lectures, workshops and seminars in the field of interest. Library AdministrationLibrary AdministrationLibrary AdministrationLibrary Administration:::: All the library activities are guided by the library sub-committee, which is the policy making body and headed by the Chairman. The Librarian is the secretary of the committee. The committee is formed by the representatives from the faculty, administration and students. The committee meets six times in a year to take decisions on all important matters pertaining to the function of the library. Human Resource of the LibraryHuman Resource of the LibraryHuman Resource of the LibraryHuman Resource of the Library:::: NameNameNameName ResponsibilityResponsibilityResponsibilityResponsibility Prof N V Deshpande Director Chief Advisor Prof. F A Talukdar Dean (Acd) & Chairman, LSC Policy Making & Advisory Role Dr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy Librarian E-mail:ksatpathy@gmail.com Planning, Development & Administration & management of Library, Collection Development, Finance, Manpower Development, Building, Furniture &
  • 19. 8 Tel:9435175531 Equipment, Library Services, Computerization, Automation, Resource Sharing & Networking Inter- Cluster Coordination. Mrs. Krishnamati Singha Asstt. Librarian Assist the Librarian in administration and management, Acquisition, Inventory Control of Furniture/Equipments, Library Statistics, Periodical /Database Acquisition & Control / Processing of Books, journals, CDs etc. Mr. H.S. Chakraborty Lib & Information Asstt. Processing of Bills, Office work, Issuance of members cards, checking / and issuance of duplicate cards etc. Supporting StaffSupporting StaffSupporting StaffSupporting Staff NameNameNameName ResponsibilityResponsibilityResponsibilityResponsibility S. Goswami, Library Attendant Processing of books, Check-in / Check-out of books, Issuance of clearance certificate. Ila Chakraborty, Lib Attendant Arrangement of books Ashu Das , Watchman Book Bank arrangement, Issuance of books to SC & ST Students M. Ali, Gate Keeper Security Contractual /M.R. StaffContractual /M.R. StaffContractual /M.R. StaffContractual /M.R. Staff Suresh Ch. Padhy, Library & Information Asstt. Circulation Section - in – Charge, Classification, Data-entry of books. Papia Dutta, Library & Information Asstt. Periodical Section – in – charge, Classification, data Entry, CD Entry. Maintenance of Theses, Project report , Annual Report etc. Aminul Islam Laskar, Trainee Check – in/ Check out of books, preparation of Bay – Guides, preparation of Spine – label of books. Barnalee Chakroborty, Trainee Reference section, data-entry, listing of books and journals for binding Swarnika Dey, Trainee Processing of books, data-entry, and preparation of Spine – label of books and other as and when assigned for. Banhishikha Roy, Trainee Processing of books, data-entry, and preparation of Spine – label of books. Anamika Biswas, Trainee Processing of books, data-entry, and preparation of Spine – label of books. S. Barman, Lib Attendant (M/R) Check-in / Check-out of books, Arrangement of books N.K. Mandal , Lib Attendant (M/R) Check-in / Check-out of books, Arrangement of books
  • 20. 9 M.M. Sarkar, Lib Attendant (M/R) Preparation of Institute I-Card/Library Card, Xeroxing. Mrs. Namita Sutradhar, Security and arrangement of books Members and their privilegesMembers and their privilegesMembers and their privilegesMembers and their privileges:::: All the students, faculty members and employees of the Institute can register themselves for the membership of the Library. Each member is provided with a library membership card. The categories of members and their privileges are as follows: Faculty and sFaculty and sFaculty and sFaculty and staff:taff:taff:taff: Sl. NoSl. NoSl. NoSl. No MemberMemberMemberMember categoriescategoriescategoriescategories Loan durationLoan durationLoan durationLoan duration Max. number of booksMax. number of booksMax. number of booksMax. number of books borrowed at a timeborrowed at a timeborrowed at a timeborrowed at a time Membership formMembership formMembership formMembership form attestation byattestation byattestation byattestation by 1 Faculty 6 months 15 Head of the Deptt. 2 Visiting Faculty 15 days to 3 months depends on duration of appointment 5 Head of the Deptt. 3 Technical and Supporting Staff 1 month 5 Head of the Deptt. 4 Administrative Staff 15 days 5 Head of the Deptt. 5. Other Staff of the Institute 02 One Month Head of the Deptt. Students:Students:Students:Students: Sl.Sl.Sl.Sl. NoNoNoNo MemberMemberMemberMember categoriescategoriescategoriescategories LoanLoanLoanLoan durationdurationdurationduration Max. number of booksMax. number of booksMax. number of booksMax. number of books borrowed at a timeborrowed at a timeborrowed at a timeborrowed at a time Membership form attestation byMembership form attestation byMembership form attestation byMembership form attestation by 1 PhD 1 month 6 Head of the Deptt/ Dean (Acd) 2 MTech/ MSc 1 month 6 Head of the Deptt/ Dean (Acd) 3 BTech 1 month 4 Head of the Deptt/ Dean (Acd) Members can collectMembers can collectMembers can collectMembers can collect documents from Circulation Desk & Duration of Loan Period is:documents from Circulation Desk & Duration of Loan Period is:documents from Circulation Desk & Duration of Loan Period is:documents from Circulation Desk & Duration of Loan Period is: Type of DocumentType of DocumentType of DocumentType of Document Type of LoanType of LoanType of LoanType of Loan Duration of LoanDuration of LoanDuration of LoanDuration of Loan Overdue chargesOverdue chargesOverdue chargesOverdue charges Books Short Term /Long Term 30 Days /6 Months Rs 1.00 per day Bound Volumes of Journals Overnight 2 Days -do- Unbound volumes Short 1 week Reference books Overnight 9.00 pm to 5. Rs.5/ per day Video Cassettes / CD ROMS Short Term 1 - 5 Days Rs. 2/ per day Consultation documents like BIS Code, IRC Codes Short Term 1 Week Rs. 5/ per day Facilities Available forFacilities Available forFacilities Available forFacilities Available for the Borrowers:the Borrowers:the Borrowers:the Borrowers: Checking out the DocumentsChecking out the DocumentsChecking out the DocumentsChecking out the Documents:::: Registered Library members are allowed to check out Library documents as per their entitlement mentioned above. Reference Books, CDs, Video Cassettes, Bound volumes etc are not issued normally to the students.
  • 21. 10 ReReReRenewalsnewalsnewalsnewals:::: Books issued to members can be renewed unless they are reserved by someone else. Members need to bring the books to the Library for getting them re-issued. Return of documentsReturn of documentsReturn of documentsReturn of documents:::: Documents checked out from the Library should be returned at the circulation desk, during its working hours, i.e. 9.00 PM to 5.30 PM on any working day. Reserving the documentsReserving the documentsReserving the documentsReserving the documents:::: A library user can reserve a book currently out on loan by requesting staff at the Circulation Counter. Notifications for availability of reserved books will be notified through e-mail. Membership RenewalsMembership RenewalsMembership RenewalsMembership Renewals:::: The membership card shall remain valid for the period indicated on ID Card. The students, faculty and staff members can get their membership card renewed in July/August, June and December respectively on surrendering all borrowers’ cards issued to them and after settling all other dues. Faculty, staff and students members are being switched over to bar-code based circulation system. Loss of Membership CardsLoss of Membership CardsLoss of Membership CardsLoss of Membership Cards:::: The loss of membership card should be reported in written to the Librarian immediately. Duplicate membership card can be issued after paying the penalty fee of Rs. 100.00 and after validity of his lost membership card expires. Borrowers shall be responsible for any loss or misuse of their membership card. Loss of booksLoss of booksLoss of booksLoss of books:::: The borrower is required either to replace the books with a recent edition, if available or pay its cost in double. Overdue ChargesOverdue ChargesOverdue ChargesOverdue Charges:::: Overdue charges at the rates mentioned below are charged for late return of the books: • Rs. 1.00 per day for the books issued from General Section • Rs. 5.00 per hour for the books issued from Reference Section Library Service HoursLibrary Service HoursLibrary Service HoursLibrary Service Hours:::: • General Library Timings: 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. • Sections opening Timings Book Bank Remains open In the beginning of each semester Circulation Counter Monday – Friday 9.30 AM – 5.30 PMComputer & Internet Photocopy & Scanner • Holidays: All Gazette Holidays and Sunday Rules and RegulationsRules and RegulationsRules and RegulationsRules and Regulations:::: Admission to the LibraryAdmission to the LibraryAdmission to the LibraryAdmission to the Library:::: All members are required to deposit their personal belonging at the property counter at their own risk. The library is not responsible for any loss or damage to the same. Taking a briefcase or bag inside the library is strictly forbidden. Users should let the security; check their personal belongings, like books, files, etc. before they leave the library premises.
  • 22. 11 Care of Library MaterialsCare of Library MaterialsCare of Library MaterialsCare of Library Materials Library resources such as books, journals, and electronic materials, etc. are costly and are often rare. They are for the benefit of not only the present but also for the future members of the library. Therefore, one should not write upon, damage, turn down the leaves or mark on any library materials. Tracing or copying of any is prohibited by copy right policy and users shall be solely responsible for any violations. Before leaving the issue counter, member should satisfy themselves as to whether the library material lent to them is in sound condition. If not , they should immediately bring the matter to the knowledge of the library staff at the issue counter; otherwise, they are liable to be held responsible for replacing the material or paying such compensation as fixed by the librarian. Clearance CertificateClearance CertificateClearance CertificateClearance Certificate:::: Borrower’s membership card being the library property must be returned to the library at the end of the period of issue. All those who leave the institute must surrender their membership card to the library, and obtain a "Clearance" certificate from the librarian, in order to ensure that they owe no dues to the library including any overdue charges. General Instructions:General Instructions:General Instructions:General Instructions: • Every member of the library must be prepared to identify himself/herself when requested to do so. • Outwears, brief cases, handbags, files, umbrellas and similar items should be deposited at the check point before entering the library. • Use of mobile phones inside the library is strictly prohibited. Smoking is prohibited in and around the library. No refreshments or foodstuff of any kind shall be consumed anywhere inside the library. • Silence must be observed in the Library • Keeping in mind that the library is a place of individual study and research, members should maintain an atmosphere of dignity, peace and silence within the library premises. • All books and journals must be returned on before the due date. • Books will be reserved if there are no reservations. • Documents must be returned in time to make them available for use by others. Overdue library materials, other than the Reserve/Reference Documents incur a fine of Rs.10.00 per day, the Reserve/Reference Documents incur a fine of 50 paisa per hour or more. Until the dues are cleared the borrowing facilities will be withheld. Borrowing entitlement may be reduced if a member is observed returning document/s late on more than three occasions. The Librarian can recall any issued document any time • A misplaced book is temporarily lost. To avoid misplacement; books taken from the open shelves should be left on the nearest table/trolley. Library materials should be handled with utmost care. Nobody should write damage and make any mark on any kind of library materials. Materials damaged, defected or lost must be replaced; otherwise the cost will be realized from the borrower. • Members should keep the library informed of any change of address during the period of their membership. • Members should return all materials borrowed from the library before proceeding on any kind of long leave. • Members should not sub lend the materials borrowed from the library. • Materials that are issued should be produced for the security to check. • Suggestions for purchasing books and other materials and improving the library services are welcome.
  • 23. 12 • The librarian has the power to cancel the tickets and refuse admission to anyone who violates the rules and regulations of the library or indulges in any other type of misconduct. Library CollectionLibrary CollectionLibrary CollectionLibrary Collection:::: Sl.Sl.Sl.Sl. No.No.No.No. Name of ResourcesName of ResourcesName of ResourcesName of Resources As onAs onAs onAs on 31.03.201131.03.201131.03.201131.03.2011 As onAs onAs onAs on 31.03.201231.03.201231.03.201231.03.2012 As onAs onAs onAs on 31.03.201331.03.201331.03.201331.03.2013 As onAs onAs onAs on 31.03.201431.03.201431.03.201431.03.2014 1. Books 78068 81274 85625 90418 2. Print Journals 141 131 125 156 3. Bound Volumes 4321 4771 4771 4771 4. CD-ROMs 3074 3287 3465 3726 5. Databases 20 20 20 21 6. Videos 909 909 909 909 7. ISI Code (Printed) 8627 8627 8627 8627 8. Book Bank (General) 8836 8836 8836 9235 9. Book Bank (SC/ST) 7743 7810 7895 8050 10. IRC Codes 152 152 152 152 11. Thesis 16 18 20 38 12. Dissertation (MTech/MSc) 64 67 129 151 13. Reports/ Annual Reports 213 193 279 333 A need-based collection of knowledge resources is being developed in lines with the objectives and activities of the Institute in mind. Resources include books, journals, audio-visual materials, CD-ROMs, e-journals, and online databases. BooksBooksBooksBooks:::: The Library has a highly selective collection of over 90,000 books in the area of Science & Technology, management and related subjects. Besides, there are also many new technical and reference books available in electronic form. JournalsJournalsJournalsJournals:::: The Library subscribes 94 print journals specific to the academic and research needs of the academic community in addition to free journals. Besides, there are about 22 databases and 13 e- journals available in full-text subscribed by the library. The Library has a collection of 4771 bound volumes journals. VideosVideosVideosVideos:::: Educational videos from IIT Delhi & IIT Kharagpur are available for consultation in the library. CDCDCDCD----ROMsROMsROMsROMs:::: The Library has 3726 CDs/DVDs on Books, statistical data, encyclopedias, dictionaries; most of the CDs are mounted on the Digital Library server and can be accessed through the Institute’s network. ReportsReportsReportsReports:::: The library has a separate collection of various reports, conference proceedings, ISTE-STTP proceedings, dissertations and reports of various Institutes/Firms.
  • 24. North East CollectionNorth East CollectionNorth East CollectionNorth East Collection:::: The library has established a collection portray their History, Culture, Economy, Geography, Ecology and about their Society. Standards CollectionStandards CollectionStandards CollectionStandards Collection:::: The library has got a separate collection of standards and special p Bureau of Indian Standards & Indian Road Congress. The standards are kept in a separate number - wise with sequence. Career andCareer andCareer andCareer and CounsellingCounsellingCounsellingCounselling CollectionCollectionCollectionCollection The library has established a separate collection of books pertaining to Caree These collections include GRE, GMAT, TOFFEL & books related to Miscellaneous CollectionMiscellaneous CollectionMiscellaneous CollectionMiscellaneous Collection:::: The library has miscellaneous collections compris papers, competitive books, Hindi, Bengali and English literature books etc. News Paper Clipping CollectionNews Paper Clipping CollectionNews Paper Clipping CollectionNews Paper Clipping Collection The library has opened up the News North East India in papers, Magazine and Govt. publication etc. Electronic LibraryElectronic LibraryElectronic LibraryElectronic Library:::: Emphasis is given to develop a model electronic library with the state applications. The electronic library has online databases, CD books. It provides a single window access to all electronic resources and is accessible through the Institute's intranet. The library subscribes the following major databases. Major Online Jo databases available in the electronic library include: Digital LibraryDigital LibraryDigital LibraryDigital Library &&&& eeee----learninglearninglearninglearning initiative atinitiative atinitiative atinitiative at National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam has successfully completed the digital library & virtual classroom project sponsored project, the Library will digitalize old rare & books, manuscripts and documents. 300 E have already been put in the digital library server for the access of the student in the campus LAN. Under this project library has scanned the photographs of the institute and its programs and has created a digital photo gallery. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The library has established a separate collection of books pertaining to North East India. These portray their History, Culture, Economy, Geography, Ecology and about their The library has got a separate collection of standards and special publications published by Bureau of Indian Standards & Indian Road Congress. The standards are kept in a separate CollectionCollectionCollectionCollection:::: The library has established a separate collection of books pertaining to Caree include GRE, GMAT, TOFFEL & books related to counselling miscellaneous collections comprising of Institutes examinations old papers, competitive books, Hindi, Bengali and English literature books etc. News Paper Clipping CollectionNews Paper Clipping CollectionNews Paper Clipping CollectionNews Paper Clipping Collection:::: The library has opened up the News Paper Clipping collections comprising of publication about North East India in papers, Magazine and Govt. publication etc. Emphasis is given to develop a model electronic library with the state-of library has online databases, CD-ROM databases, e books. It provides a single window access to all electronic resources and is accessible through the Institute's intranet. The library subscribes the following major databases. Major Online Jo databases available in the electronic library include: initiative atinitiative atinitiative atinitiative at NIT SNIT SNIT SNIT Silcharilcharilcharilchar:::: National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam has successfully completed the digital library & virtual classroom project sponsored by MHRD, Government of India. Under the Digital Library project, the Library will digitalize old rare & books, manuscripts and documents. 300 E have already been put in the digital library server for the access of the student in the campus this project library has scanned the photographs of the institute and its programs and has created a digital photo gallery. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. 13 separate collection of books pertaining to North East India. These portray their History, Culture, Economy, Geography, Ecology and about their ublications published by Bureau of Indian Standards & Indian Road Congress. The standards are kept in a separate The library has established a separate collection of books pertaining to Career and Counselling. counselling etc. examinations old question collections comprising of publication about of-the-art technological ROM databases, e-journals and e- books. It provides a single window access to all electronic resources and is accessible through the Institute's intranet. The library subscribes the following major databases. Major Online Journals / National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam has successfully completed the digital library & by MHRD, Government of India. Under the Digital Library project, the Library will digitalize old rare & books, manuscripts and documents. 300 E-books have already been put in the digital library server for the access of the student in the campus this project library has scanned the photographs of the institute and its programs and
  • 25. Dr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy, Librarian coordinated this project & he has also implemented the e learning solution in the Institu http://192.168.38.6/ (User id: nituser Password: nituser) EEEE---- ResourcesResourcesResourcesResources @NITS@NITS@NITS@NITS:::: The Central Library provides web databases 24 x 7 on institute-wide network. In the year 2013-14, library subscribed 22 database including Elsevier, IEL/IEEE, SAE Digital Library, Inderscience, Taylor & Francis (NIT Consortium), APS, ACS, Emerald, EBSCO, Encyclopaedia Britannica, ASTM, MathSciNet, Proquest Dissertation and theses d 13 e-journals of Wiley, Sage etc. during the year. The library also subscribed e ME Books, Elsevier Science Direct, Springer and Cambridge. The details available at http://122.160.76.157:8081/nit/index.jsp databases. Common Library Portals are:Common Library Portals are:Common Library Portals are:Common Library Portals are: Common Portal @ Central Library NIT SilcharCommon Portal @ Central Library NIT SilcharCommon Portal @ Central Library NIT SilcharCommon Portal @ Central Library NIT Silchar Name of PortalName of PortalName of PortalName of Portal Central Library@NIT Silchar Central Library@NIT Silchar FaceBook@Library, NITS Blog @ Central Library,NITS Web OPAC Digital Library ERMSS R-evolution of Libraries E-Learning Suite@NIT Silchar Dr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy, Librarian coordinated this project & he has also implemented the e learning solution in the Institute. The resources are available in the Campus LAN for users at http://192.168.38.6/ (User id: nituser Password: nituser) & http://vizserver. The Central Library provides web-based access to over 10,000 full text journals and 120 wide network. 14, library subscribed 22 database including Elsevier, IEL/IEEE, SAE Digital Library, Inderscience, Taylor & Francis (NIT Consortium), APS, ACS, Emerald, EBSCO, Britannica, ASTM, MathSciNet, Proquest Dissertation and theses d journals of Wiley, Sage etc. during the year. The library also subscribed e ME Books, Elsevier Science Direct, Springer and Cambridge. http://122.160.76.157:8081/nit/index.jsp and subscribed to the following Common Portal @ Central Library NIT SilcharCommon Portal @ Central Library NIT SilcharCommon Portal @ Central Library NIT SilcharCommon Portal @ Central Library NIT Silchar LinksLinksLinksLinks http://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsp http://www.nits.ac.in/library/library_new.html#page=default http://www.facebook.com/groups/369833813038102 http://library-nitsilchar.blogspot.com http://192.168.38.5:8080/jopacgwt http://192.168.38.6/ (User id: nituser Password: nituser) http://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsp http://www.librariesrevolution.com/emagazine http://192.168.38.7/LES 14 Dr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy, Librarian coordinated this project & he has also implemented the e- te. The resources are available in the Campus LAN for users at . based access to over 10,000 full text journals and 120 14, library subscribed 22 database including Elsevier, IEL/IEEE, SAE Digital Library, Inderscience, Taylor & Francis (NIT Consortium), APS, ACS, Emerald, EBSCO, Britannica, ASTM, MathSciNet, Proquest Dissertation and theses database etc. and journals of Wiley, Sage etc. during the year. The library also subscribed e-books like Knovel subscribed to the following http://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsp http://www.nits.ac.in/library/library_new.html#page=default http://www.facebook.com/groups/369833813038102 http://192.168.38.6/ (User id: nituser Password: nituser) http://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsp http://www.librariesrevolution.com/emagazine
  • 26. BIS Codes OPAC ERMSS:ERMSS:ERMSS:ERMSS: http://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsphttp://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsphttp://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsphttp://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsp INDEST ConsortiumINDEST ConsortiumINDEST ConsortiumINDEST Consortium Database NameDatabase NameDatabase NameDatabase Name JCCC@INDEST - AICTE ACM Digital Library ASCE Journals ASME Journals SpringerLink Knimbus The following eThe following eThe following eThe following e----resources (eresources (eresources (eresources (e----books, ebooks, ebooks, ebooks, e Library Section of the Central Library.Library Section of the Central Library.Library Section of the Central Library.Library Section of the Central Library. Institutional Database @ 2014 NIT SilcharInstitutional Database @ 2014 NIT SilcharInstitutional Database @ 2014 NIT SilcharInstitutional Database @ 2014 NIT Silchar Database NameDatabase NameDatabase NameDatabase Name IEEE/IEE Electronic Library (IEL) Online India stat.com Economic & Political Weekly SAE Digital Library ASTM : Standards and Engineering Digital Library Science Direct ACS Web Edition MathSciNet J-Gate IBID Taylor & Francis (NIT Consortium) Inderscience (Science & Engineering Collections) http://192.168.38.5:8181/bis/start.shtml http://192.168.38.5:8080/jopacv06/html/searchform?databaseidx=0 http://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsphttp://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsphttp://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsphttp://122.160.76.157:8081/nitsilchar/index.jsp LinksLinksLinksLinks http://indest.jccc.in http://portal.acm.org/portal.cfm http://www.asce.org/ http://www.asmedl.org/ http://www.springerlink.com/ http://knimbus.com/knimbus/user/auth/do books, ebooks, ebooks, ebooks, e----journals and ejournals and ejournals and ejournals and e----databases) havedatabases) havedatabases) havedatabases) have been procured for Digitalbeen procured for Digitalbeen procured for Digitalbeen procured for Digital Library Section of the Central Library.Library Section of the Central Library.Library Section of the Central Library.Library Section of the Central Library. Institutional Database @ 2014 NIT SilcharInstitutional Database @ 2014 NIT SilcharInstitutional Database @ 2014 NIT SilcharInstitutional Database @ 2014 NIT Silchar LinksLinksLinksLinks IEEE/IEE Electronic Library (IEL) Online http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/periodicals.jsp http://www.indiastat.com/default.aspx http://epw.in/epw/user/userindexHome.jsp http://digitallibrary.sae.org/quicksearch/ ASTM : Standards and Engineering Digital Library http://enterprise.astm.org http://www.sciencedirect.com/ http://pubs.acs.org/ http://www.ams.org/mathscinet/ http://jgateplus.com http://www.indiabusinessinsight.com Taylor & Francis (NIT Consortium) http://www.tandfonline.com Inderscience (Science & Engineering Collections) http://www.inderscience.com/browse 15 http://192.168.38.5:8080/jopacv06/html/searchform?databaseidx=0 http://knimbus.com/knimbus/user/auth/do been procured for Digitalbeen procured for Digitalbeen procured for Digitalbeen procured for Digital http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/periodicals.jsp http://www.indiastat.com/default.aspx http://epw.in/epw/user/userindexHome.jsp http://digitallibrary.sae.org/quicksearch/ http://www.indiabusinessinsight.com http://www.inderscience.com/browse
  • 27. 16 Britannica Encyclopaedia http://www.britannicaindia.com APS (American Physical Society) Econlist (EBSCO) EBSCO host – Business Source Elite www.ebscohost.com SIAM ( LOCUS ) (1952-1996 Backfiles) http://locus.siam.org/ PROQUEST Dissertation & theses Turn –it-in anti plagiarism software http://www.turnitin.com DELNET www.delnet.nic.in American Library http://amlibindia.state.gov British Council Library http://www.britishcouncil.org.in Informs Archive (9 Journals) (1952- 1997) http://journals.informs.org Asian And Pacific Centre For Transfer Of Technology www.techmonitor.net EEEE----BooksBooksBooksBooks Knovel ME Books http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/subject/70/topic / Elsevier Science Direct (CSE, Energy, Engg, Material Sc.) 264 + books http://www.sciencedirect.com/ Cambridge (CSE + Engg) 115 + books http://ebooks.cambridge.org/home.jsf Springer Link (CSE+ Engg) 5435 + books http://www.springerlink.com/ NIT's ENIT's ENIT's ENIT's E----resource Subscription Detailsresource Subscription Detailsresource Subscription Detailsresource Subscription Details Title of JournalsTitle of JournalsTitle of JournalsTitle of Journals Web Address / LinkWeb Address / LinkWeb Address / LinkWeb Address / Link Civil EngineeringCivil EngineeringCivil EngineeringCivil Engineering Earthquake Engineering And Structural Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1096- 9845 Journal of The American Water Resources Association http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1752-1688 Ground Water http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1745-6584 Hydrological Processes http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1099- 1085/issues Journal of Earth System Science http://www.springerlink.com/content/0253-4126/ The Indian Concrete Journal http://www.icjonline.com/ Indian Geotechnical journal http://www.springerlink.com Journal of IEI Series A http://www.springerlink.com Information Digest on Energy and and Environment http://bookstore.teriin.org/e_periodicals.php Electrical Engineering International Journal of Power and Energy Systems http://www.actapress.com/Content_of_Journal.aspx?JournalID =145 IEI –Section B http://www.springerlink.com Electronic Communication Engineering International Journal of Communication SystemsInternational Journal of Communication SystemsInternational Journal of Communication SystemsInternational Journal of Communication Systems Humanities, SocialHumanities, SocialHumanities, SocialHumanities, Social Science and ManagementScience and ManagementScience and ManagementScience and Management The Review of English Studies http://res.oxfordjournals.org/ Victorian Studies http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=vic torianstudies International Journal of Regulation and Governance http://bookstore.teriin.org/e_periodicals.php AIMS International http://www.aims-international.org/AIMSijm Foreign Trade Review http://www.sagepub.in
  • 28. 17 Journal of Human Values http://www.sagepub.in Contribution of Indian sociology http://www.sagepub.in Indian Economic and social History Review http://www.sagepub.in Margin – The Journal of applied economic Research http://www.sagepub.in China Report http://www.sagepub.in Mechanical Engineering International Journal of Aerospace Engineering Journal of Wind Engineering http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1099- 1824/issues Proceedings of Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Part - L (Sage pub.) Journals of IEI Series C & D http://www.springerlink.com Journal of Resources Energy and Development http://bookstore.teriin.org/e_periodicals.php Physics Pramana : Journal of Physics http://www.springerlink.com/content/0304-4289/ Indian Journal of Physics http://www.springerlink.com/content/0973-1458/ Bulletin of Material Science http://www.springerlink.com Proceedings of the Indian academy of Sciences, India Sec A, Physical Science. http://www.springerlink.com Resonance http://www.springerlink.com Chemistry Journal of Chemical Science http://www.springerlink.com Journals of IEI Series E http://www.springerlink.com Mathematics Proceedings of Mathematical Sciences http://www.springerlink.com Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Mathematics http://www.springerlink.com/content/0019-5588/ Opsearch http://www.springerlink.com/content/0030-3887/ Library World digital Library EEEE---- Resource under JCCC@ INDESTResource under JCCC@ INDESTResource under JCCC@ INDESTResource under JCCC@ INDEST----AICTEAICTEAICTEAICTE:::: JCCC is J-Gate Custom Content Consortia for a group of homogeneous consortia members, and JCCC-INDEST is J-Gate Custom Content for the Indian National Digital Library in Science and Technology (INDEST), a consortium set up by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, on the recommendation made by the Expert Group appointed by it under the chairmanship of Prof N Balakrishnan. For details pl. visit: http://jccc-indest.informindia.co.in EEEE---- Resource under DELNETResource under DELNETResource under DELNETResource under DELNET:::: Being member of DELNET, users have got the opportunity to access the resources available in other member institute or can borrow or exchange documents through inter library loan (ILL). In addition to that Library Network (DELNET) initiatives, DELNET's activities and services can be viewed at DELNET's Home Page and its databases can be accessed through a web-based interface. For details pl. visit: www.delnet.nic.in EEEE---- Resource under Open AccessResource under Open AccessResource under Open AccessResource under Open Access Open access is a publication model wherein neither a reader nor the reader's institutions are charged for access to articles or other resources. Users are free to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles. The INDEST - AICTE Consortium encourages open access through institutional repositories in its member institutions. The E- Resources incorporates the following: • Databases
  • 29. 18 • E-journals EEEE ---- Resource under LIBRARResource under LIBRARResource under LIBRARResource under LIBRARY LINKY LINKY LINKY LINK:::: Library users can access e- resources though library link with other institutes’ at the national, international and through other Library Networks. Library ServiceLibrary ServiceLibrary ServiceLibrary Service:::: Web OPAC (Search Library Catalogue): The entire Library collection including books, journals, etc. can be searched through the web enabled Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). Users can access the OPAC to find out the real-time availability of library materials from their own computer terminals. Faculty and students can reserve items, which are on loan. Lending service: Lending service is available to faculty, students, administrative, research and other staff members of NITS community. Book Bank:Book Bank:Book Bank:Book Bank: Book Bank books are issued to the students of the college for full duration of a semester at a time. Preference is given to SC & ST students and low income group and maximum of five books are given to each students depending upon the availability. Proactive Information Services: Library provides specific information services such as alert on upcoming conferences, CAS, SDI, etc. to the academic community. Reference and Research Services:Reference and Research Services:Reference and Research Services:Reference and Research Services: The Reference Section provides needed information with regard to index/bibliographic/abstracting etc services to the members of library on demand. Reference books like dictionaries encyclopaedias, handbooks, manuals etc. and bound volume of back issues of journals stand arranged subject wise in the manner stated above in a separate shelf. Library personnel on duty help the members to locate any information out of the library resources. In addition to that Library has procured the Proquest Dissertation and theses and Turn –it-in anti plagiarism software for effective help in R & D practice. Reprographic service:Reprographic service:Reprographic service:Reprographic service: Facility for photocopy of the document/s available in the library may be provided on payment basis subject to copyright restrictions. News paper, Magazine and journals Service:News paper, Magazine and journals Service:News paper, Magazine and journals Service:News paper, Magazine and journals Service: Central Library subscribes newspapers, 156 no’s of magazine and journals on different topics. Videos: Educational videos from IIT Delhi & IIT Kharagpur are available for consultation in the library. For video viewing facility is available on all working days. Online Public Access Catalogue:Online Public Access Catalogue:Online Public Access Catalogue:Online Public Access Catalogue: Central Library has fully computerized catalogue search facility available to users through intranet. One can search a book by author, title or subject. In case of any difficulty library personnel may be contacted for assistance. Books Requisition ProcedureBooks Requisition ProcedureBooks Requisition ProcedureBooks Requisition Procedure:::: As and when the central library receives the requisition of books in the prescribed format (form available at the end of webpage), duly signed and forwarded by the HOD’s, the duplicacy of their title is checked. The book is pleased order after the approval of Director.
  • 30. 19 Journals Requisition ProcedureJournals Requisition ProcedureJournals Requisition ProcedureJournals Requisition Procedure:::: The librarian sends a request to all faculties / HOD’s of the Institute for the requisition of journals in the coming year along with a list of journals currently subscribed in the Central Library. External Membership Services: External members from business/industrial and government setups as well as from the academics are granted membership under certain specified conditions. Information services: Most of the information services are available through the Digital Library accessible through the Institute’s LAN. Other major services include inter-library loan, book exhibitions and reference services. Other Activities: NITS Library is actively engaged in organizing workshops, seminars & consulting activities. Library SectionsLibrary SectionsLibrary SectionsLibrary Sections:::: The Library has been divided into different sections for its smooth functioning:The Library has been divided into different sections for its smooth functioning:The Library has been divided into different sections for its smooth functioning:The Library has been divided into different sections for its smooth functioning: • Circulation Section: Issue and return of books is handled with the help of computers. In this Section located on the First Floor, readers can get themselves enrolled as member of the Library. The timings of issue and return of books are 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. on weekdays. • Book Bank Section: Book Books are issued predominantly to the SC & ST students for the whole semester. The timings of issue and return of books are 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. on weekdays. • Reference and Readers' Advisory Service: One is welcome to avail this service at the Reference Desk on the second Floor Reading Hall of the Library. This service is available for all the 11 hours the Library remains open. • Acquisition Section: Located on the first floor of the Library, this Section acquires books and other reading material selected by the Library staff as well as recommended by the Chairpersons of various Departments. • Periodicals Section: The Library subscribes to about 156 journals, magazines and newspapers. The Periodicals Section located on the Ground Floor of the Library, makes available these current sources of information. The opening hours of the Section are 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. • Technical Section: Before the reading material is made available for use on the stacks, it is technically processed in this Section, located on the First Floor of the Library. • Computer Section: This section is located on the Ground Floor of the Library. The section houses the main server, the CD server, Multimedia system, scanners and printers. It manages the working of the entire Computer System of the Library. Infrastructure facilitiesInfrastructure facilitiesInfrastructure facilitiesInfrastructure facilities Library has a Techfocuz library server, which can host more than 2500 CDs to host the Digital Library. There are three computers kept inside the library to facilitate information accessing by users. Library is having TV, VCP, Scanner, 2 no.s HP LaserJet Printer, Canon Image Runner printer/scanner/fax , 10 No of PCs, HP laptop, E-Learning Software with LRs, Multimedia Projector with Documentation Camera, ID Card Printer (Data Card CD 8001D), Photo capturing camera, digital signature pad and pen and UPS etc. Library is using Libsys-integrated library management software for automating various functions in the Library like book procurement, circulation. Library is using RFID technology for book security purpose.
  • 31. 20 Membership of DELNETMembership of DELNETMembership of DELNETMembership of DELNET The department has joined the network of important libraries in under the umbrella of Developing the Libraries Network (DELNET). The networking between libraries ensures resource sharing, exchange of information. It also facilitates the access to the databases of important libraries through computerization. Project UndertakenProject UndertakenProject UndertakenProject Undertaken:::: The Library has undertaken the projects for jobs like Website development, library automation, and digital library implementation etc. Some of the Projects completed by library are as follows:Some of the Projects completed by library are as follows:Some of the Projects completed by library are as follows:Some of the Projects completed by library are as follows: S.N.S.N.S.N.S.N. Name of the ProjectName of the ProjectName of the ProjectName of the Project Sponsored bySponsored bySponsored bySponsored by DurationDurationDurationDuration StatusStatusStatusStatus CoordinatorCoordinatorCoordinatorCoordinator 01. Upgration of Normal School Library, Silchar Govt. of Assam 2013-14 Ongoing Kishor Chandra Satpathy 02. “ERMSS: Electronic Resource Management & Search Solution” NIT Silchar 2010-11 Ongoing Kishor Chandra Satpathy 03. Coordinator, “Upgradation of the Library” Sanctioned by MHRD, Govt. of India under TEQIP, World Bank Project. (47 lakhs) & “Implementation of RFID & DVR Technology” MHRD, Govt. of India 2006-07 Completed Kishor Chandra Satpathy 04. Development of a Digital Library (10 Lakhs) MHRD, Govt. of India 2005-07 Completed Kishor Chandra Satpathy 05. Virtual Classroom for Quality Improvement of the Technical Professionals & Teaching Faculty (10 lakhs). MHRD, Govt. of India 2004-06 Completed Kishor Chandra Satpathy 06. Library Up-gradation & Automation Project (131 Lakhs) MHRD Sponsored under Centre of Excellence Scheme 1997-99 Completed Kishor Chandra Satpathy & Krishnamati Singha Programme Organized by the Library & Library StaffProgramme Organized by the Library & Library StaffProgramme Organized by the Library & Library StaffProgramme Organized by the Library & Library Staff Programme Organised (Summer School / winterProgramme Organised (Summer School / winterProgramme Organised (Summer School / winterProgramme Organised (Summer School / winter School/Seminars/Exhibitions): LISSchool/Seminars/Exhibitions): LISSchool/Seminars/Exhibitions): LISSchool/Seminars/Exhibitions): LIS Name of the programmeName of the programmeName of the programmeName of the programme DurationDurationDurationDuration Funding AgencyFunding AgencyFunding AgencyFunding Agency 10th Annual Meet and Workshop of INDEST – AICTE Consortium 2014 jointly organized by NIT Silchar and IIT Delhi http://indest2014.blogspot.in/ 05.05.2014 to 06.05.2014 MHRD & Publishers National Workshop “Innovation India” was jointly organized by NIT Silchar and CSIR- National Institute Science, Technology and Development Studies, New Delhi http://iiworkshop.blogspot.in/ 25.11.2013 to 26.11.2013 CSIR-NISTADS TEQIP II
  • 32. 21 29th Convention and Conference of the Society for Information Science (SIS) on Information, Innovation & Technologies: Creating Seamless Linkages. http://sis2012conference.blogspot.in/ 26.11.2012 to 28.11.2012 CSIR DRDO ICSSR National Workshop on “e-book: Issues & Challenges” under TEQIP 15.03.2012 ISTE & TEQIP Science & Technology Book Fair-2012 at NIT Silchar 13.03.2012- 17.03.2012 10 different Publishers National Seminar on Networking of Library and Information Centres of North East India in Digital Environment (NLICDE-2011) during, under the aegis of National Library, Kolkata at NIT Silchar http://nerlibnet.blogspot.in/ 21.03.2011 to 23.03.2011 Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India. Science & Technology Book Fair-2010 at NIT Silchar 16.03.2011 to 19.03.2011 8 different Publishers Induction Training Programme 28.01.2005 to 06.02.2005 AICTE, New Delhi Short Term Training programme on “Information Technology Applications in Information Management” 01.03.2004 to 10.03.2004 AICTE-ISTE, New Delhi Patent Awareness Workshop 10.05.2003 TIFAC, GOI Educational Utilization programme on Standardization, Product Certificate & Quality Systems 19.09.2002 to 20.09.2002 BIS, New Delhi STTP in “IT Applications In Library & Information Management/Services” 18.02.2002 to 27.02.2002 AICTE-ISTE, New Delhi ICT Literacy Initiation Camp for the Teacher Educators of the North Eastern Region 10.11.2001 to 11.11.2001 NCTE, New Delhi INSDOC, New Delhi Conducted Training on “Computer Application on Library & Information Activities for the Library Information Professionals in the North Eastern Region” 20.02.2001 to 24.02.2001 CSIR, New Delhi Programme Organised: GeneralProgramme Organised: GeneralProgramme Organised: GeneralProgramme Organised: General Sl.Sl.Sl.Sl. No.No.No.No. Name of the ProgrammeName of the ProgrammeName of the ProgrammeName of the Programme DurationDurationDurationDuration Funding AgencyFunding AgencyFunding AgencyFunding Agency 1. Invited Lecture on “Enhancing Visibility by Publishing in High Impact Factor Journals” delivered by Dr. N.C. Jain, Scientist ‘F’ and Editor, Indian Journal of Medical Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 16.03.2013 TEQIP II 2. “Educational Opportunities in USA” 07.02.2005 United States Educational Foundation in India (USEFI) 3. 7th National Youth Parliament Competition for Universities 2004-2005 (National Level) 07.04.2005 Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, Govt. of India, Delhi
  • 33. 22 4. 7th National Youth Parliament Competition for Universities 2004-2005 28.11.2004 Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, GOI, New Delhi 5. Hindi Divas Celebration 27.09.2004 NIT, Silchar 6. India Quiz / Personality Test 04.04.2004 UNICEF & Sahara India 7. Seminar on Post Graduate Management Program in India” 23.03.2004 IMS, Guwahati 8. National Integration Camp 02.02.2004 to 11.02.2004 Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports, GOI, Delhi 9. 6th National Youth Parliament Competition for Universities 2002-2003 21.04.2003 Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, Govt. of India, New Delhi 10. Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship, Guwahati conducted Training Programme on “Entrepreneurial Awareness Camp for Science & Technology Students 22.03.2003 to 25.03.2003 Deptt. of S & T, Govt. of India 11. Training Programme on "Adolescence & Adolescent Education" 17.12.2002 North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 12. Hindi Divas Celebration 22.09.2002 NIT, Silchar. 13. Awareness Programme on Technology Management 22.02.2002 DSIR, New Delhi 14. Invited Lecture on “Youth and Values” by Prof. Jatin Mohanty, Secretary, Satsang Vihar, New Delhi 14.04.0000 NIT, Silchar. 15. Invited Lecture of Prof. John Meadows & Dr. Chris Horner, Education Division, South Bank University, London on “Internet in Education”. 22.02.0000 EU 16. Worked as a Conference Database Manager & Member, Editorial Committee International Conference and Annual meet of AIAET 29.01.1999 to 31.01.1999 NIT, Silchar Inter Library Loan andInter Library Loan andInter Library Loan andInter Library Loan and Document Procurement ServiceDocument Procurement ServiceDocument Procurement ServiceDocument Procurement Service:::: Central Library offers inter-library loan service to its users for the books and periodicals not available in the National Institute Technology, Silchar Library by procuring them from other libraries within West Bengal and North East India. Inter-library loan facilities are not extended to the Libraries outside West Bengal and North East India. The NITS Library in turn also lends its resources to the libraries of other government and academic institutions within West Bengal and North East India. However, photocopies of articles are sent to the libraries situated anywhere in the country on demand. Document procurement services can be made available from NISCAIR, DELNET or other document delivery services if the user is willing to bear the expenses involved. Ask the Librarian:Ask the Librarian:Ask the Librarian:Ask the Librarian: Users are encouraged to contact the Library staff via email if they have a query. We will reply usually within 24 hours. If the question involves in-depth research assistance, the user is encouraged to speak to Librarian/ Astt. Librarian. FAQsFAQsFAQsFAQs ---- Central LibraryCentral LibraryCentral LibraryCentral Library 1. How can an outsider use the Library?
  • 34. 23 Faculty members of the other universities/ colleges and individuals affiliated to corporate bodies like industries, can use the Library as outside members. They are requested to contact the Librarian/ Astt. Librarian for seeking permission for a limited numbers of days. 2. Who are authorized to use the Library? All students, faculty members and staff (working and retired) of the Institute are authorized to use the Library. Student alumni, retired staff members and visiting faculties also have the privilege to use the Central Library. However, for availing the borrowing facilities, users need to enrol themselves as Library members on fulfilling the requisite procedures. 2. Can a bound volume of journals be issued to a member? Yes, Bound volume of journals can be issued to faculty members for three days. 3. Can current (unbound) issue of journals be issued to Library Members? Yes, current (unbound) issues of journals are issued to any category of library user overnight. 5. Can I bring personal books and other reading material to the Library? No. Users are not allowed to bring their personal books or other reading materials to the Library. 6. How can I recommend a book for purchase in the Library? An authorized user can recommend a book for purchase by filling-in a "Book recommendation Form" that can be obtained from the Library Office. The form should then be routed through your Head of the Department for his recommendation. 7. How can I recommend subscription to a new journal in the Library? An authorized user can send your request for subscription to a new journal through your Head of the Department / Centre. It may, however, be noted that the Library can subscribe to only a limited number of journals for a given Department / Centre from the funds allocated to the respective Department / Centre from the total budget of the Library.
  • 35. 24 INDEST: AN OVERVIEWINDEST: AN OVERVIEWINDEST: AN OVERVIEWINDEST: AN OVERVIEW 1. Introduction1. Introduction1. Introduction1. Introduction:::: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium is the most ambitious initiative taken so far in the country. The Consortium attracts the best possible price and terms of agreement from the publishers on the basis of strength of its present and prospective member institutions. The “Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST) Consortium” was set up in 2003 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) on the recommendation of an Expert Group appointed by the Ministry. The IIT Delhi has been designated as the Consortium Headquarters to coordinate its activities. The Ministry provides funds required for subscription to electronic resources for 65 centrally-funded Government institutions including IITs, IISc Bangalore, NITs, ISM, IIITs, IIMs, NITTTR’s and few other institutions that are considered as core members of the Consortium. The benefit of consortia- based subscription to electronic resources is not confined to its core members but is also extended to all educational institutions under its open-ended proposition. 60 Govt./Govt.-aided engineering colleges are provided access to selected electronic resources with financial support from the AICTE. The Consortium was re-named as INDEST-AICTE Consortium in December 2005 with the AICTE playing a pivotal role in enrolling its approved engineering colleges and institutions as members of the Consortium for selected e-resources at much lower rates of subscription. There was a huge jump in the membership from 2006 onwards. AICTE promoted the provision of e-resources with their existing rule for subscription of print journals for individual institutions. In 2007 over 23 e- resources were negotiated by INDEST-AICTE Consortium for the self-supported institutes. The rates of subscription each year are posted at INDEST-AICTE Consortium web site for subscription renewal. There was a constant increase in the number of institutions up to 2011. Over six year the number of engineering colleges serviced was about 1235. In 2012, AICTE proposed mandatory e-resources for the AICTE affiliated engineering colleges. AICTE negotiated the price with the publishers and asked each institutes to subscribe the e- resources directly through publisher’s websites. The total number of institutions subscribing to e- resources increased to 1500, whereas the consortium provided e-resources to 102 institutes in 2012. 132 universities/institutions have joined the Consortium under its self-supported category in 2013. The Consortium subscribes to over 12,000 electronic journals from a number of publishers and aggregators. The consortium website at http://paniit.iitd.ac.in/indest hosts searchable databases of journals and member institutions to locate journals subscribed by the Consortium, their URLs and details of member institutions. 2. Objectives2. Objectives2. Objectives2. Objectives:::: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has the following objectives: i) To subscribe electronic resources for the members of the Consortium at highly discounted rates of subscription and at the best terms and conditions;
  • 36. 25 ii) To extend the benefit of consortia-based subscription beyond the core members to other engineering and technological institutions; iii) To impart training to the users and librarians in the member institutions on subscribed electronic resources with an aim to optimise the usage of subscribed electronic resources; iv) To find more avenues of cooperation and interaction amongst member libraries; v) To increase scientific productivity of member institutions in terms of quality and quantity of publications; vi) To help new engineering institutes and colleges to make the right choice of e- resources; and vii) To find more avenues of co-operation and interaction with other consortia. 3. Governance3. Governance3. Governance3. Governance:::: The Consortium operates through its headquarters set up at IIT Delhi under a National Steering Committee (NSC) notified by the Ministry of Human Resources and Development (MHRD). It consists of Director, IIT Delhi as its ex-officio Chairman and Chairman, AICTE as its Co-Chair. Members are drawn from its beneficiary core and self supported institutions. Other members are Director (Technical Education), MHRD; representatives from the National Knowledge Resource Consortium (CSIR and DST) and DESIDOC; and Member Secretary, AICTE. The committee is responsible for taking major policy decision as well as their execution. In the year 2009, National Advisory Committee (NAC) was established by the National Steering Committee to advice the NSC about various issues faced by the consortium. Some of the major issues handled were like the rationalization of Elsevier subscription based on the usage for core I member institutions, subscription model of Elsevier for NITs, new IITs, IISERs and other core institutions. NAC also helps in e-resources selection, review of e-resources, and subscription of e- resources for engineering colleges. The advisory committee played a key role in the decision making of the NSC for new model for NITs. In order to make a participatory culture, Consortium invited participating institution from time to time to discuss various issues faced by the consortium for individual institution. Meetings were held at the consortium headquarters with respect to NITs, IITs, new NITs and IISERs. The feedback of individual institutions played a key role in decision making and helped in negotiating the terms with the publishers. A negotiation committee was also established by the National Steering Committee (NSC), to negotiate the terms, conditions and price of e-resources. The consortium involved the coordinators of all other major national consortia for the negotiation as well as the NSC meeting to have a common understanding of terms, conditions and price of e-resources. A National Review Committee was set up under the Chairmanship of Joint Secretary (Technical Education) with an overall responsibility for making policies, monitoring the progress, coordinating with UGC and AICTE for promoting the activities of the Consortium. However the committee has been in dormancy for over last 5 years. The National Coordinator for the consortium was appointed by the Technical Bureau of MHRD in the year 2003. He is responsible for all the operation of the consortium. The National coordinator is member’s secretary of the National Steering Committee, National Advisory Committee and the Negotiation Committee. Since the inception of the consortium, Dr. Jagdish Arora was the National Coordinator and continued in this role up to August 2007. Prof. G.P.
  • 37. 26 Agarwal took charge as National Coordinator of the consortium from Dr. Arora and served this post for five years beginning September 2007 to end of August 2012. Since September 1, 2012 Prof. B.D. Gupta has taken charge as the National Coordinator. Composition of existing National Steering Committee, National Review Committee, National Advisory Committee and National Negotiation Committee of the Consortium is given in Appendix I, II, III and IV respectively. 4. Membership4. Membership4. Membership4. Membership:::: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has the following three categories of Members: 4. 1. Core Member Institutions4. 1. Core Member Institutions4. 1. Core Member Institutions4. 1. Core Member Institutions:::: 65 centrally-funded Government institutions including IITs, IISc, NITs, ISM, IISERs, IIMs, NITTTRs, IIITs and few other institutions are core members of the Consortium. The Ministry provides funds required for providing differential access to electronic resources for its core members through the Consortium Headquarters at the IIT Delhi. The Consortium has introduced few more centrally-funded institutions as its core members. Appendix V and Appendix VI lists core institutions and e-resources subscribed for them respectively. 4. 2. Members with Financial Support from the AICTE4. 2. Members with Financial Support from the AICTE4. 2. Members with Financial Support from the AICTE4. 2. Members with Financial Support from the AICTE:::: 60 Govt./Govt-aided institutions have become members of the Consortium with financial support from the AICTE. Appendix VII lists AICTE supported institutions and e-resources subscribed for them. The AICTE is actively considering provision of access for selected e-resources to all Govt./Govt. aided institutions. 4. 3. Self4. 3. Self4. 3. Self4. 3. Self----supported Engineering Colleges and Institutionssupported Engineering Colleges and Institutionssupported Engineering Colleges and Institutionssupported Engineering Colleges and Institutions:::: The Consortium, being an open-ended proposition, invites AICTE approved and UGC-affiliated institutions to join hands with the leading engineering and technological institutions in India and share the benefits, it offers in terms of lower subscription rates and better terms of agreement with the publishers. 102 universities/ institutions have joined the Consortium under its self- supported category. 132 universities/institutions have joined the Consortium under its self- supported category in 2013. [Appendix VIIIA (Renewal) –VIIIB (New member during 2013)]. The INDEST-AICTE Consortium website maintains a searchable database of its members with a browser interface to facilitate browsing by categories of members and list institutions state-wise. 5. Selection of Electronic Resources5. Selection of Electronic Resources5. Selection of Electronic Resources5. Selection of Electronic Resources:::: i)i)i)i) Well established multi-disciplinary resources with broad coverage were preferred over highly specialized sources targeted to specialists; ii) The electronic resources already on subscription in the beneficiary institutions were preferred over those which are not being used in any of the beneficiary institutions; iii) Resources that are “electronic only” were preferred over those that are print based unless completely unavoidable; iv) Resources that are very important but highly cost intensive were preferred over those which are less important or less used but low cost; and v) Resources where electronic versions are made available free on subscription to their print versions were avoided as far as possible.
  • 38. 27 The Expert Group appointed by the Ministry initially selected and evaluated the e-resources being subscribed by the Consortium. New electronic resources are added based on the demands from the member institutions after due evaluation and approval by the National Steering Committee. 6. Services and Activities6. Services and Activities6. Services and Activities6. Services and Activities:::: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium is not just a buying club for electronic resources. Besides purchase of electronic resources, there are several other activities that the Consortium performs to achieve optimal utilization of electronic resources subscribed by it. Some of the important services and activities of the Consortium include: 6.1. E6.1. E6.1. E6.1. E----Resource PurchasingResource PurchasingResource PurchasingResource Purchasing:::: Co-operative subscription to electronic resources is the principal task of the INDEST-AICTE Consortium with focus on providing consortium wide access to electronic resources to support education and research in core subject areas of its members. The Consortium is responsible for carrying out negotiations with publishers and aggregators of electronic resources for getting better deals. It also negotiates terms of licenses and agreements with the publishers. The Consortium performs all functions including invoicing, receipt of payments, ordering and payment to publishers on behalf of its member institutions. Besides, the Consortium also coordinates with the funding agencies for release of payments for its core and AICTE supported members. The major terms of reference that the Consortium takes into consideration while negotiating with the publishers includes: i) Lowest rates of subscription for all member institutions; ii) Access to archival backfiles along with current subscription; iii) Archival backup or perpetual access to e-resources; iv) Cap on annual increase in rates of subscription; v) Print-independent (preferable) subscription to e-resources with deep discount on print; vi) Print-dependent subscription to e-resources with cap on annual increase in rates of subscription to print; and vii) Better terms of license for access to e-resources. As part of the selection process of eAs part of the selection process of eAs part of the selection process of eAs part of the selection process of e----resources and for better pricing, terms of reference and forresources and for better pricing, terms of reference and forresources and for better pricing, terms of reference and forresources and for better pricing, terms of reference and for better understanding in purchasing the ebetter understanding in purchasing the ebetter understanding in purchasing the ebetter understanding in purchasing the e----resources; the Consortium organized and participated inresources; the Consortium organized and participated inresources; the Consortium organized and participated inresources; the Consortium organized and participated in ssssome of the following important meetings:ome of the following important meetings:ome of the following important meetings:ome of the following important meetings: i) 20th Meeting of the National Steering Committee of INDEST-AICTE Consortium held on 25th July 2012 at IIT Delhi. ii) The meeting of the Purchase Finalization Committee for subscription to e-resources under the INDEST-AICTE Consortium was held on 17th December 2012 in the Seminar Room, Central Library, IIT Delhi. iii) Joint Purchase Finalization Committee Constituted for INDEST-AICTE Consortium and UGC- INFONET DL Consortium for renewal of e-resources for INDEST-AICTE Consortium and INFONET DL Consortium was held on 17th December 2012 in the Seminar Room, Central Library, IIT Delhi.
  • 39. 28 iv) The meeting of the Purchase Finalization Committee for subscription to e-resources under the INDEST-AICTE Consortium was held on 15th February 2013 in the Seminar Room, Central Library, IIT Delhi. v) Participated in New IIT Librarians’ Meeting held during 29-31 October, 2012 at IIT Gandhinagar. vi) Participated in Expert Group on Library Consortia held in Planning Commission, New Delhi on 31st October, 2012 vii) Participated in meeting of Project Review and Supervisory Group of the N-LIST Programme constituted by the Standing Committee of the NME-ICT on October 11-12, 2012 at INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad. 6.2. Resource Sharing6.2. Resource Sharing6.2. Resource Sharing6.2. Resource Sharing:::: As INDEST-AICTE Consortium does not subscribe to all resources for all its members, the document delivery and inter-library loan is, therefore, crucial to the success of the Consortium. The J-Gate Custom Content for Consortium (JCCC), designed specially for the Consortium, provides content-level access to all the electronic journals subscribed by all IITs, IISc and IIMs (14 institutions) by the Consortium or by these institutions individually. Besides IITs, IISc and IIMs, the JCCC is made accessible to all other core members of the Consortium including New IITs, IISERs, NITs, SLIET, ISM, NERIST, IIITs and NITIE. The service facilitates generation of automated inter-library loan requests directly by a user to one of the IITs, IISc and IIMs. While all requests for articles subscribed by the INDEST-AICTE Consortium are routed to IIT Delhi (Consortium Headquarters), requests for e-resources subscribed by individual IITs, IISc and IIMs are routed to the respective institution(s). Due to the some legal issue the JCCC was discontinued in 2012. Consortium is making an effort to choose a right solution for the resources sharing including discovery solution/federated search facility. 6.3. Training of Users and Library Staff6.3. Training of Users and Library Staff6.3. Training of Users and Library Staff6.3. Training of Users and Library Staff:::: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has signed tripartite agreements with the publishers of electronic resources and with their local vendors as third party responsible for providing training on resources at various member institutions. All institutions have been requested to take benefit of this arrangement and organize training programmes on various resources within their institutions. The INDEST-AICTE Consortium holds extensive training programmes for the benefit of Library staff members from various institutions. Besides, all IITs, IISc, IIMs and NITs have also been assigned the task to conduct training programmes on themes decided by the National Steering Committee at regional level/national level. The Consortium organized following training programmes/Seminars/Workshops during the year under report: i) 9th Annual Meet and Workshop of INDEST-AICTE consortium held at Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA) and is jointly organized by IIM Ahmedabad and IIT Gandhinagar during January 18-19, 2013. ii) Workshop on Meeting Users Expectations Organized by Central Library, IIT Bombay during 27-29 May 2013. iii) Workshop on Open Source Software for Library Management Organized by Central Library IIT Kharagpur during 3-7 June 2013
  • 40. 29 6.46.46.46.4. Technology. Technology. Technology. Technology Support toSupport toSupport toSupport to Member InstitutionsMember InstitutionsMember InstitutionsMember Institutions:::: INDEST-AICTE Consortium has geared itself to provide consultancy services to its member institutions, especially NITs in library computerization, digitization and in the development of computer and network infrastructure.... 6.5.6.5.6.5.6.5. SharedSharedSharedShared Technology Systems:Technology Systems:Technology Systems:Technology Systems: As a subscriber to multiple number of electronic resources, the INDEST-AICTE Consortium is considering technology that enables federated searching of resources across all subscribed resources. The Consortium is currently evaluating commercial and open source technological options that are available in the market place. Consortium is also helping the member institutions to develop and maintain the digital library. 6.6. Joint Archives and Storage Facilities6.6. Joint Archives and Storage Facilities6.6. Joint Archives and Storage Facilities6.6. Joint Archives and Storage Facilities:::: Establishing archival centres for electronic resources subscribed through the INDEST-AICTE Consortium has been identified as one of the important activities. The Consortium is planning to establish archival centres for different resources at different institutions. 6.7. Shared Core Col6.7. Shared Core Col6.7. Shared Core Col6.7. Shared Core Collectionlectionlectionlection:::: Besides subscription to full-text electronic resources and bibliographic databases, the INDEST- AICTE Consortium has purchased selected electronic backfiles of journals from Elsevier Science, Springer and Wiley InterScience and is considering purchase of electronic books and reference sources. Some of the publishers offer e-books wherein each member of the consortium may buy a definite number of e-books and all its members may share them. The Consortium has considered such acquisitions given the fact that the purchase of electronic backfiles of journals and e-books through above mentioned publishers provides for one-time payment, outright purchase and their cross sharing. The metadata of backfiles of e-journals purchased by the Consortium may be made available through JCCC to encourage resource sharing amongst its members. The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has agreements with most of the publishers to supply their data on CD ROM on completion of a year. Most publishers have provided the backup CDs. Under the agreement reached with ACM Digital Library, the Consortium now hosts ACM Digital Library at IIT Delhi, which has been made accessible to all its subscribing members. 6.8.6.8.6.8.6.8. INDEST Extended:INDEST Extended:INDEST Extended:INDEST Extended: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has taken up activities that are not associated either with the purchase of electronic resources or their usage but with completely different activities that require collaborative efforts where the Consortium with its infrastructure can act as a catalyst. The Consortium is taking up additional activities related to content creation under a new MHRD initiative named as “INDEST Extended”. Some of the important activities that the Consortium is taking up in addition to its existing activities are: i) Setting up Interoperable Repositories for Electronic Submission of Theses and Dissertations; ii) Institutional Repositories for all Consortium Members; iii) Manual of Procedures for Management of Libraries and Information Centres of INDEST- AICTE Member Institutions;
  • 41. 30 iv) Development of search engine for searching the full text of e-resources subscribed by the INDEST-AICTE Consortium; v) Web-based Union Catalogue of Journals and other Serial Publications; vi) Web-based Union Catalogue of Books; and vii) Cooperative Cataloguing of Internet-based Electronic Resources Workshops on setting up the Institutional Repositories were organized at the IISc Bangalore in 2004 and at IIM Kozhikode in 2006. The Consortium sponsored for the organization of such workshops in 2007 and 2008 at ISI Kolkata and IIT Roorkee, respectively. All participants were requested to establish institutional repositories in their respective institutions. Directors of these institutions were requested to provide infrastructural facilities required for setting up institutional repositories. As a result of persistent follow up, a number of institutions have already set up their e-print archives or are in the process of accomplishing it. The Consortium website provides link to institutional repositories set up by the member institutions. 7. Joint project of INDESTJoint project of INDESTJoint project of INDESTJoint project of INDEST----AICTE Consortium & UGCAICTE Consortium & UGCAICTE Consortium & UGCAICTE Consortium & UGC----INFONET Digital Library ConsortiumINFONET Digital Library ConsortiumINFONET Digital Library ConsortiumINFONET Digital Library Consortium The Programme of subscription of e-resources through Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NME-ICT) of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) is being jointly executed by the INDEST- AICTE Consortium, IIT Delhi and UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, INFLIBNET Centre (NME-ICT/N-LIST) and provide for : i) Cross subscription to e-resources subscribed by the two Consortia, i.e. subscription to INDEST-AICTE Consortium resources for universities and UGC-INFONET resources for technical institutions. ii) Access to selected e-resources to colleges. Under this programme, INDEST-AICTE Consortium subscribed following e-resources for the year 2012: i) 27 Nature titles for 34 Institutions (8 IITs/IISc, 5 IISERs, 8 New IITs, 13 selected NITs) ii) Project Muse for 34 Institutions (8 IITs/IISc, 5 IISERs, 8 New IITs, 13 selected NITs) iii) Annual Reviews for 34 Institutions (8 IITs/IISc, 5 IISERs, 8 New IITs, 13 selected NITs) iv) Taylor & Francis for 21 Institutions (8 IITs/IISc, 5 IISERs, 8 New IITs) v) IEEE ASPP for 73 Government Engineering Colleges (Please see Appendix VB) vi) Web of Science for 100 Universities vii) JSTOR for 55 institutions (8 IITs/IISc, 5 IISERs, 8 New IITs, 23 NITs INFLIBNET subscribed following resources for colleges covered under 12B and 2F sections of the UGC Act: i) American Institute of Physics ( 18 titles) ii) American Physics Society (10 titles) iii) Annual Review (33 titles) iv) Cambrige Universities Press (224 titles)
  • 42. 31 v) Economic and Political Weekly (EPW) vi) H.W. Wilson (1,420 titles) vii) Indian Journals (150 titles) viii) Institute of Physics (46 titles) ix) Oxford University Press (206 titles) x) Royal Society of Chemistry ((29 titles) E-Books i) Ebrary (45,000+ titles) ii) Oxford Scholarship (902 titles) iii) Net Library (936 titles) iv) MyiLibrary-McGraw Hill (1,308 titles)
  • 43. 32 INDESTINDESTINDESTINDEST----AICTE CONSORTIUM: AAICTE CONSORTIUM: AAICTE CONSORTIUM: AAICTE CONSORTIUM: A REPORTREPORTREPORTREPORT Dr. Bibhuti B. Sahoo Assistant Librarian INDEST-AICTE Consortium Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Email: bibhuti@library.iitd.ac.in 1.1.1.1. IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction:::: The library consortium may be defined as an association or group of libraries who come together to achieve a common goal of optimum users’ satisfaction with the participation in a common activities and sharing of resources. A library consortium is a group of libraries who partner to coordinate activities, share resources, and combine expertise. Library consortia offer significant advantages to institutions in terms of lower rates, higher number of journals, document delivery etc. The sharing of resources and collaboration on shared goals often enable libraries to deliver higher quality services than they would be able to deliver on their own. The Library consortia play an active role in the collection development. It was in the name of Library cooperation in America has existed for over a century. The concept of Library consortia is not new. Library consortia first began to purchase electronic journals from publishers in the mid-nineties in USA. In India the library consortia became operational after 2000 with availability of journals in e-forms. The accessibility to international journals in Indian universities and technical institutions has improved many folds with setting-up of a few Government-funded library consortia. Prior to setting up of these consortia, the access to e-journals was restricted to a premier institutions like IISc, IITs, IIMs and a few central universities who were subscribing to several e-resources including bibliographic databases on CD ROM, a few e-journals accessible free with subscription to their print versions and a negligible fraction of journals on subscription. In India more than half a dozen Library consortia were established by various government bodies as given in Table 1. Table I: Library consortia inTable I: Library consortia inTable I: Library consortia inTable I: Library consortia in IndiaIndiaIndiaIndia Name ofName ofName ofName of ConsortiumConsortiumConsortiumConsortium BranchBranchBranchBranch SponsoringSponsoringSponsoringSponsoring bodybodybodybody No. ofNo. ofNo. ofNo. of ResourcesResourcesResourcesResources Year ofYear ofYear ofYear of EstablishmentEstablishmentEstablishmentEstablishment MembersMembersMembersMembers INDEST-AICTE Engineering Science and Technology Ministry of HRD 30 2003 1225 ( 65 core, 60 AICTE supported and 1100 other members) UGC- INFONET DL Higher Education UGC, MHRD 29 2004 419 ( 215 universities and 204 Associate Members )
  • 44. 33 Table I: Library consortia inTable I: Library consortia inTable I: Library consortia inTable I: Library consortia in IndiaIndiaIndiaIndia Name ofName ofName ofName of ConsortiumConsortiumConsortiumConsortium BranchBranchBranchBranch SponsoringSponsoringSponsoringSponsoring bodybodybodybody No. ofNo. ofNo. ofNo. of ResourcesResourcesResourcesResources Year ofYear ofYear ofYear of EstablishmentEstablishmentEstablishmentEstablishment MembersMembersMembersMembers National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content (N- LIST) Higher Education MHRD 25 2010 3527 colleges, 100 universities and 55 technical institutions (for cross subscription) National Knowledge Resource Consortium (NKRC) Science and Technology CSIR and DST 34 2001 ( CSIR Consortium) 2009 (NKRC) 68 (42 CSIR and 26 DST) DBT e-Library Consortium (DelCon) Biotechnology Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, 19 (926 selective Journals) 2009 34 (16 DBT and 18 North Eastern Region (NER) Institutions MCIT Consortium Communication and Information Technology Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (MCIT) 4 2005 14 Electronic Resources in Medicine (ERMED) Consortium Medicine Director General of Health Services (DGHS) 9 2008 98 Consortium for e- Resources in Agriculture (CeRA) Agriculture ICAR 16 2007 147 DRDO E-JLS Consortium Defense DRDO 11 ( 551 e- journals) 2009 52 2. INDEST2. INDEST2. INDEST2. INDEST----AICTE Consortium:AICTE Consortium:AICTE Consortium:AICTE Consortium: The idea of the creation of the library consortia, took shape at the “National Seminar on Knowledge Networking in Engineering & Technology Education and Research” held at IIT Delhi
  • 45. 34 in December 2000 under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development. The seminar was coordinated by Dr. Jagdish Arora and it was attended by more than 150 participants from engineering and technological institutions from all over the country. Based on the feedback, ministry decided to set-up the expert group in April 2002 for the consortia –based subscription to electronic resources for Technical Education System in India under the chairmanship of Prof. N. Balakrishnsan from IISc, Bangalore. The “Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST) Consortium” was set up in 2003 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) on the recommendation of an Expert Group appointed by the Ministry. The IIT Delhi was designated as the Consortium Headquarters to coordinate its activities2. The Consortium was re-named as INDEST-AICTE Consortium in December 2005 with the AICTE playing a pivotal role in enrolling its approved engineering colleges and institutions as members of the Consortium for selected e-resources at much lower rates of subscription. The Consortium enrolls engineering and technological institutions as its members and subscribe to electronic resources for them at discounted rates of subscription and favorable terms and conditions. The consortium website at http://paniit.iitd.ac.in/indest hosts searchable databases of journals and member institutions to locate journals subscribed by the Consortium, their URLs and details of member institutions. 3. Objectives:3. Objectives:3. Objectives:3. Objectives: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has the following objectives: i) To provide electronic resources for the Centrally Funded and other academic institutions in Engineering, Science and Technology of India at highly discounted rates. ii) To support and impart training to the users and librarians in the member institutions on subscribed electronic resources with an aim to maximize the usage of subscribed electronic resources. iii) To improve scientific productivity of member institutions in terms of quality and quantity of publications. 4. Administrative Structure of INDEST4. Administrative Structure of INDEST4. Administrative Structure of INDEST4. Administrative Structure of INDEST----AICTE ConsortiumAICTE ConsortiumAICTE ConsortiumAICTE Consortium:::: The Consortium operates through its headquarters set up at IIT Delhi under a National Steering Committee (NSC) notified by the Ministry of Human Resources and Development (MHRD). It consists of Director, IIT Delhi as its ex-officio Chairman and Chairman, AICTE as its Co-Chair. Members are drawn from its beneficiary core and self-supported institutions. Other members are Director (Technical Education), MHRD; representatives from the National Knowledge Resource Consortium (CSIR and DST) and DESIDOC; and Member Secretary, AICTE. The committee is responsible for taking major policy decision as well as their execution. In the year 2009, National Advisory Committee (NAC) was established by the National Steering Committee to advice the NSC about various issues faced by the consortium. Some of the major issues handled were like the rationalization of Elsevier subscription based on the usage for core I member institutions, subscription model of Elsevier for NITs, new IITs, IISERs and other core institutions. NAC also helps in e-resources selection, review of e-resources, and subscription of e- resources for engineering colleges. The advisory committee played a key role in the decision making of the NSC for new model for NITs. In order to make a participatory culture, Consortium invited participating institution from time to time to discuss various issues faced by the consortium for individual institution. Meetings were held at the consortium headquarters with
  • 46. 35 respect to NITs, IITs, new NITs and IISERs. The feedback of individual institutions played a key role in decision making and helped in negotiating the terms with the publishers. A negotiation committee was also established by the National Steering Committee (NSC), to negotiate the terms, conditions and price of e-resources. The consortium involved the coordinators of all other major national consortia for the negotiation as well as the NSC meeting to have a common understanding of terms, conditions and price of e-resources. A National Review Committee was set up under the Chairmanship of Joint Secretary (Technical Education) with an overall responsibility for making policies, monitoring the progress, coordinating with UGC and AICTE for promoting the activities of the Consortium. However the committee has been in dormancy for over last 5 years. The National Coordinator for the consortium was appointed by the Technical Bureau of MHRD in the year 2003. He was responsible for all the operation of the consortium. The National coordinator was member’s secretary of the National Steering Committee, National Advisory Committee and the Negotiation Committee. Since the inception of the consortium, Dr. Jagdish Arora was the National Coordinator and continued in this role up to August 2007. Prof. G.P. Agarwal took charge as National Coordinator of the consortium from Dr. Arora and served this post for five years beginning September 2007 to end of August 2012. Since September 1, 2012 Prof. B.D. Gupta has taken charge as the National Coordinator. 5. Membership5. Membership5. Membership5. Membership:::: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has three types of members based on funding, namely (i) core members supported by MHRD, (ii) AICTE supported members and (iii) self-supported members. However, some of the core and AICTE supported members can join as self-supported members. The membership fee for joining the consortium was Rs. 2000 for type (ii) & (iii) members. The consortium did not charge membership fees from the MHRD supported academic institutions. The basic objective of the consortium was to provide the e-resources to the academic institutions of the country. Table 2 gives the number of members from 2003 to 2013 under three types of funding. Table :2Table :2Table :2Table :2 –––– Number of members since 2003 in different categoryNumber of members since 2003 in different categoryNumber of members since 2003 in different categoryNumber of members since 2003 in different category Category ofCategory ofCategory ofCategory of MembersMembersMembersMembers 2003200320032003 2004200420042004 2005200520052005 2006200620062006 2007200720072007 2008200820082008 2009200920092009 2010201020102010 2011201120112011 2012201220122012 201201201201 3333 Core Members MHRD supported 37 37 37 37 37 37 42 48 55 62 65 AICTE Supported members 60 64 63 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 0 Self- Supported 18 74 110 334 527 535 597 895 1007 116 132 Total 116 176 211 432 625 637 699 1003 1122 238 197 5.1.5.1.5.1.5.1. Core membersCore membersCore membersCore members:::: All centrally funded Technical Institutions including IITs, IISc, ISM, IISERs, NITs, SLIET, NERIST, IIMs, NITIE, NITTTRs, IIITs and NIFFT were the core members of the Consortium. The Ministry provided funds for providing differential access to electronic resources for its core members
  • 47. 36 through the Consortium Headquarters at IIT Delhi. As per Table 2, in 2003, the number of core members was 37. In 2009, the number increased to 42 with addition of IISERs. In 2013 the total number of members increased to 65 with addition of new IITs, new NITs, and new IIMs. The consortium has always made continuous effort to include all the centrally funded technical institutions in the INDEST-AICTE consortium. Each core members had varied teaching programmes, therefore, core members were grouped in different categories to extend differential access to e-resources based on their requirements and specializations. Initially the category of institutions were basically used to denote the level of usage of e-resources, conceived to be highest amongst institutions in Category I, modest in Category II and lowest amongst the Category III. The rates of subscription, number of simultaneous users and number of resources offered to various categories of institutions were worked out based on their usage/suitability to the respective categories of institutions. With the establishment of IISERs, new IITs, new NITs and new IIMs, the number of categories were increased to V (with subcategories IIIA and IIIB in Category III, IVA and IVB in Category IV) as described below: • Category I comprises eight institutions including IITs and IISc; • Category II comprises 23 institutions including 20 NITs, Indian School of Mines (ISM), Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology (SLIET), and North East Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST); • Category III comprises 13 institutions including (category III A comprises 5 IISERs and Category IIIB comprises 8 New IITs); • Category IV comprises 13 institutions including IIMs, new IIMs, IIITs and National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE) includes IVA – IIMs, IVB - IIITs and NITIE, IVC - New IIMs; • Group V comprises 4 institutions including 3 NITTTRs and NIFFT. In Category I institutes had a long history of teaching and very many research programmes and these were seven IITs (in Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Mumbai and Roorkee) and one IISc, Bangalore. Category I institutes subscribe to 25 e-resources through the Consortium which is the largest as given in Table 3. Category II to V institutes through the Consortium subscribe to e-resources as low as 3 to a high of 9. Table -3 gives the e-resources distribution among different core members for 2012. TableTableTableTable –––– 3: Grouping and E3: Grouping and E3: Grouping and E3: Grouping and E----Resources distribution of the Core Member Institutions for 2013Resources distribution of the Core Member Institutions for 2013Resources distribution of the Core Member Institutions for 2013Resources distribution of the Core Member Institutions for 2013 S. No.S. No.S. No.S. No. Electronic ResourceElectronic ResourceElectronic ResourceElectronic Resource No. ofNo. ofNo. ofNo. of journalsjournalsjournalsjournals Accessible toAccessible toAccessible toAccessible to CategoryCategoryCategoryCategory No ofNo ofNo ofNo of InstitutesInstitutesInstitutesInstitutes FullFullFullFull----Text EText EText EText E----ResourcesResourcesResourcesResources 1. ABI/INFORM Complete 4975 I & IVA 15 2. ACM Digital Library 44 I-IV 39 3. AIP/APS Journals 23 I, IIIA 13 4. ASCE Journals 33 I, II & V 28 5. ASME Journals 24 I, II & V 28 6. EBSCO Business Source Complete 11350 I & GIV-A 13 7. Emerald Insight 150 I & IVA 13
  • 48. 37 S. No.S. No.S. No.S. No. Electronic ResourceElectronic ResourceElectronic ResourceElectronic Resource No. ofNo. ofNo. ofNo. of journalsjournalsjournalsjournals Accessible toAccessible toAccessible toAccessible to CategoryCategoryCategoryCategory No ofNo ofNo ofNo of InstitutesInstitutesInstitutesInstitutes 8. IEC Standards 6929 I 8 9. IEL Online 241 All except III 45 10. Nature 1/27 I, II & III 44/34 11. OSA (Optics Infobase) 21 I 8 12. Science Direct 2500 I&II & IVA 50 13. Springer Link 1499/1300 I, II, IVB & V 32 Factual/Statistical databases 14. Capitaline I & IVA 13 15. CRIS INFAC Ind. Inf. IVA 6 16. Euromonitor GMID I & IVA 13 17. Insight IVA 6 Bibliographic Databases 18. INSPEC I 8 19. MathSciNet I & III 21 20. SciFinder Scholar I 8 21. Scopus I 8 22. Web of Science I 8 Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report,Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report,Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report,Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report, April 2012 to March 2013.April 2012 to March 2013.April 2012 to March 2013.April 2012 to March 2013. 5.2. AICTE Supported members5.2. AICTE Supported members5.2. AICTE Supported members5.2. AICTE Supported members:::: Since March 2003, AICTE provided financial support to the Government/Government aided institutions and Technical Universities/ University Departments having programmes in engineering and technology. The Consortium provided IEL, ASCE, ASME and/or ASTP to 60 institutions with AICTE support based on the courses they offer from 2003 to 2011. These included 37 engineering and technology colleges and 23 universities having engineering departments/faculty. All 60 Institutions offer postgraduate course in engineering and technology. 5.3. Self5.3. Self5.3. Self5.3. Self----supported Membersupported Membersupported Membersupported Member:::: The Consortium also helped the technical institution of the country by offering the e-resources on self-support mode. It invited AICTE approved and UGC-affiliated institutions of India to share the benefits of the Consortium. It offered low subscription rates and attractive terms of agreement with the publishers. Prior to the consortium it was very difficult to afford such high quality e- resources through their own negotiation. The consortium brought a sea change in whole technical education. The small engineering colleges could afford e-resources which ultimately helped their education and research. Year-wise number of members of the consortium is given in the Table-2 since the establishment of the consortium. The self-supported membership started with 18 members in 2003. In 2005 AICTE joined hand with ‘INDEST Consortium and got renamed as ‘INDEST-AICTE Consortium’. AICTE played a pivotal role in enrolling its approved engineering colleges and institutes as member of the Consortium with 6 e-resources (IEL Online, ASCE, ASME, Springer Link, DEL, and ESDU).
  • 49. 38 There was a huge jump in the membership from 2006 onwards. AICTE promoted the provision of e-resources with their existing rule for subscription of print journals for individual institutions. In 2007 over 23 e-resources were negotiated by INDEST-AICTE Consortium for the self- supported institutes. The rates of subscription each year are posted at INDEST-AICTE Consortium web site for subscription renewal. There was a constant increase in the number of institutions up to 2011. Over six year the number of engineering colleges serviced was about 1000. In 2012, AICTE proposed mandatory e-resources for the AICTE affiliated engineering colleges. AICTE negotiated the price with the publishers and asked each institutes to subscribe the e- resources directly through publisher’s websites. The total number of institutions subscribing to e- resources increased to 1500, whereas the consortium provided e-resources to 132 institutes. 6. Services and Activities6. Services and Activities6. Services and Activities6. Services and Activities:::: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium is not only helps in purchase of electronic resources, there are several other activities that the Consortium performs to achieve optimal utilization of electronic resources. Some of the important services and activities of the Consortium include the followings: 6.1 Selection of Electronic Resources6.1 Selection of Electronic Resources6.1 Selection of Electronic Resources6.1 Selection of Electronic Resources:::: The Expert Group appointed by the Ministry initially selected and evaluated the e-resources being subscribed by the Consortium. The National Advisory Committee constituted by NSC in 2009, regularly met and reviewed the e-resource subscription of all member of the Consortium. Some new electronic resources were added and some other removed based on the demands from the member institutes after due evaluation and approval by the National Steering Committee. 6.2. Resource Sharing6.2. Resource Sharing6.2. Resource Sharing6.2. Resource Sharing:::: As INDEST-AICTE Consortium did not subscribe to all resources for all its members, the document delivery and inter-library loan was, therefore, crucial to the success of the Consortium. The J- Gate Custom Content for Consortium (JCCC), designed especially for the Consortium, provided content-level access to all the electronic journals subscribed by all IITs, IISc and IIMs (14 institutions) by the Consortium or by these institutions individually beginning 2003 up to the year 2011. Besides IITs, IISc and IIMs, the JCCC was made accessible to all other core members of the Consortium including new IITs, IISERs, NITs, SLIET, ISM, NERIST, IIITs and NITIE. The service facilitated generation of automated inter-library loan requests directly by a user to one of the IITs, IISc and IIMs. While all requests for articles subscribed by the INDEST-AICTE Consortium were routed to IIT Delhi (Consortium Headquarters), requests for e-resources subscribed by individual IITs, IISc and IIMs were routed to the respective institute(s). The Consortium was looking for a centralized product for creating a union catalogue of all the consortia run by Government of India. The consortium is in contact with other consortium like NKC, UGC-Infonet DL consortium etc to have a common document delivery from 2015 onward. 6.3. Promoting Use of e6.3. Promoting Use of e6.3. Promoting Use of e6.3. Promoting Use of e----ResourcesResourcesResourcesResources:::: The Consortium took several steps to ensure utilization of resources in all member institutes to justify the amount of money spent for the e-resources. The Consortium continuously monitored the usage of e-resources. Each year various committees of the Consortium studied the usage statistics before taking any decision. The Consortium maintained a comprehensive Website on its activities, services and resources. A template webpage was developed and distributed to all members institutions. The soft copies of the tutorials were made available through the Consortium Website. The Website also provides links to web based online tutorials available for
  • 50. 39 these resources. The consortium informed the members to utilize the e-resources in case of there was poor usage of any e-resources. 6.4 Training of Users6.4 Training of Users6.4 Training of Users6.4 Training of Users:::: Training programmes were a crucial requirement that the Consortium had to fulfil to facilitate optimum use of subscribed e-resources. Training programmes acted as a bridge to facilitate better communication amongst members of the Consortium and to find answers to common problems. Such programmes made users competent to conduct their own searches effectively. Proper training made library staff competent enabling them to provide quality services. “On the job” training programmes were preferable not only because they benefited large number of users but also solved localized technological problems by the experts available at the time of imparting training. Training to members of the INDEST-AICTE Consortium was a decentralized activity. All IITs, NITs and IIMs conducted training programmes in their respective regions with financial support from the Consortium. Moreover, all member of Consortium were also required to conduct training programmes in their respective institutes for the benefit of their users. The Consortium signed a tripartite agreement with the publishers of e-resources with a local vendor as third party responsible for providing training on resources at campuses of various member institutes. All institutes were requested to take benefit of this arrangement and organize training programmes on various resources within their institutes. The INDEST-AICTE Consortium kept a close liaison with all its members. All technical and administrative contacts of each member institutes are regularly updated on the consortium website. Besides, the Consortium has held Annual Meeting and Workshops since 2003 for the benefit of its member. 7.7.7.7. Licence Agreement and FLicence Agreement and FLicence Agreement and FLicence Agreement and Fair use:air use:air use:air use: All electronic resources available through the Consortium are governed by license agreements. All the terms and conditions for subscribing these resources are spelled out in license agreements that are signed with each publisher by the Consortium on behalf of its member institutes. The Consortium takes utmost care to protect the rights of the users as well as the member Institutes before signing an agreement. It is observed that the terms and conditions of e-resources varies amongst various publishers. Some of the publishers initially were asking the members and the Consortium to sign on a contract, which was not agreeable to the Consortium. In fact, some of e- resources were not considered because of unfavourable license agreement. 7.1 License Agreements and Guidelines for Fair Use7.1 License Agreements and Guidelines for Fair Use7.1 License Agreements and Guidelines for Fair Use7.1 License Agreements and Guidelines for Fair Use:::: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium website provides information on “Licenses and Fair Use” to sensitize users as well as librarians on issues of licenses and agreements that the Consortium signs with the publishers. The website provides details on what authorized users can do and what they cannot do. While most of the publishers allow inter-library loan, electronic delivery of articles are not allowed. The consortium website put the sample license agreement of individual publisher in order to educate its users as well as the library administrators. 7.2. Print7.2. Print7.2. Print7.2. Print----independent Subscription:independent Subscription:independent Subscription:independent Subscription: Subscription to e-resources were print-independent in most of the cases except Elsevier’s Science Direct, AIP/APS, Taylor and Francis, Springer and Emerald Xtra. In the year 2010, advisory committee devised a usage based model for Elsevier’s Science Direct to rationalize the notional subscription amount among old IITs and IISc Bangalore (8 institutes). Under this agreement the
  • 51. 40 print subscription was replaced by a flexible e-subscription. As per the decision, the subscription amount of Elsevier for all core category I institutes remained constant and the subscription amount was distributed among the participating institutions based on the usage statistics. Each institute could swap title to make the subscriptions amongst the category members as unique. By changing from print to e-resources only, each institute also got appreciable discount. 7.3. Governing Laws and Jurisdiction7.3. Governing Laws and Jurisdiction7.3. Governing Laws and Jurisdiction7.3. Governing Laws and Jurisdiction:::: The consortium made concerted effort that all the contract agreement with publishers were governed by the laws of India. The consortium also made effort to get the following arbitration clause signed by each publisher: “Any dispute or difference whatsoever arising between the parties out of or relating to the construction, meaning, scope, operation or effect of this contract or the validity or the breach thereof shall be settled by arbitration in accordance with the Rules of Arbitration of the Indian Council of Arbitration/or any other Indian organisation and the award made in pursuance thereof shall be binding on the parties." The place of the arbitration shall be in New Delhi (India) and carried out in the English Language. The consortium negotiate above terms and successful in changing this clause for majority of the publishers. 8.8.8.8. Usage AUsage AUsage AUsage Analysis:nalysis:nalysis:nalysis: Librarians are using statistics to meet user needs and make every rupees count. Usage statistics are valuable tool to know the use of an e-resource. In the print world, it was difficult to know the usage of the printed journals. Due to the advent of computer network technology and various protocols, now it is easy for a library to know the extent of use of the e-resources and its journals. Since the Consortium invests its budget in the acquisition of electronic resources for the individual institute, it is necessary to know the utility of e-resources. The Consortium is responsible for analyzing and demonstrating their cost-effectiveness. Usage statistics also play an important role in decision making for selection/continuation of e-resources. Most publishers maintain detailed usage statistics compliant to an international standard called “COUNTER” or “SUSHI” for resources offered by them to the Consortium. The usage statistics for member institutes are regularly obtained from the publishers and are made accessible amongst its member on the Consortium Web Site through an interface called e-RAMS (Electronic Resource Access Management System). Institutions with low usage are requested to optimize their usage. Based on the usage statistics, the committee reviews the continuation/discontinuation of e-resources. In last few years consortium has discontinued few resources due to their poor usage among members. The usage statistics were also used in the negotiation of e-resources. The consortium is now planning to harvest the usage statistics from the publisher website directly to the E-RAMS to remove the human intervention of data manipulation if any. The usage statistics of e-resources by member institute has generally shown an increasing trend for most e-resources from 2003 to 2011 and further analysis of usage data is given below. 8.1.8.1.8.1.8.1. Usage of EUsage of EUsage of EUsage of E----Resources for Various Group Core Members from 2003 to 2012Resources for Various Group Core Members from 2003 to 2012Resources for Various Group Core Members from 2003 to 2012Resources for Various Group Core Members from 2003 to 2012:::: It is observed from Table 4 that the number of downloads ranges from 56 thousands (Group V institutes) to 1.53 crores (Group I institutes) for the year 2012. The lower usage was in case of NITTTR/NIFFT because of their lower number of users. In case of Group IV (i.e. IIMs), the usage was very high because of the usage of factual databases like Capitaline, Euromonitors, CRIS INFAC etc as described in the Table 3. It is also clear from the Table 4 that the usage of various core institutes varied widely i.e. Group I, II & III though these institutes have similar teaching and research programmes. It may be inferred that the usage of e-resource for old core members are
  • 52. 41 getting saturated. The usage of bibliographic data for example Compendex and INSPEC in village were gradually decreasing. As a result the Consortium removed the Compendex and replaced it by Scopus. Due to the poor usage some of the e-resources were discontinued. The Consortium used the usage statistics to decrease the price of some e-resources during negotiations. The usage of e-resources for IIMs was calculated from 2004 to 2008 since most of the management resources were added in 2004. The usage of Group III was considered from 2009 as IISERs got access through the consortium in 2009. IISERs were provided MathScinet in 2009; from 2010 onwards they got access to MathScinet, AIP/APS, JCCC, Science Direct, and Springer link (as self- supported). The usage of e-resources for IISERS and new IITs are increasing rapidly. Table 4 : No. of DownloadsTable 4 : No. of DownloadsTable 4 : No. of DownloadsTable 4 : No. of Downloads from 2003 to 2012from 2003 to 2012from 2003 to 2012from 2003 to 2012 (for All Core Members and All E(for All Core Members and All E(for All Core Members and All E(for All Core Members and All E----Resources)Resources)Resources)Resources) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Group IGroup IGroup IGroup I (IITs /(IITs /(IITs /(IITs / IISc)IISc)IISc)IISc) 4355 8968 19051 26144 24276 25720 20921 22338 18060 15203 Group IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup II (NITs)(NITs)(NITs)(NITs) 374 739 918 1019 1572 1782 2026 2243 2539 3360 GroupGroupGroupGroup IIIIIIIIIIII (IISERs &(IISERs &(IISERs &(IISERs & NewNewNewNew IITs)IITs)IITs)IITs) 109 224 515 770 GroupGroupGroupGroup IV (IIMs)IV (IIMs)IV (IIMs)IV (IIMs) 36 4916 20091 31925 28577 29569 24580 19032 14233 7802 Group VGroup VGroup VGroup V IIIT,IIIT,IIIT,IIIT, NITTR/NINITTR/NINITTR/NINITTR/NI FFTFFTFFTFFT NS NS NS NS NS 20 20 34 56 254 JCCCJCCCJCCCJCCC 38 41 55 69 84 61 138 196 69 NS Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report, April 2012 to March 2013. The Science Direct, IEL Online and Springer link are highly used e-resources in compared to other resources like ASCE and ASME. The usage of Capitaline was highest for the Management e- resources as it is news like database. The e-resources like ABI INFORM Complete, EBSCO and Emerald are highly used. The usage for Bibliographic databases was increasing except the Ei village. The usage of specialised bibliographic databases like Mathscinet and Scifinders are increasing over period of time. Due to the introduction of Scopus in the Consortium, usage of Web of Science has decreased in comparison to the initial year of subscription like 2005 and 20067. 8.2. Usage of E8.2. Usage of E8.2. Usage of E8.2. Usage of E----Resources for AICTE Supported InstitutionsResources for AICTE Supported InstitutionsResources for AICTE Supported InstitutionsResources for AICTE Supported Institutions:::: The AICTE institutions have registered an increase in usage of most of the e-resources subscribed for them in terms of number of research articles downloaded from 2004 to 2011. There is a comparative decrease in usage of ASCE and ASME as compared to IEL Online.
  • 53. 42 Table 5: Number of downloads of ETable 5: Number of downloads of ETable 5: Number of downloads of ETable 5: Number of downloads of E----Resources forResources forResources forResources for AICTE Supported Institutions for 2003AICTE Supported Institutions for 2003AICTE Supported Institutions for 2003AICTE Supported Institutions for 2003----2011201120112011 EEEE----ResourcesResourcesResourcesResources No. of Downloads 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 ASCEASCEASCEASCE 4.03 23.92 38.94 22.18 74.14 20.81 42.02 67.71 27.65 41.67 ASMEASMEASMEASME 2.22 16,230 27,212 22,053 72,154 32,432 56,181 15,635 17,695 1.32 IEL OnlineIEL OnlineIEL OnlineIEL Online 169.72 352.86 549.30 884.99 889.64 789.75 893.57 1390.51 1503.60 944.6 5 ProquestProquestProquestProquest 415 915 1,568 1,371 1,652 1,679 NS NS NS NS Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report,Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report,Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report,Source: INDEST Consortium Annual Report, April 2012 to March 2013.April 2012 to March 2013.April 2012 to March 2013.April 2012 to March 2013. 9. Economics of INDEST9. Economics of INDEST9. Economics of INDEST9. Economics of INDEST----AICTE ConsortiumAICTE ConsortiumAICTE ConsortiumAICTE Consortium:::: The factors that determine economic viability and cost effectiveness of consortia based subscription to e-resources are: its membership, intensity of usage, successful migration from print to electronic version (with discontinuation of print) and cost avoidance. These factors are discussed below in detail. 9.1. Annual Increase in Rates of Subscription: Print Journals vs e9.1. Annual Increase in Rates of Subscription: Print Journals vs e9.1. Annual Increase in Rates of Subscription: Print Journals vs e9.1. Annual Increase in Rates of Subscription: Print Journals vs e----JournalsJournalsJournalsJournals:::: Members of the Consortium have the benefit of price cap for the print as well as the e-journals on the annual increase in the rates of subscription from 3% to 5%. While the usual increase in price of e-resources vary from 10 to 15% for an institute but the increase for the Consortium ranges from 3-5%. Due to Global Economic Crisis, some of the publishers like ASTM and AMS froze their price for the year 2010 and 2012. Members of the Consortium have enjoyed the cap on increase in print journal price from 5% to 6% from various publishers, namely, Elsevier Science, Emerald group Publishing etc. As per the agreement with the publishers, some publishers refund the extra amount above the specified percentage (5-6% price cap) to the member institutes. Since now most of the institutions were going for the e-subscription, the price cap remained constant. 9.3. Average Cost of an Article/Record9.3. Average Cost of an Article/Record9.3. Average Cost of an Article/Record9.3. Average Cost of an Article/Record:::: The Consortium has analysed the cost of an article /download or record since its inception as an economic parameter. This parameter has been used to take decision in reviewing the continuation/ discontinuation/ negotiation of pricing of existing e-resources. The detailed analysis was published in the Annual Report 2012-137. Using the usage parameters some of the e-resources were discontinued from the Consortium in 2011 and 2012. The average cost of a download varied among different types of institutes. It also varied from types of e-resources (i.e. full text, factual and bibliographic databases). The Category I institutes (IITs and IISc) were getting access to bibliographic database from 2003 onwards. In 2005 the average cost per downloads for INSPEC and COMPENDEX was Rs. 2.71, where it reached Rs.2090 in 2009. Based on this information, Compendex was replaced by Scopus in 2010. Some of other bibliographic databases are subject specific like MatSciNet and Scifinder Scholar where cost increased from Rs.7.30 to Rs.67.75 in last 5 years. The trend clearly showed that bibliographic databases were less cost effective since full-text databases were preferred over bibliographic databases and were used more extensively in comparison to bibliographic databases. It may be noted that the bibliographic databases never gives the full text articles. It only gives the number hits and number of sessions etc. It was also observed that the per download cost was encouraging for the level I institutes due to its higher usage across the e-resources subscribed for them. The average per
  • 54. 43 download cost for Group II (NITs/NERIST/SLIET/ISM) was Rs. 58.79 in 2005 where in 2011 it was Rs.40.87. It showed that there was increase in downloads in the group II institutes. The IISERs started with few resources in 2009 with average cost per download Rs. 344.64. In 2012 it was about Rs.36.52. Since these Institutes were growing in its faculty strengths and research scholars, there was a positive increase in usage of e-resources. The IIMs have the lowest average per download cost. In 2005, it was Rs. 0.59. In 2012, the average per download cost was Rs.3.40. The average per download cost for AICTE supported institutions for 2005 was Rs. 23.93, where in 2012, it was Rs.26.67. The cost per download for various e-resources for self-supported institute was Rs.23.13 to Rs.408 for the year 2011. 11.11.11.11. Archival Access/backArchival Access/backArchival Access/backArchival Access/back----up of eup of eup of eup of e----resourcesresourcesresourcesresources:::: Unlike in print media, the electronic access is made available for the period of subscription. The electronic access generally gets terminated as soon as the subscription period is over even for the period for which subscription was paid. Most publishers have made offers for archival back-up or access to electronic resources if Consortium decides to discontinue subscription to their resources. The offers made by the publishers fall under one of the following categories: i) Perpetual Access to Resources for Subscribed Period: Publishers like Elsevier have a policy to provide perpetual access to their subscribed resources for the period of subscription. Some other publishers like Springer, Taylor and Francis, IEEE, Science Citation Index provide the perpetual access ii) Back-up CD ROM made available during Subscription Period: Backup on CDROM is being supplied along with its web-based access for resources like ABI/Inform Complete and Proquest’s Science. iii) Back-up Data (raw) to be supplied on CD ROM on Termination of Subscription: Several publishers, like EI Village and Springer agreed to provide their data on CDROM on discontinuation of service. All publishers have been requested to provide full-text data on CD/DVD in a standardized format on completion of every year with the search and browse capabilities in-built. They are also expected to help us install these CDs/DVDs on our servers so that the data could be used instantaneously as the need arises. 12. S12. S12. S12. Summaryummaryummaryummary and Fand Fand Fand Futureutureutureuture EEEEndeavour:ndeavour:ndeavour:ndeavour: The INDEST-AICTE Consortium has been providing the e-resources since 2003 with its collective strength of participating member institutes and has negotiated highly discounted rates of subscription coupled with most favourable terms of license agreements. Consortium was offered very attractive prices from the vendors not only because of combined strength of its members, but also due to the eagerness of publishers to enter the Indian market. The rates offered to the Consortium were lower by 50 per cent to 90 per cent depending upon the category of institution. Moreover, the rates have come down further with increase in the number of AICTE approved engineering colleges. The INDEST-AICTE Consortium, initiated discussion with AICTE to make e-resources more popular for the private engineering college to increasing its negotiating
  • 55. 44 power and to get further discount in the rates. Due to funding issue INDEST has discontinued some of the bibliographic databases for the year 2014. Ministry is planning to constitute a joint negotiation committee for the year 2015 onwards to have a common pricing for all the institutions. Future plans of INDEST-AICTE Consortium include (i) considering a discovery solution for the INDEST-AICTE Consortium member as well as for the other member institutions of other consortium of India, (ii) establishment of National coalition of all Library Consortia to have a common e-resource policy for India, (iii) frame an archival policy of the e-resources of consortia as well as the individual library of the country, (iv) negotiate the eBooks for the member Institutions through consortia, (v) setting-up mirror servers, local hosting and (vi) to obtain national licenses for important e-resources with access spread out to as many educational institutions as required. Some of the issues like budget management, catalogs – NextGen, catalogs - union, digital initiatives, licensing – new, licensing – renegotiations, interlibrary loan, open access, print collections –cooperative collection development, print collections– shared storage, research projects, training, e-book purchase and other priorities are under constant discussion among the member institutes and other consortia. RRRReferences:eferences:eferences:eferences: 1. India, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Bureau of Technical Education. Report of the Expert Group appointed by the Department of Secondary Education and Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, 2002. 2. Perry, Katherine A. Where are library consortia going? : Results of a 2009 survey. Serials – 22(2), July 2009. pp. 3. Arora, Jagdish & Trivedi, Kruti. INDEST-AICTE Consortium: Present Services and Future Endeavours. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 30 (2), March 2010, pp. 79-91 4. Arora, Jagdish & Agarwal, Pawan. In Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST) Consortium: Consortia-based subscription to electronic resources for technical education system in India, edited by S.M. Salgar, et al. In Proceedings of CALIBER 2003, Ahmedabad, 2003. pp. 271-90. 5. Arora, Jagdish. Managing electronic resources through consortia: An overview. In Library and Information Networking: NACLIN 2005, edited by H.K. Kaul & Gayathri Sen. Proceedings of the National Convention on Library and Information Networking held at PES Institute of Technology, Bangalore, 2005, DELNET, New Delhi. pp. 144-71. 6. INDEST-AICTE Consortium. INDEST Consortium Annual Report, April 2012 to March 2013. INDEST Consortium, New Delhi, 2013. 7. Sahoo, Bibhuti Bhusan and Agarwal, G.P. INDEST-AICTE Consortium: A decade of service for engineering, science and technology community of the country. Annals of Library and Information Studies (ALIS) 59 (3), 2012, pp.170-180 Websites VisitedWebsites VisitedWebsites VisitedWebsites Visited:::: 1. http://paniit.iitd.ac.in/indest/ (accessed on 13 February 2014) 2. http://www.inflibnet.ac.in/econ/ (accessed on 13 February 2014) 3. http://www.nmlermed.in/ (accessed on 13 February 2014) 4. http://delcon.gov.in/index.htm (accessed on 13 February 2014) 5. http://mcitconsortium.nic.in/ (accessed on 13 February 2014) 6. http://www.nmlermed.in/main.htm/(accessed on 13 February 2014) 7. http://nkrc.niscair.res.in/indexpage.php (accessed on 13 February 2014)
  • 56. 45 8. http://dsl.drdo.gov.in/ejournals/index.htm (accessed on 13 February 2014) 9. http://www.worlib.org/vol09no1/kar_v09n1.shtml (accessed on 13 February 2014) 10. http://www.malibnetonline.com/ (accessed on 13 February 2014) 11. http://delnet.nic.in/index.htm (accessed on 13 February 2014) 12. http://www.envis.nic.in/about.html (accessed on 13 February 2014) 13. http://www.btisnet.gov.in/ (accessed on 13 February 2014) 14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_consortium (accessed on 13 February 2014)
  • 57. 46 RESEARCH OUTPUT OF CRESEARCH OUTPUT OF CRESEARCH OUTPUT OF CRESEARCH OUTPUT OF CORE MEMBERS OF INDESORE MEMBERS OF INDESORE MEMBERS OF INDESORE MEMBERS OF INDESTTTT----AICTE CONSORTIUM:AICTE CONSORTIUM:AICTE CONSORTIUM:AICTE CONSORTIUM: A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYA BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYA BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYA BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS (2009SIS (2009SIS (2009SIS (2009----2013)2013)2013)2013) Dr. Neeraj Kumar Chaurasia Deputy Librarian Central Library Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 Email: neerajchaurasia.iit@gmail.com, & Mr. Shankar B. Chavan Assistant Librarian Central Library Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 Email: shankaraochavan@gmail.com AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract:::: Highlighting the various output pattern of Core members of INDEST-AICTE Consortium (07 Old IITs), the study portraits the usage of a number of facets of bibliometrics with the data collected. The study describes the growth, contribution and impact of research carried out by the faculty members and researchers of IITs. It also attempts to analyze the growth and development of research activity of IITs as reflected in publications output covered and indexed by in Scopus (officially known as Sciverse Scopus) during last five years 2009 to 2013. It also identifies the annual growth of IITs publication, author productivity, most prolific contributor, prolific institution/ organization, geographical distribution etc. 1.1.1.1. IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction:::: The generation and transmission of knowledge through research has long been recognized as an essential requirement for a country's long-term growth and competitiveness as well as for creating capacity to solve social problems1. The quality and number of published research articles are regarded as a measure of success of individual scientists, researchers, academic institutes and the scientific establishment in general. Scientists and researchers, therefore, publish results of their work in the form of re- search articles in prestigious journals. In qualitative terms, accessibility and availability of print and e-resources impact quality of teaching and research, publications, etc. In quantitative terms, the research output of an institute can be measured in terms of the number of research articles published in high-impact journals, citations received by them, number of patents, number and amount of research grants and consultancies, number of research reports, number of honours and awards to faculty and researchers, number of research students and their placements, etc. Quantitative data for all the parameters mentioned above are difficult to get; however, the number of publications and citations received can be obtained and put to use most effectively to measure research output of an institute, which, in turn, reflects the impact of resouces available to individuals, researchers and the institutes at large. The research output of universities, institutes of higher learning, technical institutes and R&D
  • 58. 47 institutes in India, in terms of research articles published by them, has increased substantially in the past few years essentially because of increased access to scholarly content made possible through consortia initiatives such as INDEST- AICTE Consortium, UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, National Knowledge Resource Consortium and DAE Consortium. The word 'bibliometrics' constitutes one of the major thrust areas of research in the field of library and information science. Bibliometric analysis is currently used for evaluating the qualitative and quantitative research growth in a specific field through the analysis of publications. The term statistical bibliography was first employed by E.W. Hulme in 1923, to refer to the application of quantitative techniques to libraries.1The word bibliometrics appeared in print in 1969 in Alan Pitchard's article statistical bibliography or bibliometrics in the December issue of the Journal of Documentation. It flourished in early 20th century with the works of Lotka, Bradford and Zipf who observed distribution pattern in word frequency, author and journal productivity. Bibliometric methods have been used in Eastern Europe countries to monitor science and scientists. The field of bibliometrics has produced major information scientists such as B.C. Brookers and H. Egghe.2 Bibliometrics refers to research methodology employed in library and information sciences, which utilizes quantitative analysis and statistics methods to describe distribution patterns of articles with a given topic, field, institute or country. These methods have been used to investigate research trends of specific fields recently.3 The present study is a bibliometric assessment of scientific research output of Core members of INDEST-AICTE Consortium (07 Old IITs) during last five years 2009 to 2013. Initially, five IITs were established at Kharagpur (1951), Bombay (1958), Madras (1959), Kanpur (1960) and Delhi (1961). A sixth IIT was established in 1995 at Guwahati only after a gap of three decades. The Engineering College at Roorkee was first made a University and then became the seventh IIT (2001). The study analyse the growth, contribution and impact of research carried out by the faculty members and researchers of these IITs. It also attempts to analyze the growth and development of research activity of IIT Delhi as reflected in publications output. 2.2.2.2. RRRReview of literature:eview of literature:eview of literature:eview of literature: A number of quantitative studies based on bibliometric/scientometric techniques have been reported to evaluate the research productivity of individuals, institutions, countries, etc. Studies are also available to analyse the factors of productivity and impact of research conducted in various countries. These studies are very much helpful to assess the development of science as well as in their application to library and information resource management also: Kaushik4 studied various bibliometric aspects of the scientific contributions of the researchers and faculty of National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal published during 2001-2011. Chandra, Arya5 identified the authorship pattern and collaborative research trends in the field of Veterinary Medicine based on the data collected from Indian journal of Veterinary Medicine. Jeyshankar and others6 attempted bibliographical details of 1282 research articles published by the scientists of CECRI during the period 2000-2009. It was found that 2009 was the most productive year with 194 articles and collaborative research was dominant in the year 2005. Sudhier and Abhila7 analyzed the research productivity of social scientists at the Centre for Development Studies (CDS), Thiruvananthapuram during 1998-2008. There were 599 research papers published during the period, including 38.23% journal articles and 15.03% working papers. More than 66% journal articles were published in Indian journals. Sahu and others8analysed R & D publication growth and its characteristics with reference to the National
  • 59. 48 Metallurgical Laboratory, an R & D institution under CSIR based on data obtained from the Science Citation Index. Nandi and others9 studied research productivity in Zoology by analysing 719 articles submitted by the scholars of the Zoology Department of the University of Burdwan. Bala and others10 in their study attempted to analyse the research profile of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology research in India during 1998-2007. Bhatia11 analyzed quantitatively the research publications published by the scientists of National Institute of Occupational Health (ICMR) Ahmedabad, India during 2002-2006. Okafor and Dike12 analyzed the research output of academics in the science and engineering faculties of Federal Government-owned universities in Nigeria. Mahbuba and others13 did a scientometric comparison between two health and population research organizations, namely the International Centre for Diarrheal Research in Bangladesh (ICDDR) and National Institute of Cholera And Enteric Diseases (NICED) in India during the period 1979 – 2008. Sudhier14 in his scientometric study analysed the publications of physics researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru. Girap and others15 in their scientometric study analysed the publications of Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. There were 704 papers published during 1986-2006 scattered in diverse domains. The average number of publications per year was 33.52. Scientometric analysis of 67 theses and 610 articles (based on theses submitted by the scholars during 1960-2000 in the Dept. of Physics at the University of Burdwan) scattered in 8 subdivisions of Physics were analysed by Nandi and others16. Maheswaran and others17 conducted a study based on the research publications generated by Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC) during the years 2002-2006. A bibliometric study of research publication trend among scientists of Central Potato Research was studied by Sharma18. A total of 2603 research articles published by the scientists of CPRI during 1991 to 2007 were collected by scanning of annual reports and Journal of the Indian Potato Association. Bala and Gupta19 studied growth and impact of research output of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Kumbar and others20 described the growth, contribution and impact of research carried out by the scientists of University of Mysore in S & T. Mukherjee21 analyzed the authorship pattern of scientific productions of the four most productive Indian academic institutions for the eight year period from 2000 to 2007. Sevukan and Sharma22 in their bibliometric analysis studied the research output of biotechnology faculties in some Indian central universities. Jeevan and Sen23 conducted a study based on the journal publications generated by the Inter University Accelerator Centre, and the Accelerator Group at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) during 1997-1999. The data was collected from the annual reports and the impact was examined using data from SCI. Out of the three specializations in NSC, material science was more productive in terms of publication whereas higher percentage qualitative papers originated from nuclear physics. Radiation biology had a very nominal presence. Dhawan and Gupta24 studied the institutional performance, based on publications output of physics research from India. Scientometric analysis of 1044 papers published by the scientists of Radiochemistry division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) during 1958-2005 in diverse domains were conducted by Kademani and others25. The highest number of 64 publications was produced in 2005 and the average number of publication per year was 21.75. Several studies have been reported in the area of scientometrics on institutional productivity, particularly in the Indian context and a few of them were: Angadi and others26 on the Tata Institute of Social
  • 60. 49 Sciences during 2001-2004, Kademani and others27 on the Analytical Chemistry Division of BARC during 1972–2003. Kademani and others 28 in the Bio-organic division of BARC, Mehta29 on National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune, Gopikuttan30in his scientometric study dealt with the research output in terms of journal articles, reports, books etc produced by the teachers of Science Departments, Faculty of Science, University of Kerala between 1980 and 1999 (20 Years). Jeevan and Gupta31in their scientometric study analysed the research profile of IIT, Kharagpur. Gupta and others32 on the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) and Garg and Rao33made a scientometric analysis of the publication data of the scientists of an Indian Physics laboratory (New Delhi). Authors found that the scientists preferred to publish their communications in foreign journals included in the SCI. 2.2.2.2. OOOObjective of the study:bjective of the study:bjective of the study:bjective of the study: The present study has been undertaken with the objectives of analyzing the following aspects: a) To visualize the overall Research output of IITs; b) To outline the year-wise distribution of publications; c) To find out most prolific authors during the period; d) To identify the Journals which were most preferred by the researchers; e) To find the global collaboration of research activities. 3.3.3.3. DDDDesignesignesignesign/ M/ M/ M/ Methodethodethodethodologyologyologyology/ A/ A/ A/ Approach:pproach:pproach:pproach: The present study covers research publications of various departments/centres of IITs during the year 2009 to 2013. The data was collected by searching online database Scopus. The papers were analyzed according to their year-wise publication, document type, Source title, authors productivity, geographical distribution of collaborative research papers etc. 4.4.4.4. Research limitationsResearch limitationsResearch limitationsResearch limitations/ I/ I/ I/ Implication:mplication:mplication:mplication: The present study has limitation by geographical area i.e. it covers only Core members of INDEST-AICTE Consortium(7 old IITs) and by time i.e. it covers only the research papers which were indexed during last five year 2009 to 2013. 5.5.5.5. DDDData analysis and discussion:ata analysis and discussion:ata analysis and discussion:ata analysis and discussion: The data was recorded, analysed and interpreted as follows: PUBLICATIONS OF IITs IN TERMS OF AFFILIATIONS Table -1 depicts a picture of overall documents produced by all IITs during the period of last five year (2009-2013). It has been observed that a total 39880 documents has been produced by all IITs. Out of which IIT-Kharagpur produces the highest number of publications with 7893 followed by IIT-Delhi with 7113, IIT- Madras with 6279, IIT-Bombay with 6139 and IIT-Kanpur with 5133 documents. IIT-Roorkee stands at fifth position. Furthermore, the least output comes from IIT- Guwahati with 3311 documents.
  • 61. 50 Table-1 : Contribution of faculty members and research scholars in terms of affiliations S.No.S.No.S.No.S.No. Name of InstituteName of InstituteName of InstituteName of Institute PublicationsPublicationsPublicationsPublications 1 Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur(IITKgp) 7893 2 Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi(IITD) 7113 3 Indian Institute of Technology, Madras(IITM) 6279 4 Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay(IITB) 6139 5 Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur(IITK) 5133 6 Indian Institute of Technology,Roorkee(IITR) 4845 7 Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati(IITG) 3311 Total 39880 6.6.6.6. Institute wiseInstitute wiseInstitute wiseInstitute wise contribution of facultycontribution of facultycontribution of facultycontribution of faculty members and research scholars:members and research scholars:members and research scholars:members and research scholars: The Table-2 and figure-2 illustrates the yearly allocation of publications of IITs under study. It provides the year wise output of individual institutions. It is found that the most productive year in the term of publication count is 2013 with highest number of 39880 publications. Table-3 shows the Year wise Publications and annual growth in publications during period of study publications output rose continuously growing in case of all IITs. TableTableTableTable----2: Institute wise contribution of faculty members and re2: Institute wise contribution of faculty members and re2: Institute wise contribution of faculty members and re2: Institute wise contribution of faculty members and research scholarssearch scholarssearch scholarssearch scholars S.NoS.NoS.NoS.No .... Name of InstituteName of InstituteName of InstituteName of Institute Number of PublicationsNumber of PublicationsNumber of PublicationsNumber of Publications 2009200920092009 2010201020102010 2011201120112011 2012201220122012 2013201320132013 TotalTotalTotalTotal PublicatiPublicatiPublicatiPublicationononon (%)(%)(%)(%) 1 Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur(IITKgp) 1488 1582 1547 1623 1653 7893 19.79 2 Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi(IITD) 1189 1409 1439 1515 1561 7113 17.84 3 Indian Institute of Technology, Madras(IITM) 1059 1250 1345 1320 1305 6279 15.74 4 Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay(IITB) 1016 1112 1259 1297 1455 6139 15.39 5 Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur(IITK) 976 983 1040 1054 1080 5133 12.87 6 Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (IITR) 769 843 993 1154 1086 4845 12.15 7 Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (IITG) 474 569 724 740 804 3311 8.30 Total 6821 7602 8179 8512 8766 39880 100.00
  • 62. 7.7.7.7. YearYearYearYear----wise distribution of publications:wise distribution of publications:wise distribution of publications:wise distribution of publications: Table-3 and figure-3 depicts the year 39880 publications, maximum number of by 2012(21.34%); 2011(20.51%); 2010(19.06%); 2009(17.10%) respectively. articles per year is 486.25 with Annual average growth rate of 6.52% SlSlSlSl NoNoNoNo YearYearYearYear Number ofNumber ofNumber ofNumber of PublicationsPublicationsPublicationsPublications 1 2009 2 2010 3 2011 4 2012 5 2013 Total IIT, Guwahati (3311) IIT, Roorkee (4845) IIT, Kanpur (5133) IIT, Bombay (6139) IIT, Madras (6279) IIT, Delhi (7113) IIT, Kharagpur (7893) Institute Wise Publications Figure: 2Figure: 2Figure: 2Figure: 2 wise distribution of publications:wise distribution of publications:wise distribution of publications:wise distribution of publications: 3 depicts the year-wise distribution of publications. It reveal that out of total 39880 publications, maximum number of 8766 (21.98%) papers are published in 2013; followed by 2012(21.34%); 2011(20.51%); 2010(19.06%); 2009(17.10%) respectively. articles per year is 486.25 with Annual average growth rate of 6.52%.... % of% of% of% of PublicaPublicaPublicaPublicationstionstionstions Increase inIncrease inIncrease inIncrease in PublicationsPublicationsPublicationsPublications 6821 17.10 7602 19.06 781 8179 20.51 577 8512 21.34 333 8766 21.98 254 39880 100.00 486.25 (Average) Institute Wise Publications 51 wise distribution of publications. It reveal that out of total (21.98%) papers are published in 2013; followed by 2012(21.34%); 2011(20.51%); 2010(19.06%); 2009(17.10%) respectively. Average growth in Increase in %Increase in %Increase in %Increase in % 781 11.45 577 7.59 333 4.07 254 2.98 486.25 (Average) 6.52 (Average) 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  • 63. 8.8.8.8. DocumentDocumentDocumentDocument type distributiontype distributiontype distributiontype distribution The Table-4 and figure-4 demonstrate the distribution of publication in terms of documents types. The articles were found the most used document type with followed by Conference papers with 10509 (26.35%) documen Article in Press with 359, Book Chapter with 224, Editori with 99, Letter with 81 and Book with 37.The least used document type was Short Survey with 17 documents only. Sl NoSl NoSl NoSl No Document TypeDocument TypeDocument TypeDocument Type 1 Article 2 Conference Paper 3 Review 4 Article in Press 5 Book Chapter 6 Editorial 7 Erratum 8 Note 9 Letter 10 Book 11 Short Survey Total 2009 2010 6821 7602 Figure : 2Figure : 2Figure : 2Figure : 2 type distributiontype distributiontype distributiontype distribution:::: 4 demonstrate the distribution of publication in terms of documents types. The articles were found the most used document type with 27368(68.63%) documents followed by Conference papers with 10509 (26.35%) documents, Review with 850(2.30%), Article in Press with 359, Book Chapter with 224, Editorial with 211, Erratum with 125, with 99, Letter with 81 and Book with 37.The least used document type was Short Survey with TableTableTableTable----4 : Document type4 : Document type4 : Document type4 : Document type distributiondistributiondistributiondistribution Document TypeDocument TypeDocument TypeDocument Type No. of PublicationsNo. of PublicationsNo. of PublicationsNo. of Publications 27368 Conference Paper 10509 850 Article in Press 359 Book Chapter 224 211 125 99 81 37 Short Survey 17 39880 2010 2011 2012 7602 8179 8512 Year Wise Publications 52 4 demonstrate the distribution of publication in terms of documents 27368(68.63%) documents ts, Review with 850(2.30%), al with 211, Erratum with 125, Note with 99, Letter with 81 and Book with 37.The least used document type was Short Survey with %%%% 68.63 26.35 2.13 0.90 0.56 0.53 0.31 0.25 0.20 0.09 0.04 100.00 2013 8766
  • 64. 9.9.9.9. SubjectSubjectSubjectSubject----wise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publications The subject-wise rank distribution of publication is listed in Table 'Engineering' is the most favoured area of research among the research community of IITs with 15304 (38.38%) publications; followed by Physics and Astronomy with publications, Materials Science with 9363(23.48%) 8367(20.98%) publications and Chemistry at the fifth position with 7077(17.75%) publications and so on. The weakest subject area found to be TableTableTableTable Sl No.Sl No.Sl No.Sl No. SubjectSubjectSubjectSubject 1 Engineering 2 Physics and Astronomy 3 Materials Science 4 Computer Science 5 Chemistry 6 Chemical Engineering 7 Mathematics 8 Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 Energy 10 Environmental Science 11 Earth and Planetary Sciences Article 69% wise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publications:::: wise rank distribution of publication is listed in Table-7, which represents that 'Engineering' is the most favoured area of research among the research community of IITs with (38.38%) publications; followed by Physics and Astronomy with Materials Science with 9363(23.48%) publications, Computer Science with .98%) publications and Chemistry at the fifth position with 7077(17.75%) publications and so on. The weakest subject area found to be Veterinary with only 10 publications. TableTableTableTable----7: Subject7: Subject7: Subject7: Subject----wise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publicationswise distribution of publications SubjectSubjectSubjectSubject No. ofNo. ofNo. ofNo. of PublicationsPublicationsPublicationsPublications 15304 Physics and Astronomy 9478 9363 8367 7077 Chemical Engineering 4270 4100 Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular 2905 2686 Environmental Science 2583 Earth and Planetary Sciences 1976 Conference Paper 26% Review 2% Article in Press 1% Book Chapter 1% Editorial 1% Erratum 0% Other 1% Document Type 53 7, which represents that 'Engineering' is the most favoured area of research among the research community of IITs with (38.38%) publications; followed by Physics and Astronomy with 9478(23.77%) , Computer Science with .98%) publications and Chemistry at the fifth position with 7077(17.75%) publications only 10 publications. %%%% 15304 38.38 9478 23.77 9363 23.48 8367 20.98 7077 17.75 4270 10.71 4100 10.28 2905 7.28 2686 6.74 2583 6.48 1976 4.95 Article in Press 1% Note 0% Letter 0% Book 0%Short Survey 0%
  • 65. 54 12 Medicine 1302 3.26 13 Social Sciences 1252 3.14 14 Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1141 2.86 15 Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics 791 1.98 16 Business, Management and Accounting 754 1.89 17 Decision Sciences 622 1.56 18 Immunology and Microbiology 486 1.22 19 Multidisciplinary 376 0.94 20 Arts and Humanities 194 0.49 21 Economics, Econometrics and Finance 165 0.41 22 Health Professions 116 0.29 23 Neuroscience 106 0.27 24 Psychology 64 0.16 25 Nursing 34 0.09 26 Dentistry 15 0.04 27 Veterinary 10 0.03 Total 39880 100 10.10.10.10. Source titles in terms of number of publications:Source titles in terms of number of publications:Source titles in terms of number of publications:Source titles in terms of number of publications: Table-8 presents a list of top 25 ranking Source titles with their total no. of publications where the faculty and researchers of IITs published their work. The list shows the source title up to 25ranks which are proved in this investigation. It is found that the 'Lecture Notes in Computer Science Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics' gets the highest no. of publications to be published with 636 titles in its share followed by 'AIP Conference Proceedings' with 444 titles in its envelop and so on. TableTableTableTable----8: Top 25 Source titles in terms of number of publications8: Top 25 Source titles in terms of number of publications8: Top 25 Source titles in terms of number of publications8: Top 25 Source titles in terms of number of publications S.No.S.No.S.No.S.No. Source TitleSource TitleSource TitleSource Title TotalTotalTotalTotal Number ofNumber ofNumber ofNumber of PublicationsPublicationsPublicationsPublications RankRankRankRank 1 Lecture Notes in Computer Science Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 636 1 2 AIP Conference Proceedings 444 2 3 Journal of Applied Physics 360 3 4 Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 229 4
  • 66. 55 5 Physical Review D Particles Fields Gravitation and Cosmology 225 5 6 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 209 6 7 Communications in Computer and Information Science 204 7 8 Applied Physics Letters 193 8 9 International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 189 9 10 Tetrahedron Letters 185 10 11 Journal of Alloys and Compounds 180 11 12 Advanced Materials Research 176 12 13 Proceedings of SPIE the International Society for Optical Engineering 153 13 14 Inorganic Chemistry 150 14 15 Dalton Transactions 147 15 16 Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 144 16 17 Journal of Physical Chemistry C 143 17 18 Journal of Organic Chemistry 141 18 19 Journal of Physical Chemistry B 138 19 20 Rsc Advances 135 20 21 Current Science 134 21 22 Materials Science and Engineering A 131 22 23 ACM International Conference Proceeding Series 129 23 24 Physical Review E Statistical Nonlinear and Soft Matter Physics 129 24 25 International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 127 25 11.11.11.11. ProlificProlificProlificProlific Authors in terms of productivity Count:Authors in terms of productivity Count:Authors in terms of productivity Count:Authors in terms of productivity Count: Table-9 shows the ranking of contributors, it gives the list of top 10 prolific authors in terms of productivity count during 2009-2013 and their department affiliations thereof from IITs under the study. The list is ranked in the order of decreasing productivity. It has been observed that Prof. B. Singh, Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Delhi got first rank with 205 publications, followed by Prof. B. Bhuyan, Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati occupying the second rank in the list with 172 publications. Prof. B. K. Panigrahi, Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Delhi and Prof. B.K. Nandi, Department of Physics, IIT, Bombay and Prof. R. Verma, Department of Physics, IIT, Bombay at third and fourth position in the following ranking list. Prof. P. Gupta from Computer Science and Engineering, IIT, Kanpur secured 10th position the list with 112 publications.
  • 67. 56 TableTableTableTable----9 : Top 10 Prolific Authors in terms of productivity Count9 : Top 10 Prolific Authors in terms of productivity Count9 : Top 10 Prolific Authors in terms of productivity Count9 : Top 10 Prolific Authors in terms of productivity Count Sl No.Sl No.Sl No.Sl No. NamNamNamName of thee of thee of thee of the authorauthorauthorauthor No. ofNo. ofNo. ofNo. of PublicationsPublicationsPublicationsPublications AffiliationAffiliationAffiliationAffiliation RankRankRankRank 1 Singh, B. 205 Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Delhi 1 2 Bhuyan, B. 172 Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati 2 3 Panigrahi, B.K. 142 Electrical Engineering, IIT, Delhi 3 4 Nandi, B.K. 141 Department of Physics, IIT, Bombay 4 5 Varma, R. 137 Department of Physics, IIT, Bombay 5 6 Murty, B.S. 120 Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT, Madras 6 7 Gupta, V.K. 118 Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee 7 8 Pradeep, T. 117 Department of Chemistry, IIT, Madras 8 9 Sharma, A. 116 Center for Nanosciences, IIT, Kanpur 9 10 Gupta, P. 112 Computer Science and Engineering, IIT, Kanpur 10 12.12.12.12. Geographical Distribution of Top 25 Collaborated:Geographical Distribution of Top 25 Collaborated:Geographical Distribution of Top 25 Collaborated:Geographical Distribution of Top 25 Collaborated: Distribution of research output by geographical regions illustrates in the Following table the collaboration of other countries with the faculty/researchers of IITs. On the whole 39880 contributors belonging to IITs under the study, the collaborative contributors are from United States with 3117(7.82%) followed by Germany 1331(3.34%) and 963(2.41%) publications with United Kingdom. The minimum number of publications was collaborated with South Africa with 184(0.46%) TableTableTableTable----10: Geographical Distribution of Top 25 Collaborated Countries 200910: Geographical Distribution of Top 25 Collaborated Countries 200910: Geographical Distribution of Top 25 Collaborated Countries 200910: Geographical Distribution of Top 25 Collaborated Countries 2009----2222013013013013 Sl No.Sl No.Sl No.Sl No. CountryCountryCountryCountry No. ofNo. ofNo. ofNo. of PublicationsPublicationsPublicationsPublications %%%% 1 India 39880 100.00 2 United States 3117 7.82 3 Germany 1331 3.34 4 United Kingdom 963 2.41 5 France 787 1.97 6 Canada 750 1.88 7 South Korea 541 1.36 8 Japan 521 1.31
  • 68. 57 9 Australia 488 1.22 10 Italy 454 1.14 11 Spain 403 1.01 12 Russian Federation 398 1.00 13 China 393 0.99 14 Netherlands 333 0.84 15 Switzerland 304 0.76 16 Czech Republic 297 0.74 17 Singapore 279 0.70 18 Poland 269 0.67 19 Norway 259 0.65 20 Sweden 257 0.64 21 Taiwan 220 0.55 22 Brazil 203 0.51 23 Saudi Arabia 203 0.51 24 Malaysia 189 0.47 25 South Africa 184 0.46 13.13.13.13. CCCConclusion:onclusion:onclusion:onclusion: Publication productivity is the measure of the relationship between the output of research and inputs. Evaluating the productivity of an institutional research and development activities highlights the contribution of the institution and the individual scientists engaged in research. It also provides some insights into the complex dynamics of research activity and enables policy makers and administrators to provide adequate facilities and gauge the research activities in a proper direction. Over the years, scientometric and bibliometric techniques have become tools to evaluate the productivity of research institutes and individual researcher, as well as to map the growth of the research area. The popularity in the use of bibliometric techniques in various disciplines stimulated stupendous growth of literature on bibliometric and its related areas. The above study has elucidated the variety of bibliometric measures which can be useful for understanding various aspects.35 Aim of this study was to measure and track the changes in research scenario in recent times in India, so that all are informed and research facilities can be enhanced. The present study is a bibliometric assessment of scientific research output of IITs during the 2009 to 2013. The study analyse the growth, contribution and impact of research carried out by the faculty members and researchers of IITs under the study. It also attempts to analyze the growth and development of research activity of IITs as reflected in publications output. It has been observed that journal articles were found most used document type with 27368(68.63%) documents followed by Conference papers with 10509 and Review with 850
  • 69. 58 documents during the period under study. In addition, there seems an increasing trend in research output which increasing significantly year after year. The output of Engineering was found to be larger than other subjects, which was followed by Physics and Astronomy and Material Science and Computer Science. 'Lecture Notes in Computer Science Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics' comes out to be the most widely used source title for the faculty to publish their research work. The faculty of IITs prefer mostly foreign journals to publish their articles. The foreign journals contribute the highest number of articles. Among the other countries, which are collaborating with IITs, it has been observed that USA is high collaborative link with IITs. It could be observed that the number of collaborative nature of research is upward also the result of this type of study would be appeared to be great ambience in pursuing the research in the field of engineering sciences and technology. The research output of faculty members of IITs shows substantial growth both quantitatively and qualitatively with the development of the institution. RRRReferences:eferences:eferences:eferences: 1. Hulme, E W,Statistical bibliography in relation to the growth of modern civilization. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 196(2) (1923) 276-277. 2. Thanuskodi, S, Bibliometric analysis of Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. International Journal of Information Dissemination and Technology, 2(3)(2012) 170-175 3. Pritchard, A. Statistical bibliography or bibliometrics. Journal of Documentation, 4(1969) 338-349. 4. Kaushik S K, Research contributions on national Dairy Research Institute, Karnal: A scientometric study. In: Devika P Madalli, Saiful Amin, AnilaSulochana (eds.), International conference on trends in Knowledge and Information Dynamics, 10-13 July, 2012, , DRTC-ISI, Bangalore, 170-178. 5. Chandra, A, Authorship trends and collaborative research trend in the field of Veterinary Medicine, International Journal of Information Dissemination and Technology, 2(1) (2012) 50-53. 6. Jeyshankar R, Ramesh Babu B and Rajendran P, Research output of CSIR- Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI): A Study, Annals of Library and Information Studies, 58 (4) (2011) 301-306. 7. Sudhier K G and Abhila I S, Publication Productivity of Social Scientists in the Centre for Development Studies. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Caliber-2011, Goa University, Goa, March 02-04. INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad. p 661-678. 8. Sahu A K, Goswami N G and Choudhary B K, Research publications of National Metallurgical Laboratory during the year 2001-2010- A study on citation pattern, Annals of Library and Information Studies, 58 (2) (2011) 151-160. 9. Nandi, A and Bandyopadhyay, A K, Zoological research contributions of the University of Burdwan in West Bengal: An analytical study, SRELS Journal of Information Management, 47(2) (2010) 229-244. 10. Bala, A and Gupta, B M, Research activities in Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology during 1998-2007 in India: A scientometric analysis, DESIDOC Journal of Library &Information Technology, 30(1) (2010) 3-14.
  • 70. 59 11. Bhatia K, Innovations publications productivity of National Institute of Occupational Health: A scientometric study, SRELS Journal of Information Management, 47(2) (2010) 219-227. 12. Okafor V N and Dike V W, Research Output of Academics in the Science and Engineering Faculties of Federal Universities in Southern Nigeria, African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science, 20(1) (2010) 212-218. 13. Mahbuba D, Rousseau R and Srivastava D, A scientometric analysis of health and population research in south Asia: Focus on two research organizations, Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science, 15(3) (2010) 135-147. 14. Sudhier K G, Publication productivity of physics researchers of Indian Institute of Science: A scientometric study. In: S. HumayoonKabir and K. G. Sudhier (eds), Confetti thoughts on Library and Information studies: Essays in honour of Prof. (Dr). C. V. RajanPillai. 2010. Authors Press, New Delhi. p351-362 15. Girap P, Surwase G, Sagar Al and Kademani B S, Publication productivity of the Technical physics and Prototype Engineering Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, DESIDOC Journal of Library and Information Technology, 29 (2) (2009) 39-54. 16. Nandi, A and Bandyopadhyay, A K, Contribution in Physics research: An analytical study with special reference to the University of Burdwan, West Bengal, IASLIC Bulletin, 54(3) (2009) 131-146. 17. Maheswaranan S, Kumar R D S and Sridharan K R, Scientometric analysis of area-wise publications in the field of structural engineering: A case study of SERC, India, Annals of Library and Information Studies, 56(1) (2009) 22-28. 18. Sharma R M, Research publication trend among scientists of Central Potato Research Institute: A bibliometric study, Annals of Library and Information Studies, 56(1) (2009) 29-34. 19. Bala A and Gupta B M, Growth and impact of research output of Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh: A case study, Annals of Library and Information Studies, 56(2) (2009) 86-94. 20. Kumbar, M, Gupta B M and Dhawan S M, Growth and impact of research output of University of Mysore, 1996- 2006: A case study, Annals of Library and Information Studies, 55(3) (2008)185- 195. 21. Mukherjee B, Scholarly literature from selected universities of Delhi and Uttar Pradesh: A pilot study, LIBRES: Library and Information Science Research Electronic Journal, 18(1) (2008). 22. Sevukan R and Sharma J, Bibliometric analysis of research output of Biotechnology faculties in some Indian Central universities, DESIDOC Journal of Library &Information Technology, 28 (6) (2008) 11-20. 23. Jeevan V K J and Sen B K, A scientometric analysis of publications on accelerator-based research from nuclear science centre and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India, Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science, 12(2) (2007) 89-97.
  • 71. 60 24. Dhawan S M and Gupta B M, Physics research in India: A study of institutional performance based on publications output, DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology, 27 (1) (2007) 55-67. 25. Kademani B S, Gaderao C R, Surwase G, Sanhotra A B, Kumar Anil and Kumar V, Scientometric profile and publication productivity of the radiochemistry division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, SRELS Journal of Information Management, 44(2) (2007) 99-124. 26. Angadi M, Koganuramath M M, Kademani B S and Kumbar B D Publication productivity of Tata Institute of Social Sciences: A Scientometric study, SRELS Journal of Information Management, 43 (4), (2006) 363-374. 27. Kademani B S, Kumar V, Mohan L, Sagar A, Kumar Anil, Gaderao C R and Surwase G, Scientometric dimensions and publication productivity of the analytical chemistry division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, SRELS Journal of Information Management, 43(1) (2006) 5-20. 28. Kademani B S, Kumar V, Kumar A, Sagar A, Mohan L, Surwase G and Gaderao C, Publication productivity of the Bio-Organic division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre: A scientometric study, Annals of Library and Information Studies, 52(4) (2005) 135-146. 29. Mehta N, Measuring organizational productivity: A study at NCL, Current Science, 2(25) (2005) 223- 230. 30. Gopikuttan A, Scholarly publication pattern in Science: A case study of University of Kerala, Kelpro Bulletin, 8(1&2) (2004) 21-24. 31. Jeevan V K J and Gupta B M, A scientometric profile of research output from IIT, Kharagpur, Scientometrics, 53(1) (2002) 165-168. 32. Gupta B M, Kumar Suresh, Khanna H K and Amla T K, Impact of professional and chronological age on the productivity of scientists in engineering science laboratories of CSIR, Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science, 4(1) (1999) 103-107. 33. Garg K C and Rao M K D, Bibliometric analysis of scientific productivity: a case study of Indian Physics laboratory, Scientometrics, 13 (3) (1998) 261-268. 34. Khaparde V. Use of Information by Library Science Professionals: A Bibliometric Study. British Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1 (2)(2011). 35. Ramkrishnan, J. and Babu, B.R. Literature on hepatitis (1984-2003): A bibliometric analysis. Annals of Library and Information Studies, 54(2007) 195-200.
  • 72. 61 MANAGING CHANGE: LIBRARIES, TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONMANAGING CHANGE: LIBRARIES, TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONMANAGING CHANGE: LIBRARIES, TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONMANAGING CHANGE: LIBRARIES, TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATION K. Rama Patnaik Librarian Indian Institute of Management Visiting fellow, Council for Social Development, Hyderabad. Bannerghatta Road Bangalore - 560076 Email: rama.patnaik@iimb.ernet.in “There is nothing permanent as change[1]”“There is nothing permanent as change[1]”“There is nothing permanent as change[1]”“There is nothing permanent as change[1]” Change and innovation interrelate to each other. Change is ubiquitous and continuous in everyday life both in office and at work. People, process, organization and governance are all amenable to change. Some people accept change and prepare proactively, while others adapt in a slow and responsive way. We manage change brought about by new ideas and thoughts in order to innovate as a part of the change process itself. Libraries in the last two decades have witnessed overwhelming changes in terms of evolving technologies, user behaviour, alternate models of scholarly communications and the all pervasive Internet as an information provider resulting in the dilution of libraries as one of the key players in the scholarly communication system. The most predominant among these is the integration of technologies with information. Academic and research libraries serving academic communities have been forced to embrace new paradigms in information access, delivery, referencing, instructional training in order to meet changing needs of their patrons. The adoption of social networking tools in Library 2.0 is considered technological marvels or are they passing clouds? Some Libraries wait and watch for these innovative services to stabilize before extending support, even though libraries know that ignoring social media just will not make them go away, patrons would continue to use it for both personal and scholarly purposes. The use of social media and its potentialities are widely exploited by the business world to engage with existing as well as potential customers. As per the latest Forrester report by 2013, eighty percent of world business will support a workforce using tablets. The desire to be connected and use of social media, mobile devices and Internet are so ingrained in younger generation that organizations are creating a culture to support this environment; therefore, Libraries will have to be prepared to serve this generation of patrons. As per Forrestor report, India will be the third largest internet user base by 2013 - with China and the US taking the first two spots, respectively Secondly, availability of scholarly information in digital format and associated technologies in retrieval * discovery services * federated search service * Journal Finder * link resolver * remote access etc has aroused enormous excitement among the new generation of scholarly communities. To cope with concurrent expectations, library professionals especially those dealing with electronic collection have embraced these paradigms and forced to experiment with organization structure, technology decisions and dissemination. Acquisition and subscription of digital content often governed by contract laws have diluted the fair use doctrine and dissemination is restricted by stringent terms and conditions. However, strategies pertaining to these processes would be influenced by research of publishing landscape, legal and business environment, especially intellectual property rights and copyright laws.
  • 73. 62 These changes have not only influence the virtual spaces of interaction, but many libraries across the globe have transformed their physical spaces into “learning spaces” by integrating technologies into reading space. ‘Learning commons’ is a commonplace in many libraries, which facilitates group learning displacing the clichéd silent zones within the library Librarians are inherently conservative and diffident in experimenting with innovative services. New ideas always involve an element of risk and when, organizations are averse to extend patronage in terms of resources, status quo persists. However, without interdisciplinary team research integration of technology would result in an environment replete with complexities. Libraries should continually find ways to work more as a community and less as an isolated organization Technology is so deeply embedded into these responsibilities, that many libraries, which have ventured into implementing disparate technological components, are finding it difficult to manage thus resulting in an environment that often fail to inter-operate with each other effectively[1]. The three tenets of information science – retrieval, relevance and interaction warrant an inter disciplinary research to discover “technology sown opportunities” with strong kinship to information science. While Computer scientists, Cognitive scientists and Social Scientists constantly research social behaviour to these technologies, management science, specifically strategic management is a critical enabler that would empower librarians to manage change. To reassert its position as a trusted information provider, librarianship in contemporary times needs to give up its conservatism and adopt a reformist disposition. Change and innovation are deeply related to each other and involves element of risk. Individual and isolated efforts are not resulting in groundbreaking innovations and libraries situated in organizations are unable to get patronage to experiment with new paradigms and reach out to their user communities. Paradoxically, organizations that value experimentation and innovation, librarians are not able to be more open and supportive of innovations elsewhere to help institutions transit to new paradigms. In an era that is challenged by change, competition and economic pressures librarians should find ways to engage in collaborative research and broaden the boundaries for inter disciplinary research to prevent isolation within organizations. Librarians’ expertise would continue to be ignored if they do not adopt change with new players usurping our role in strengthening the learning environment with information artefacts – information, technologies and patrons. ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences 1. Bach, Richard (1995). Jonathan Livingstone Seagull: a story. Harper Collins
  • 74. 63 BEST PRACTICES TO ENHANCE THE USE OFBEST PRACTICES TO ENHANCE THE USE OFBEST PRACTICES TO ENHANCE THE USE OFBEST PRACTICES TO ENHANCE THE USE OF EEEE----RESOURCES IN LIBRARIESRESOURCES IN LIBRARIESRESOURCES IN LIBRARIESRESOURCES IN LIBRARIES Dr. Sunil Kumar Satpathy Dy. Librarian, Central Library National Institute of Technology G.E.Road, Raipur-492010(C.G) E-mail: drsksatpathy@gmail.com AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract:::: Keeping in view the changing demand of the uses, e-resources have become essential for almost all types of libraries. The paper discusses various types of e-resources available in libraries. Explains the best practices by which libraries can maximize the use of e-resources .Concludes with the remarks that libraries need to procure more e-resources as per the demand of users and followed best practices to enhance the use of e-resources in libraries. 1.0 Introduction1.0 Introduction1.0 Introduction1.0 Introduction:::: With the development of new technology, library and information centers have undergone remarkable changes in terms of collection, organization and services.“Further these changes are not a minor changes or addition of new trends as in case of other branches of knowledge but a complete change in terms of organizations, systems and services of libraries. This is better realized in the age of Information Communication Technology (ICT) which has affected every field of our life, more particularly the libraries and Information centers”1During past few years, the global change in ICT has enabled the publication of a large numbers and varieties of electronic resources (e-resources) in all field of knowledge and these resources are occupying major portion of library collection. Keeping in view the changing demand of the uses, e-resources have become essential for almost all types of libraries. But the main problems lie in the proper use of e-resources, since their access depend on various ICT tools and skilled manpower. Hence it should be the prime responsibilities of any library should be to take necessary steps to maximize the use of e- resources. Developing library collection and services for the end users vary from the recent past practices. Accordingly, to meet the end-users demands effectively, libraries need to identify and adopt good practices and benchmarks. This paper attempts to indentify some good practices to be followed by libraries, which will ultimately enhance the value based services and use of e-resources in libraries. 2.02.02.02.0 Types of eTypes of eTypes of eTypes of e----resources in Librariesresources in Librariesresources in Librariesresources in Libraries:::: Generally Electronic resources are the information available in digital form and are accessed through Computers or Internet. In the words of Saye “electronic resources are the information resources that are generated through some electronic medium and made available to a wide range of viewers both on-site and off-site via some electronic transferring machine or Internet.”2The e-resources in libraries may be offline i.e. in the form of CD, DVD etc. which are accessed through computers or online which are accessed via Internet from remote locations. In the opinion of Swain and Panda,” the electronic resources in its ambit include all kinds of digital collections in the form of databases, journals and books, image collections, examination papers,
  • 75. 64 government and official publications, newspapers, patent resources, technical reports, standards, theses/dissertations.”3 Following types of e-resources are normally available in a modern academic library. 2.12.12.12.1.... CD/DVDCD/DVDCD/DVDCD/DVD----ROMs:ROMs:ROMs:ROMs: These are the earlier form of e-resources where information are stored in digital form and are accessed offline by the computer. These e-resources are stored and organized in libraries with the help of Mirror server. Previously the educational study materials, encyclopaedias, dictionaries, e- books, e-databases (abstracting and indexing) etc were available in CD/DVD form. But with the development of online e-resources, the use of this form of e-resources has reduced to some extent. Now also many e-resources are available in offline form such as CD, DVD etc. For example NPTEL course materials developed by 7 old IITs and IISc, Bangalore were available in DVD form in its initial stage. Also many encyclopaedias, dictionaries, books are available in these offline form. 2.2.2.2.2.2.2.2. EEEE----books:books:books:books: E-books are electronic form of books where information are organized in a particular order similar to the print book .Although in the initial stage of e-book development, CD-ROM version of e-books were available where as now almost all e-books are available Online. E-books form an emerging and rapidly changing scholarly platform and are becoming popular day by day. These are similar to print books but are in digital form to be accessed through computer via Internet or down able on a hardware device. According to Lee,”an e-book is a term used to describe a text analogous to a book that is in digital form to be displayed on a computer” 4. The e-books can be read with the help of computers and e-book reader software, which enables to display the e-books on the PCs. According to Rao, “e-books are of following three types such as Web books, Palm books and Electronic ink e-Books. The web books are accessed through the web with the help of Internet and necessary e-book reader software. The three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas is the example of a web book released by web publishing recommended by the International Digital Publishing Forum. Palm book are more portable, don not necessarily require Internet connection and can be read by handheld, battery powered computer such as Palm top. The rocket e-book sold by Nuvo media is an example of Palm book. Electronic ink e- books are currently in development stage in which electronic ink is used to display the content. The ink could be magnetized to show customized content and then reformatted for the next use”5.A large number of e-books are being published now a days by almost all reputed publishers scuh as Elsevier, Wiley, Springer, McGraw Hill, Oxford University Press, Cengage learning etc in all subjects .These e-books have occupied a remarkable portion of library collection in academic libraries more particularly in University and central Government funded libraries such as IITs and NITs libraries. The e-books can be procured directly for the publishers or through vendor or aggregators. Some e-books are also freely available in the Internet. 2.3. E2.3. E2.3. E2.3. E----journals:journals:journals:journals: Journals that are available completely or in part in the Internet are referred as e-journals .Most of the e-journals are online, contains full text of the journals, and available mostly on subscription basis. In libraries e-journals can be available through following ways. - Directly through the publisher. - Through the vendors or subscription agency - Through aggregator.
  • 76. 65 - Through some organization/association which publish open access journals like NISCAIR,DESIDOC. Depending upon the contents and presentation-journals may be full text or non-full text journals. The full text journals contains full paper along with abstract, references etc line its print counterpart. Further the full text journals are available in both print and online or only online. Example-Journals published by Elsevier, Springer, Sage, Taylor & Francis, NISCAIR, Publishing India group etc. Similarly the non full text journals does not contains the full text of all papers of the journals and may contains full text of certain papers and abstract of others like Bulletin of Menninger clinic. Also certain non full text journals contains abstract such as Chemical Abstract and sometimes Table of contents(TOC) only. 2.4.E2.4.E2.4.E2.4.E----databases:databases:databases:databases: E-Dabases are nothing but collections of various types of e-resources mostly on a particular discipline. It may be synonymously termed as “online database”. Wikipedia defines an online database as “a database accessible via a network, now generally the Internet. It differs from a local database, held in a individual computer or its attached storage such as CD”.6 E-database contains different types of e-resources such as e-books, e-journals, conference proceedings, transactions, magazines etc in their respective domain. For example in engineering & technology the databases available are IEL online, Science Direct, ASCE, ASME,ACM etc, in medicine field the databases available are MedIND, MEDLINE, in agriculture the database available are AGRIS,AGRICOLA, in management the databases are Emerald, Ebsco, Proquest etc, in social sciences the databases available are SSRN e-Library, Visindi etc. E-databases may also be full text databases containing full text of the e-resources (Ex-MedIND in the field of biomedicine, IEL online in the field of engineering etc), bibliographic containing only bibliographic information (Ex-Inspec, the leading bibliographic database in the field of science, engineering and technology; Pubmed, the citation database for biomedical literature, IndMED, the bibliographic database of Indian biomedical literatures), non-full text contains abstract of the e-resources, ( Chemical Abstract, LISA) contains in the database. The databases can be procured by the following ways • through consortia • through publishers directly • through vendors/aggregator 2.5.E2.5.E2.5.E2.5.E----theses and dissertations:theses and dissertations:theses and dissertations:theses and dissertations: Previously it was a herculean task for libraries to store theses and dissertations in the libraries which is an important resource for libraries since it contains original research work of scholars. With the development of technology, over past few years these resources are being digitized and stored in libraries in electronic form. Various controlling bodies of academic institutions such as U.G.C, AICTE, MHRD etc have made it mandatory to submit electronic version of thesis/dissertations along with the print version. This has made easy the storage and maintenance work of libraries .Now a days with the help of various open sources software such as GSDL, Dspace many libraries have developed their Electronic Thesis and Dissertation (ETD) collections through Digital library or Institutional Repositories.
  • 77. 66 2.6.2.6.2.6.2.6. EEEE----newsnewsnewsnewspapers:papers:papers:papers: Keeping pace with the changing IT age, now a day almost all national and state level daily newspapers have gone online along with its print version. Accordingly many modern libraries have started to subscribe online news papers which have been appreciated by the users. Some IT firms have also developed news papers kiosks by which libraries can access full text of a large number of news papers of various countries and languages. For example, the Newspaper Direct, the world’s largest online newspaper and magazine kiosk, where one can access more than 1700+ Publications from 95 Countries in 51 Languages .One can also browse his/her favourite newspapers, search or monitor the news for specific articles of interest, listen to a newspaper, share stories with friends through email or your blog or take it on the road, PressDisplay.com brings it altogether in a website. 2.7.2.7.2.7.2.7. EEEE----clipping:clipping:clipping:clipping: E- clipping of newspapers has been an important e-resource for libraries over past few years. Numbers of libraries are accommodating these e-resources in their collections with the availability of more and more newspapers through online. The main purpose of e-clipping is to provide a record of news published on particular subjects/aspects in various newspapers over a period of time. The news items are either scanned form the print versions or directly taking from the electronic version and are organized in a suitable manner for its easy access by the users. 2.8.E2.8.E2.8.E2.8.E----reports:reports:reports:reports: With the development of ICT and its use in every field of work, the various types of reports such as commission report, committee reports, research project reports, lecturers series, report of various activities of libraries/parent organization etc are being stored in electronic form in the library for its future use by the users. This has facilitates quick and timely use of these reports. 3.0 Best practices to enhance use of e3.0 Best practices to enhance use of e3.0 Best practices to enhance use of e3.0 Best practices to enhance use of e----resourcesresourcesresourcesresources:::: There are many ways to systematically organize the available e-resources of the library and make it available to users in a convenient way to increase its usage. Some of the best practices which can be followed by libraries are discussed below. 3.1. Digital Library3.1. Digital Library3.1. Digital Library3.1. Digital Library The concept of Digital library is growing at a fast pace especially in academic and research organizations. Digital libraries are offshoots of information technology revolution, which have drastically, improve the efficiency and effectiveness of digital libraries. Digital library basically consists of a networked collection of multimedia and multilingual information that exists only in digital format and typically available in one collection only. Thus a digital library may includes various types of files (word, pdf, html), music, videos, e-resources (e- books, e-journals, online databases) etc which are organized in a user friendly manner through a digital library software for their easy access. The basic framework for building a digital library includes collection of digital materials, creation of digital objects, metadata selection and building the digital library. The technical issues for building a digital are primarily the metadata standards and protocols, software issues and digital right management. A number of software (both commercial and open source) are available now a days for creation of digital library. Some of the popular open source software for creation of digital library are GSDL, Dspace, E-prints, KOHA, PKP Open Archive Harvestors etc.
  • 78. 67 Some of the major digital library initiatives by Indian academic and research organizations are as follows: 1. Indian Institute of Science(IISc),Bangalore www.ncsi.ernet.in 2. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research(TIFR),Mumbai www.tifr.res.in/library 3. National Centre for Science Information (NCSI),Bangalore http://144.16.72.147/gsdl/cgi-bin/library 4. Indian Institute of Management(IIM),Kozhikode http://www.iimk.ac.in/gsdl/cgi-bin/library 5. National Institute of Technology (NIT), Calicut (Nalanda Digital Library) http://www.nalanda.nitc.ac.in/ 3.2. Electronic Theses and Dissertation (ETD)3.2. Electronic Theses and Dissertation (ETD)3.2. Electronic Theses and Dissertation (ETD)3.2. Electronic Theses and Dissertation (ETD):::: Electronic Theses and Dissertation (ETD) contain extremely valuable information since they report the results of first hand research information conducted by the researcher. It is often necessary for a library to develop a system, which will allow researchers, students and staff to access this information. Along with the development of an access mechanism, there is also need to develop mechanism for electronic communications between researchers and supervisors. The entire ETD system aims to automate the entire process, which takes place in a digital environment. The new system would allow the students to submit a topic electronically, and allow the department office to store the dissertation registration information in a database that would not only show the title, date of registration, name of supervisors etc. for a given students but would also have room for storing specific notes and comments that may be useful for different administrative purpose. Another aspect is that it would allow the students and supervisor to work together in a digital environment. Some of the ETD projects successfully running in India are: 1. Vidyanidhi of Univeersity of Mysore 2. E-these repository of NIT, Rourkela 3. Online Theses database of INFLIBNET, Ahmedabad 4. E-theses at National Chemical Laboratory (NCL),Pune. 3.3. Institutional Repository (IR)3.3. Institutional Repository (IR)3.3. Institutional Repository (IR)3.3. Institutional Repository (IR):::: Institutional Repository is an information service tool, created and maintained by an organization or group of organizations to its members for collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of scholarly materials for future use. It includes published literatures such as Journal articles, Book chapters, Conference papers, unpublished research material such as preprints, working papers, Thesis/dissertations, technical reports, progress/status reports, committee reports presentations, teaching materials, audio/video clips, supporting research materials such as data sheets, models, blue prints etc. Thus IR is an online locus for collecting, preserving and disseminating the intellectual output of an academic or research institution in digital form, created and maintained by the institution itself. Software is the key element in the construction of an institutional repository. Basically, there are two types of software available- Commercial / Subscribed Software and Open/ Open Source Software. Commercial software are developed and marketed by commercial firms such as
  • 79. 68 EQUEST by Total IT solutions Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. Focuz Infotech Kerala etc. Open source software is that which is created by generous programmers and released into the public domain for public use. The underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read or make changes and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes for software. Usually this software are distributed under an Open-Source License – General Public License (GPL). Such a license requires that the source code should be distributed along with the software, and that the source code is freely modifiable with least restrictions. The most commonly available open source software for building Institutional Repository are as follows. a) ARNO (Academic Research in Netherlands Online), Tilburg University http://www.uba.uva.nl/arno b) CDSware (CERN Document Server software, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland http://cdsware.cern.ch/ c) I-Tor (Tools & Technologies for open repositories), Netherlands http://www.I-tor.org/en/toon d) MyCore http://www.mycore.de/engl/index.html e) Dspace of MIT and HP, Cambridge, MA, USA http://www.dspace.org f) Eprints of University of Southampton, U>K http://software.eprints.org g) Fedora digital object repository management system of University of Virginia, USA http://www.fedora.info Some important institutional repositories of India includes: 1. IISc, Bangalore (http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/) 2. Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode (IIMK ) http://dspace.iimk.ac.in/ 3. Indian Institute of Astrophysics ,Bangalore http://prints.iiap.res.in/ 4. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (NITR) dspace.nitrkl.ac.in/dspace/ 3.4. Development of Infrastructure facilities to access e3.4. Development of Infrastructure facilities to access e3.4. Development of Infrastructure facilities to access e3.4. Development of Infrastructure facilities to access e----resourcesresourcesresourcesresources One of the most important roles the libraries is to provide up to date and exhaustive information, which can be possible through e-resources effectively. Accesses to e-resources provide current and comprehensive information, which is important to improve teaching and learning activities. Side by side a good physical environment with adequate and updated ICT tools such as computers, internet connection, printer etc for comfortable and maximum access of e-resources without any physical and mental strain. This can be done by creation a separate digital library section/e-resource browsing section in the library exclusively for the use of e- resources. Also to provide speed Internet access facilities to the users in the library for e-mail, browsing Internet, accessing e-journals, databases, institutional repository, Web OPAC etc., libraries should have high speed broadband connection , WiFi campus or campus connected with good LAN service. 3.5. CD Mirror server facility3.5. CD Mirror server facility3.5. CD Mirror server facility3.5. CD Mirror server facility:::: This is to enhance the use of offline e-resources and to disseminate the information from magnetic sources like CDs, Floppies and DVDs. Library non-book materials are mounted on CD mirror server on regular basis and the users can access these materials through the Campus LAN. The CD Mirror server is highly essential in the context that users are not allowed to issue these
  • 80. 69 materials. Alternatively, these resources can be copied to the CD Net Server and the connectivity to this server on the Intranet enable the users to access these resources. 3.6.3.6.3.6.3.6. Dynamic library websiteDynamic library websiteDynamic library websiteDynamic library website:::: The library may create a separate library website or may create a link of library in the institutional website. The basic purpose of this is to disseminate current information on various library resources, rules and regulations, systems and services to library users. A library can display information about the latest editions and other current information like job opportunities, fellowship, training, academic, research and scientific news etc like traditional notice board. Besides, the website should be dynamic one to allow the users remote access to the library, to feel acquainted with the services of the library and to get satisfactory answers to their queries from the remote access. This can be done by linking its website with library OPAC, subscribed e- resources, purchased e-resources like e-books, resources created by the library, free resources on the web etc. It enables the users to personalize their searches using “My Library” Software. Also it will enable the users to familiarize with the library activities and available e-resources of the library. A library may also arrange its e-resources alphabetically with direct links to its full text or abstract or content page and ask for a copy of the article to be delivered to him at his work place. 3.7. Access to e3.7. Access to e3.7. Access to e3.7. Access to e----resourcesresourcesresourcesresources on 24x7on 24x7on 24x7on 24x7 basisbasisbasisbasis:::: A library may develop the Intranet facilities to provide un-interrupted world-wide access to the e-resources searchable from anywhere, anytime, by the users. All resources available in these servers such as Library database server, web server, digital library server, CD Net server should be available on the Intranet. These will facilitates access to e-resources on 24x7 basis. Also library may be opened for maximum hour to allow users to use e-resources. It will attract those users to use e-resources, who may not get time during the class time. 3.8. User education/ Information literacy program3.8. User education/ Information literacy program3.8. User education/ Information literacy program3.8. User education/ Information literacy program:::: The basic objective of information literacy program is to creating awareness on e- resources, facilities and services available on e-resources among new users and thus to ensure their optimum use. This can be given by libraries as orientation program to the fresher during the beginning of the academic year or to all users as training program at regular interval. The staff of Digital library section may conduct such program with hands on training to make it more attractive and purposeful. 3.9. User Feedback mechanism3.9. User Feedback mechanism3.9. User Feedback mechanism3.9. User Feedback mechanism:::: The libraries are established and maintained for users; hence the prime objective of any library should be to develop services as per their need. Accordingly, collection of user feedback on all aspects of library services, more particularly on e-resources can be done formally through suggestion box, feedback forms and library services evaluation forms. Appropriate actions on the basis of feedback in proper time help libraries in collection development of e-resources, improvement in facilities and services. The will also increase users satisfaction level. 3.10. Maintaining usage statistics of e3.10. Maintaining usage statistics of e3.10. Maintaining usage statistics of e3.10. Maintaining usage statistics of e----resourcesresourcesresourcesresources:::: The purpose of usage statistics is to gathers feedback on the use of e-resource facilities and services, which enable libraries to assess/ increase the quality of services delivered .It can be performed by maintaining gate register at the entrance of Digital Library section and by analyzing the data periodically. Also the usage statistics available on online databases/e-resource publisher’s
  • 81. 70 websites need to be analyzed on regular basis to take necessary actions regarding poor use of e- resources. 3.11. Best user award3.11. Best user award3.11. Best user award3.11. Best user award:::: The purpose of this is to attract more students to visit the library and use e- resources. The selection for best user award can be done through the collection of data from the gate register of Digital library section, analyzing personalization of home pages of e-resources by the users, considering activities of users in library blogs and overall observation of the Librarian. The award for the same may be given in Cash/book form in the Annual function of the Institution or in a separate library function. This will enhance the frequency of library visits by users and increase the use of e-resources. 4.0 Conclusion4.0 Conclusion4.0 Conclusion4.0 Conclusion:::: The impact of e-resource on teaching and learning is enormous and has become an integral part of all libraries. The procurement of e-resources by libraries is no longer a matter of choice but a matter of survival in a rapidly changing modern library environment where user’s expectation and inclination towards e-resources have increased tremendously. Today, the success of a modern library is increasingly dependent on its e-resources and the best practices followed by the library for its effective utilization and strategic management .Best practices are those practices by which existing services of library can be improved. These best practices need to be constantly updated keeping pace with the development in ICT and with the changes that are taking place in libraries with the application of ICT in libraries. Libraries need to be encouraged to procure more and more numbers of e-resources as per the need of the users and followed as many as best practices followed by other libraries for maximum and proper of e-resources in libraries. It will also attract more users towards libraries and libraries can truly be living organization. ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences:::: 1. S.K.Satpathy, “Challenges and opportunities of Electronic Librarianship: Experience of Academic libraries,” In Electronic Librarianship: issues & trends, ed. R.K.Mahapatra, (New Delhi: SSDN Publishers & Distributors, 2013),63-72. 2. J.D.Saye, “The organization of electronic resources in the library and information science curriculum” .OCLC systems and services,2(2001):71-78. 3. D.K. Swainand K.C.Panda, Use of e-resources in libraries of Management Institutions,( New Delhi: SSDN Publishers and Distributors,2011) 4. L.A.Lee and M.M.Wu, “Do librarians dream of electronic materials? A beginners’ guide to formal selection”, TheBottone: Managing library Finances,3(2002):102-109. 5. Rao,M.K.Rao,“Scholarly communication and electronic journals: issues and prospectus for academic and research libraries”, Library Review,4(2001):169-175. 6. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  • 82. 71 EEEE----JOURNALS: ROLE AND CHALLENJOURNALS: ROLE AND CHALLENJOURNALS: ROLE AND CHALLENJOURNALS: ROLE AND CHALLENGES FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE LIBRARYGES FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE LIBRARYGES FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE LIBRARYGES FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE LIBRARY & INFORMATION CENTRE& INFORMATION CENTRE& INFORMATION CENTRE& INFORMATION CENTRE Dr. Sada Bihari Sahu Manager, Central Library, Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) 15, Ashok Marg, Lucknow-226001, UP sadabihari@rediffmail.com & Dr. Santosh Kumar Satapathy Directorate of State Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Orissa Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar-751012 AbstraAbstraAbstraAbstractctctct:::: As we approach the twenty-first century, journals offer one of the greatest challenges confronting library and information science professionals. For more than a decade, journals prices have continuously increased at a rate far higher than general inflation and library funding levels, placing genuine financial pressure on most libraries. Some of the technological developments such as electronic journals, CD-ROMs, list servs, the Internet, and the World Wide Web (WWW) have reduced the crisis in this regard to some extent. However, at the same time it also creates unresolved problems and opportunities for the library professionals in particular and growth of information in various subject fields in general. Like in other subject fields, the growth of e-journals in Social Science has also increased many folds during last few years. In 1989-90 Ulrich’s listed 2131 serials in an online format (either exclusively online or simultaneously with a print version); in 1998 it contained 8762. 1. What is E1. What is E1. What is E1. What is E----JournalJournalJournalJournal???? Early definition of electronic journals, according to D. Scott Brandt (1992) is some grouping of information, which is sent out in electronic form with some periodicity. Gail McMillan (1991) defines e-journals as “any serials produced, published, and distributed nationally and internationally via electronic networks such as Bitnet and the Internet.” Lawrence R Keating II, Christa Easton Reinke, and Judi A Goodman (1993) use “a scholarly journal delivered electronically over networks” as the definition. According to other definitions, an electronic counterpart of a print journal is not considered a genuine electronic journal. Therefore, Marian Dworaczek and Victo G Wiebe (1994) considered “a true e-journal to be a serial whose creation and distribution to the public is entirely in electronic format.” Tom Moothart (1995) reserves the term electronic journal for “those titles only available electronically” and uses the phrase “online journal” for “titles that have a print counterpart.” Other analysts use the term networked to distinguish journals available on the Internet from those that are on CD-ROMs. Further, Hezel Woodward and Cliff McKnight (1995) differentiate three types of electronic journals: I) Online (Which are available through a host such as DIALOG), ii) CD-ROM, and iii) networked (i.e., on the Internet). So, one might conclude that the terminological inconsistency reflects the fact that electronic journals themselves are in a state of flux and a broad definition can be “electronic journal to cover any serial or serial-like publication available in an electronic format”.
  • 83. 72 According to Kling aAccording to Kling aAccording to Kling aAccording to Kling and McKim (1997) there are four kinds of end McKim (1997) there are four kinds of end McKim (1997) there are four kinds of end McKim (1997) there are four kinds of e----journals, which are asjournals, which are asjournals, which are asjournals, which are as follows:follows:follows:follows: 1.1.1.1. Pure e-journals: journals whose text is originally distributed only in digital form. Examples include the Electronic Journal of Communication, the Journal of Digital Information, the Internet Journal of Archaeology, and the Journal of Electronic Publishing. 2.2.2.2. E-p-journals: journals is primarily distributed electronically, but may have very limited distribution in paper form. Examples include the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research and the Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence. 3.3.3.3. P-e-journals: journals that are primarily distributed in paper form, but which are also distributed in electronic form. Examples include Science, Physical Review, and thousands of other scientific journals. 4.4.4.4. P+e-journals: that is initiated with parallel paper and electronic editions that may be widely distributed. The American Chemical Society's Organic Letters is an example. 2. Role of e2. Role of e2. Role of e2. Role of e----journals for growth of literature:journals for growth of literature:journals for growth of literature:journals for growth of literature: In the present scenario, e-journals play a vital role for further growth of literature in various subject fields. Some of the crucial role electronic journals are playing for the growth of literature is as follows: 1) Impact on Scholarly Communication1) Impact on Scholarly Communication1) Impact on Scholarly Communication1) Impact on Scholarly Communication:::: According to Steven Harnad (1991) argument, “electronic communication among scholars will constitute the fourth major revolution in the history of human thought” after language, writing and the movable-type printing, press. It is also observed that the development of scholarly journals three centuries ago speeded communication among scholars in smaller units (i.e. articles rather than monographs), electronic publications also provide quicker scholarly communications in smaller units than the print journals do. For example, most contributions on listservs are of a much shorter length than a journal article. 2)2)2)2) Economic implication for Social Science Libraries:Economic implication for Social Science Libraries:Economic implication for Social Science Libraries:Economic implication for Social Science Libraries: It is only the speculation that e-journals will offer a potential solution to the cost problems associated with print journals. In the short run, they will engender even greater cost for libraries that simultaneously subscribe to both the print and electronic versions of a title. Further, for a long-term perspective, the financial implications of e-journals for libraries cannot be predicted. So, the Social Science Libraries and Information Centers are also facing the same economic implication both in short and long run. 3) Archiving:3) Archiving:3) Archiving:3) Archiving: Archiving represents one of the largest unresolved dilemmas concerning e-journals. Probably, a systematic solution other than relying on electronic journals publishers will eventually be developed, although the time frame and method are uncertain. The possible solutions may include bibliographic utilities, cooperative archiving by libraries on a regional or national basis. 4) Cataloguing:4) Cataloguing:4) Cataloguing:4) Cataloguing: Libraries have to tackle the issues of cataloging e-journals and deciding how to include pure e- journals in their catalogs. The p-e journals are even more complicated, because libraries’ policies vary, with some cataloging each version separately and some cataloging them together.
  • 84. 73 Comparison of pure eComparison of pure eComparison of pure eComparison of pure e----journals with pjournals with pjournals with pjournals with p----e journalse journalse journalse journals Pure ePure ePure ePure e ---- journaljournaljournaljournal PPPP----e journale journale journale journal Archiving and Cataloguing In case journal stops publishing there is no guarantied access to the previous issues. Printed copies available in libraries and on private shelves even if the journal ceases publication. Archiving responsibility moved from libraries to publishers. For libraries - shift from issue ownership to access only with different subscription options. Different library cataloguing practices - both versions can be catalogued as one or can be catalogued separately. 5)5)5)5) Possible displacement of print journals:Possible displacement of print journals:Possible displacement of print journals:Possible displacement of print journals: The number of e-journals will almost certainly continue to increase exponentially in the future. Not only will new journals come into existence, but many print-based scholarly journals will migrate to an electronic format through a three-staged process: print only, simultaneous print and electronic versions, and electronic only. According to F. W Lancaster’s (1982) prediction that electronic media would replace print on paper by the 2000 in his book Libraries and Librarians in an Age of Electronics. 3. Advantages of E3. Advantages of E3. Advantages of E3. Advantages of E----journals:journals:journals:journals: The numerous problems associated with the present system of research publication through print journals include high journal cost; the scattering of articles on a subject due to the proliferation of journals, lengthy delays in publication; reviewer bias in the refereeing systems; low-circulation journals, lack of timely feedback to authors; and the reselling of scholarly writing will be minimized due to inclusion of e-journals in library and information centers. Further, it will also disseminate information more rapidly than the book and traditional journal, which ultimately fulfill the main motto of Library and Information center. Apart from the above, some of the other advantages of e-journals are as follows: 1) Rapid revision of journal is possible 2) Insertion of reader commentary 3) Hypertext links to cited documents and database 4) Online searching and manipulation of text 5) The ability to extract and manipulate formulas and graphics 6) Quick article delivery option 7) No concern about theft or mutilation 8) Shelf storage space is not an issue 9) Accessibility from outside the library 10) Simultaneous use by more than one person (although some license agreements prescribe a maximum number of simultaneous users)
  • 85. 74 11) Alerting the users regarding the publication of new issues and articles of their interest becomes easier. 12) Inclusion of audio and video base text in the journal issues is possible 13) Multiple access and access through local networks becomes easy 14) Help in minimizing the problems related to the conservation and preservation of journals 15) Many problems of libraries such as space, shelving, missing issues, missing pages and cutting of pages etc. will be solved by e-journals. 4. Disadvantages of E4. Disadvantages of E4. Disadvantages of E4. Disadvantages of E----Journals:Journals:Journals:Journals: Apart from having many advantages, it has several problems or unresolved issues associated with electronic journals: 1) Unresolved copyright issues 2) Questions about full acceptance of electronic publications in the scholarly accreditation process (e.g., promotion and tenure) 3) The reluctance of scholars to submit their best quality work to electronic publications 4) Publisher uncertainty about pricing and the subsequent lack of uniform pricing and licensing structures 5) Question on permanent archive of electronic journals (Whether and how) 6) Rapidly changing technological developments 7) End-users resisting the format or requiring training 8) Hardware and software required for use 9) No suitable bibliographical control mechanism is available for e-journals, therefore, it becomes difficult for a user to identify a particular e-journal 10) Production of e-journals generally lacks clear-cut standardization regarding its format and the software associated in accessing them. 11) The subscriber, whether it’s a library or an individual, owner of the e-journal is not possible. A major shift in case of e-journal is concerned not with owning but with permission to access. Further, the access is for a certain time period. 5. Challenges of e5. Challenges of e5. Challenges of e5. Challenges of e----journals:journals:journals:journals: 1) Library Issues:1) Library Issues:1) Library Issues:1) Library Issues: While usage statistics validate the library’s investment, they also provide insights into usage patterns that indicate the need to access a broader spectrum of titles than previously owned. This raises questions about the approach to building collections on a “just-in-case” basis compared with new models that incorporate on-demand acquisition. 2) Budget justification:2) Budget justification:2) Budget justification:2) Budget justification: Declining book circulation and rapid growth in the use of electronic resources indicate that users are shifting from print to electronic resources. Libraries can tell which Web sites users are going to for information, but once users reach the publisher’s site, only the publisher can track their
  • 86. 75 activity. This means the library is dependent on the publisher to provide it with data vital for its internal reports. This ultimately creates hurdles for budget justification. 3) Impact on selection:3) Impact on selection:3) Impact on selection:3) Impact on selection: Recent survey showed that more than half of the articles selected by users come from journals not currently held by the library (Sanville 2000). There is increasing evidence from both libraries and publishers that current holdings are too limited to meet user demand, a trend that points to the benefits of user-driven selection procedures. The emerging models for article selection from a database of electronic journals challenge libraries to restructure their approaches to collection development and create new models to meet their users’ needs. 4) Perception of e4) Perception of e4) Perception of e4) Perception of e----journals in academic career reviews:journals in academic career reviews:journals in academic career reviews:journals in academic career reviews: Publishing in pure e-journals may be especially appealing to untenured faculty who are often advised to rapidly produce numerous publications. However, there is a common assumption that publications in pure e-journals will not be regarded as equal in quality to publications in p- journals. For this reason, some faculty may not want to publish their best work in pure e-journals or e-p-journals, fearing that review committees will not consider it as valuable. The assumption of the lesser value of e-journals (other than p-e journals) may result from unfamiliarity with their peer-review processes as well as the fact that many of them are new titles that have to establish a reputation for quality. 5) Citations to e5) Citations to e5) Citations to e5) Citations to e----journals:journals:journals:journals: A few researchers have used citation analysis to determine the scholarly impact of e-journals. Harter (1996) examined citations to articles in 39 peer-reviewed pure-e and p-e journals. His results suggest that the majority of scholarly, peer-reviewed pure e-journals had negligible influence on scholarly communication in their respective fields in the mid-1990s. Only eight of the 28 pure e-journals had been cited ten or more times over the course of their lifetimes. However, the most cited (and now defunct) pure e-journal, The Public-Access Computer Systems Review, was highly cited relative to other journals in the library and information sciences. Unfortunately, Harter combined citations to articles in pure e-journals and p-e journals in some of his analyses. It is difficult to determine which citations should be associated with the electronic edition of the 11 p-e journals. A similar study of e-journals in the library and information sciences by Yin Zhang (1998) found that during the years 1994-1996, the impact of e-journals increased, though not to a statistically significant extent. 6) Usefulness of e6) Usefulness of e6) Usefulness of e6) Usefulness of e----journalsjournalsjournalsjournals:::: Studies of the perception of e-journals have changed their focus over time. The older studies concentrated on possible benefits of e-journals, while more recent studies ask questions about legitimacy. Respondents to a survey conducted on chemists at Cornell University reported that they expected their access to e-journals would allow them to read more complete articles, spent their reading time more efficiently, and read articles sooner after their publication (Stewart, 1996). For these respondents, the most important features of e-journals were considered to be the ability to create printed copies and to browse text and graphics. The respondents believed that e-journals would soon adopt all the functions of p-journals (e.g., browsing text, graphics capability, flipping through pages, annotating and highlighting text). But one-third did not anticipate that some form of e-journals would ever replace p-journals.
  • 87. 76 6. Conclusion:6. Conclusion:6. Conclusion:6. Conclusion: There is many fold increase of e-journals in the recent past and still there is trend towards growth of e-journals both in Social Science and in other subject fields. Further, the continuing application of current business trends (e.g., downsizing, outsourcing, or reengineering and implication of electronic methods) to library administration will undoubtedly affect the way library and information centers handle the journal, although the full effects cannot be foreseen presently. Despite several problems, the e-journals are very popular particularly because of the possibility of the multimedia and hypermedia linkages among electronic resources and multi accessibility, which is not possible in print versions. In this situation, the present librarian and information professionals should be prepared to handle them to make them easily accessible to the users. Reference:Reference:Reference:Reference: 1. D Scott Brandt, “ Campus-wide Computing: Accessing Electronic Journals,” Academic and Library Computing 9(November-December 1992):17-20. 2. F W Lancaster, Libraries and Librarians in an age of electronics, 2nd ed. (Arlington, Va: Information Resources Press, 1982) 3. Gail McMillan, “Embracing the Electronic Journal: One Library’s Plan,” Serial Librarian 21, nos. 2/3(1991):97 4. Harter, S. P. (1996). The impact of electronic journals on scholarly communication: A citation analysis. The Public-Access Computer Systems Review, 7. From http://info.lib.uh.edu/pr/v7/n5/hart7n5.html 5. Hazel Woodward and Cliff McKnight, “Electronic Journals: Issues of Access and Bibliographic Control,” Serial Review 21 (summer 1995): 71 6. Judy Luther, 2001 White paper on electronic journals usage statistics. Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, D.C. 7. Kling, R. & McKim, G. (1997, August). A typology for electronic journals: Characterizing scholarly journals by their distribution forms. (Working Paper No.WP-97-07) Indiana University, Bloomington, Center for Social Informatics. Retrieved November 16, 2001, from http://www.slis.indiana.edu/csi/wp97-07.html 8. Lawrence R, Keating II, Christa Easton Reinke, and Judi A. Goodman, “Electronic Journal Subscriptions,” Library Acquisitions: Practice and Theory 17 (Winter 1993): 456 9. Marian Dworaczek and Victor G. Wiebe, “E-Journals: Acquisition and Access,” Acquisition Librarian, no.12 (1994): 106 10. Sanville, Tom. 2000. A Method Out of the Madness: OhioLINK’s Collaborative Response to the Serials Crisis. Paper presented at the North American Serials Interest Group Conference, University of California, San Diego, and June 22–25. 11. Rob Kling & Ewa Callahan, Electronic Journals, the Internet, and Scholarly Communication, CSI Working Paper WP01-04 12. Steven harnad, “Post-Gutenberg Galaxy: The Fourth revolution in the Means of Production of Knowledge,” Public –Access Computer Systems Review 2, no.1 (1991): 29- 41.from http://info.lib.uh.edu/pr/v2/harnad.2n1
  • 88. 77 13. Stewart, L. (1996). User acceptance of electronic journals: Interviews with chemists at Cornell University. College & Research Libraries, 57, 339-49. 14. Thomas E. Nisonger, Management of Serials in Libraries (Colorado, Libraries Unlimited Ic., 2004) 15. Tom Moothart, “Migration to Electronic Distribution Through OCLC’s Electronic Journals Online,” Serials Review 21 (winter 1995): 61 16. Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory, 1989-90, 28th ed. (New York, R.R. Broker 1989), 1:vii 17. Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory, 1998,1:vii 18. Zhang, Y. (1998). The impact of Internet-based electronic resources on formal scholarly communication in the area of library and information science: A citation analysis. Journal of Information Science, 24, 241-25
  • 89. 78 BIBLIOMETRIC STUDYBIBLIOMETRIC STUDYBIBLIOMETRIC STUDYBIBLIOMETRIC STUDY ON PATENT FILING IN INDIAON PATENT FILING IN INDIAON PATENT FILING IN INDIAON PATENT FILING IN INDIA M. Vijaya kumar Central Library, Birla Institute of Technology Mesra, Ranchi- 835215, Jharkhand & S L Sangam Department of LIS Karnataka University Dharward- 580003, Karnataka & S M Annapurna Dept. of ECE Birla Institute of Technology Mesra, Ranchi- 835215, Jharkhand AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract:::: A scientometric study was performed to assess the quantitative trend of patent filing in India throughout 2005-06 to 2009-10. Year wise growth, geographical wise contribution, subject wise distribution of patent filing in India were presented. 1.01.01.01.0 IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction:::: A patent is an exclusive right granted by a country to an inventor, allowing the inventor to exclude others from making, using or selling his or her invention in that country during the life of the patent. It does NOT give the inventor the right to use or "practice" the invention, and thus the right is subject to any prior rights that others may have to related inventions. So for example, if you have a patent on a “vessel to hold coffee” and I have a patent on a “handle for a vessel”, then I can prevent you from putting a handle on a coffee cup and you can prevent me from attaching a cup to my handle. A patent is issued to the individual inventor and not to a company, although it is typical practice to have employees assign inventions to their employer. Patent protection is available for any product, process or design that meets certain requirements of novelty, no obviousness and utility. For most categories of inventions, patent protection in the United States lasts for 20 years from the date the patent is filed (under prior law it was 17 years from the date the patent issued) (web mit). Now there is a need to assess the trend in patent filing in India, we find Bibliometric study is the best method to assess the trend of patent filing in India. 2.02.02.02.0 Review of LitReview of LitReview of LitReview of Literatureeratureeratureerature:::: Several quantitative studies have been published using patent data as an indicator of innovation, technological change, R&D policy and management7. Studies have also examined the patents granted to scientists from several angles, such as trends in its growth and output, productivity patterns, pattern of collaboration among scientists, the nature of sources used (patent and non- patent literature) in citations, and commercialisation of R&D. There is, however, no study to examine patent filing in India during 2005-06 to 2009-10. The present study analyses patents filed in India with a view to examine its growth, subject wise distribution, geographical wise contribution of these areas during 2005-06 to 2009-10
  • 90. 79 3.03.03.03.0 ObjectivesObjectivesObjectivesObjectives:::: The main objectives of this paper is to study 3.1 Year wise growth of patent filing in India. 3.2 Geographical wise contribution to patent filing in India. 3.3 Subject wise distribution of patent filing in India. 4.04.04.04.0 MethodologyMethodologyMethodologyMethodology:::: Patents filed in India during 2005-06 to 2009-10 was extracted from the annual reports of Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotions, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, New Delhi. The extracted data was suitably converted into a database. The present study used the classification for identifying the geographical sector, subject sector and year sector that the patents addressed. 5.05.05.05.0 Analysis f the dataAnalysis f the dataAnalysis f the dataAnalysis f the data:::: 5.1 Year wise growth of patent filing in India5.1 Year wise growth of patent filing in India5.1 Year wise growth of patent filing in India5.1 Year wise growth of patent filing in India The table 1 reflects that, R&D scientists filed 32,889 patents in India during the period 2005-06 to 2009-10 with an average of 6577 patents per year. The annual filing the patent showed a lot of fluctuations over the years, which may be associated with frequent reorientation of R&D policies and shifting priorities in research. The number of patents filed increased significantly during 2009- 10. Table 1: Year wise growthTable 1: Year wise growthTable 1: Year wise growthTable 1: Year wise growth Sl.NoSl.NoSl.NoSl.No YearYearYearYear Patents FiledPatents FiledPatents FiledPatents Filed %%%% Cumulative TotalCumulative TotalCumulative TotalCumulative Total Cumulative %Cumulative %Cumulative %Cumulative % 1. 2005-06 5500 16.72 5500 16.72 2. 2006-07 5929 18.03 11429 34.75 3. 2007-08 6833 20.78 18262 55.53 4. 2008-09 6797 20.67 25059 76.2 5. 2009-10 7830 23.81 32889 100.00 5.2 Geographical wise contribution to patent filing in India5.2 Geographical wise contribution to patent filing in India5.2 Geographical wise contribution to patent filing in India5.2 Geographical wise contribution to patent filing in India An attempt was made to study the geographical wise contribution of patent filing in India i.e. Indian state/ Union territory wise, Asian country wise, Common Wealth country wise, SAARC country wise and Continent wise. 5.2.1 Indian State/ Union Territory wise contribution5.2.1 Indian State/ Union Territory wise contribution5.2.1 Indian State/ Union Territory wise contribution5.2.1 Indian State/ Union Territory wise contribution As per table 33 Indian states/ union territory made an attempt to file the patents during 2005-06 to 2009-10. Among table 33 Indian states/ union territory, Maharashtra state filed more filing patents during 5 consecutive years. i.e. 1233 (27.25%) during 2005-06, 1607 (30.59%) during 2006-07, 1936 (32.05) during 2007-08, 1990 (32.30%) during 2008-09 and 2286 (32.47%) during 2009-10. Low productivity came from the states like Arunachal Pradesh (2009-10), Tripura, Sikkim and Manipur (2007-08) filed only one patent during the study years.
  • 91. 80 Table 2: Indian State/ UnionTable 2: Indian State/ UnionTable 2: Indian State/ UnionTable 2: Indian State/ Union Territory wise contributionTerritory wise contributionTerritory wise contributionTerritory wise contribution S NS NS NS N State/UnionState/UnionState/UnionState/Union TerritoryTerritoryTerritoryTerritory 2005200520052005----06060606 2006200620062006----07070707 2007200720072007----08080808 2008200820082008----09090909 2009200920092009----10101010 Patents Filed % Patents Filed % Patent s Filed % Patent s Filed % Patent s Filed % 1.1.1.1. AndAndAndAndrararara PradeshPradeshPradeshPradesh 408 9.02 385 7.33 414 6.85 411 6.67 553 7.86 2.2.2.2. ArunachalArunachalArunachalArunachal PradeshPradeshPradeshPradesh 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.01 3.3.3.3. AssamAssamAssamAssam 15 0.33 14 0.27 16 0.26 15 0.24 23 0.33 4.4.4.4. BiharBiharBiharBihar 29 0.64 14 0.27 21 0.35 10 0.16 16 0.23 5.5.5.5. ChandigarhChandigarhChandigarhChandigarh 15 0.33 23 0.44 33 0.55 27 0.44 28 0.40 6.6.6.6. ChattishgarhChattishgarhChattishgarhChattishgarh 03 0.07 17 0.32 15 0.25 10 0.16 02 0.03 7.7.7.7. Daman (UT)Daman (UT)Daman (UT)Daman (UT) 03 0.07 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 8.8.8.8. DelhiDelhiDelhiDelhi 1018 22.50 1310 24.94 812 13.44 702 11.39 868 12.33 9.9.9.9. GoaGoaGoaGoa 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.02 08 0.13 05 0.07 10.10.10.10. GujaratGujaratGujaratGujarat 203 4.49 337 6.42 286 4.74 295 4.79 319 4.53 11.11.11.11. HaryanaHaryanaHaryanaHaryana 93 2.06 93 1.77 123 2.04 126 2.05 144 2.05 12.12.12.12. HimachalaHimachalaHimachalaHimachala PradeshPradeshPradeshPradesh 10 0.22 10 0.19 15 0.25 10 0.16 00 0.00 13.13.13.13. Jammu &Jammu &Jammu &Jammu & KashmirKashmirKashmirKashmir 04 0.09 03 0.06 04 0.07 05 0.08 03 0.04 14.14.14.14. JharkhandJharkhandJharkhandJharkhand 15 0.33 131 2.49 85 1.41 112 1.82 94 1.34 15.15.15.15. KarnatakaKarnatakaKarnatakaKarnataka 428 9.46 536 10.20 814 13.48 872 14.15 755 10.72 16.16.16.16. KeralaKeralaKeralaKerala 96 2.12 128 2.44 123 2.04 107 1.74 166 2.36 17.17.17.17. MadhyaMadhyaMadhyaMadhya PradeshPradeshPradeshPradesh 55 1.22 33 0.63 50 0.83 51 0.83 37 0.53 18.18.18.18. MaharashtraMaharashtraMaharashtraMaharashtra 1233 27.25 1607 30.59 1936 32.05 1990 32.30 2286 32.47 19.19.19.19. ManipurManipurManipurManipur 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 20.20.20.20. MeghalayaMeghalayaMeghalayaMeghalaya 00 0.00 03 0.06 00 0.00 01 0.02 01 0.01 21.21.21.21. MizoramMizoramMizoramMizoram 00 0.00 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.01 22.22.22.22. NagalandNagalandNagalandNagaland 02 0.04 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 03 0.04 23.23.23.23. OrissaOrissaOrissaOrissa 00 0.00 19 0.36 12 0.20 22 0.36 34 0.48 24.24.24.24. PondicherryPondicherryPondicherryPondicherry 05 0.11 02 0.04 00 0.00 01 0.02 06 0.09 25.25.25.25. PunjabPunjabPunjabPunjab 29 0.64 74 1.41 44 0.73 61 0.99 75 1.07 26.26.26.26. RajasthanRajasthanRajasthanRajasthan 17 0.38 44 0.84 36 0.60 40 0.65 55 0.78 27.27.27.27. SikkimSikkimSikkimSikkim 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 28.28.28.28. Tamil NaduTamil NaduTamil NaduTamil Nadu 433 9.57 02 0.04 708 11.72 783 12.71 813 11.55 29.29.29.29. TripuraTripuraTripuraTripura 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 30.30.30.30. UttarkhandUttarkhandUttarkhandUttarkhand 00 0.00 17 0.32 25 0.41 29 0.47 67 0.95 31.31.31.31. Uttar PradeshUttar PradeshUttar PradeshUttar Pradesh 193 4.27 205 3.90 161 2.67 115 1.87 321 4.56 32.32.32.32. UttaranchalUttaranchalUttaranchalUttaranchal 03 0.07 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 33.33.33.33. West BengalWest BengalWest BengalWest Bengal 214 4.73 244 4.64 303 5.02 358 5.81 364 5.17 TotalTotalTotalTotal 4524 100.00 5253 100.00 6040 100.00 6161 100.00 7040 100.00 5.2.3 Asian Country wise contribution5.2.3 Asian Country wise contribution5.2.3 Asian Country wise contribution5.2.3 Asian Country wise contribution:::: The table 3 shows the predictable Asian country who filed more patents during 2005-06 to 2009-10. i.e. India. India has filed more than 28,000 patents during the five years. Kuwait and Pakistan contributed the fewer patents like 1 during 2009-10 and 2006-07 respectively. Table 3: Asian Country wise contribution*Table 3: Asian Country wise contribution*Table 3: Asian Country wise contribution*Table 3: Asian Country wise contribution* SNSNSNSN AsianAsianAsianAsian CountryCountryCountryCountry 2005200520052005----06060606 2006200620062006----07070707 2007200720072007----08080808 2008200820082008----09090909 2009200920092009----10101010 PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% 1.1.1.1. BelarusBelarusBelarusBelarus 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 02 0.03 00 0.00
  • 92. 81 2.2.2.2. HongHongHongHong KongKongKongKong 03 0.06 01 0.02 03 0.05 02 0.03 06 0.08 3.3.3.3. IndiaIndiaIndiaIndia 4524 92.55 5253 96.17 6040 96.44 6161 97.01 7040 96.89 4.4.4.4. IsraelIsraelIsraelIsrael 05 0.10 01 0.02 00 0.00 01 0.02 01 0.01 5.5.5.5. JapanJapanJapanJapan 137 2.80 52 0.95 43 0.69 30 0.47 27 0.37 6.6.6.6. KoreaKoreaKoreaKorea 76 1.55 22 0.40 22 0.35 42 0.66 58 0.80 7.7.7.7. KuwaitKuwaitKuwaitKuwait 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.01 8.8.8.8. MalaysiaMalaysiaMalaysiaMalaysia 03 0.06 02 0.04 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 9.9.9.9. NepalNepalNepalNepal 00 0.00 02 0.04 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 10.10.10.10. PakistanPakistanPakistanPakistan 00 0.00 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 11.11.11.11. PhilippinesPhilippinesPhilippinesPhilippines 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 12.12.12.12. RepublicRepublicRepublicRepublic of Chinaof Chinaof Chinaof China 32 0.65 45 0.82 39 0.62 13 0.20 10 0.14 13.13.13.13. SaudiSaudiSaudiSaudi ArabiaArabiaArabiaArabia 01 0.02 01 0.02 01 0.02 00 0.00 03 0.04 14.14.14.14. SingaporeSingaporeSingaporeSingapore 03 0.06 00 0.00 12 0.19 04 0.06 07 0.10 15.15.15.15. TaiwanTaiwanTaiwanTaiwan 98 2.00 80 1.46 97 1.55 87 1.37 101 1.39 16.16.16.16. ThailandThailandThailandThailand 04 0.08 02 0.04 05 0.08 06 0.09 03 0.04 17.17.17.17. UAEUAEUAEUAE 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.02 01 0.02 02 0.03 18.18.18.18. Sri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri Lanka 00 0.00 01 0.02 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 19.19.19.19. OtherOtherOtherOther CountriesCountriesCountriesCountries 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 02 0.03 07 0.10 TotalTotalTotalTotal 4888 100.00 5462 100.00 6263 100.00 6351 100.00 7266 100.00 * Here we have taken into the consideration of Asian countries who filed their patent applications in India. 5.2.4 Common wealth country wise contribution5.2.4 Common wealth country wise contribution5.2.4 Common wealth country wise contribution5.2.4 Common wealth country wise contribution The table shows that once again India filed more patent during 2005-06 to 2009-10 and New Zealand and Pakistan filed only one patent during 2007-8 and 2006-07 respectively. The same result is fore cased in the previous table and we can expect the same in coming tables also. Table 4: Common wealth country wise contribTable 4: Common wealth country wise contribTable 4: Common wealth country wise contribTable 4: Common wealth country wise contribution*ution*ution*ution* SSSS NNNN CommonCommonCommonCommon WealthWealthWealthWealth CountryCountryCountryCountry 2005200520052005----06060606 2006200620062006----07070707 2007200720072007----08080808 2008200820082008----09090909 2009200920092009----10101010 PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatenstPatenstPatenstPatenst FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% 1.1.1.1. AustraliaAustraliaAustraliaAustralia 08 0.18 03 0.06 02 0.03 02 0.03 05 0.07 2.2.2.2. CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada 20 0.44 06 0.11 06 0.10 09 0.15 04 0.06 3.3.3.3. IndiaIndiaIndiaIndia 4524 99.08 5253 99.62 6040 99.52 6161 99.27 7040 99.49 4.4.4.4. IrelandIrelandIrelandIreland 00 0.00 01 0.02 02 0.03 03 0.05 01 0.01 5.5.5.5. MalaysiaMalaysiaMalaysiaMalaysia 03 0.07 02 0.04 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 6.6.6.6. NewNewNewNew ZealandZealandZealandZealand 00 0.00 00 0.00 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 7.7.7.7. PakistanPakistanPakistanPakistan 00 0.00 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 00 0.00 8.8.8.8. Sri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri Lanka 00 0.00 01 0.02 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 9.9.9.9. UKUKUKUK 11 0.24 06 0.11 17 0.28 31 0.50 26 0.37 TotalTotalTotalTotal 4566 100.00 5273 100.00 6069 100.00 6206 100.00 7076 100.00 * Here we have taken into the consideration of common wealth countries who filed their patent applications in India 5.2.55.2.55.2.55.2.5 SAARC country wise contributionSAARC country wise contributionSAARC country wise contributionSAARC country wise contribution:::: When we cross examined the patent filing contribution by SAARC countries, the table 5 displays the expected result i.e. India, which filed more patents during 5 years. The SAARC countries
  • 93. 82 like, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Maldives not made an single attempt to file a patent during 2005-06 to 2009-10. Table 5: SAARCTable 5: SAARCTable 5: SAARCTable 5: SAARC country wise contribution*country wise contribution*country wise contribution*country wise contribution* SSSS NNNN SAARCSAARCSAARCSAARC CountryCountryCountryCountry 2005200520052005----06060606 2006200620062006----07070707 2007200720072007----08080808 2008200820082008----09090909 2009200920092009----10101010 PatentPatentPatentPatent FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentPatentPatentPatent FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentPatentPatentPatent FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentPatentPatentPatent FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentPatentPatentPatent FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% 1.1.1.1. AfghanistanAfghanistanAfghanistanAfghanistan 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 2.2.2.2. BangladeshBangladeshBangladeshBangladesh 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 3.3.3.3. BhutanBhutanBhutanBhutan 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 4.4.4.4. IndiaIndiaIndiaIndia 4524 100.00 5253 99.94 6040 100.00 6161 00.00 7040 100.00 5.5.5.5. MaldivesMaldivesMaldivesMaldives 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 6.6.6.6. NepalNepalNepalNepal 00 00.00 02 00.04 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 7.7.7.7. PakistanPakistanPakistanPakistan 00 00.00 01 00.02 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 8.8.8.8. Sri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri Lanka 00 0.00 01 0.02 01 0.02 00 0.00 00 0.00 TotalTotalTotalTotal 4524 100.00 5256 100.00 6040 00.00 6161 100.00 7040 100.00 * Here we have taken into the consideration of continent who filed their patent applications in India 5.2.65.2.65.2.65.2.6 Continent wise contributionContinent wise contributionContinent wise contributionContinent wise contribution:::: We made an attempt the continent wise filing of patents in India. The table 6 shows that, Asia continent filed more patents during the five years and Africa continent filed less patent during the study years. This is quite possible India falls under the Asian continent, certainly Asian scientist/ research scholar’s files patent in India only. Table 6: Continent wise contribution*Table 6: Continent wise contribution*Table 6: Continent wise contribution*Table 6: Continent wise contribution* SSSS NNNN ContinentContinentContinentContinent 2005200520052005----06060606 2006200620062006----07070707 2007200720072007----08080808 2008200820082008----09090909 2009200920092009----10101010 PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% 1.1.1.1. AmericaAmericaAmericaAmerica 398 7.24 304 5.13 398 5.82 265 3.90 252 3.22 2.2.2.2. EuropeEuropeEuropeEurope 213 3.87 162 2.73 168 2.46 157 2.31 307 3.92 3.3.3.3. AfricaAfricaAfricaAfrica 001 0.02 01 0.02 04 0.06 24 0.35 05 0.06 4.4.4.4. AsiaAsiaAsiaAsia 4888 88.87 5462 92.12 6263 91.66 6351 93.44 7266 92.80 TotalTotalTotalTotal 5500 100.00 5929 100.00 6833 100.00 6797 100.00 7830 100.00 **** Here we have taken into the consideration of continent who filed their patent applications in India 5.3 Subject wise distribution of patent filing in India5.3 Subject wise distribution of patent filing in India5.3 Subject wise distribution of patent filing in India5.3 Subject wise distribution of patent filing in India:::: To fulfil the objectives of our study, we made an attempt to know the subject wise distribution of patent filing in India. The table 7 states that, there is no patent filing in the general subject during 2005-06 to 2007-08. More number of patents are filed other than Chemical, Drug, Food, Electrical, Mechanical, Computer/Electronics, Biotechnology disciplines during five years. Table 7: Subject wise growthTable 7: Subject wise growthTable 7: Subject wise growthTable 7: Subject wise growth S NS NS NS N State/State/State/State/ UnionUnionUnionUnion TerritoryTerritoryTerritoryTerritory 2005200520052005----06060606 2006200620062006----07070707 2007200720072007----08080808 2008200820082008----09090909 2009200920092009----10101010 PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentPatentPatentPatent s Fileds Fileds Fileds Filed %%%% PatentPatentPatentPatent s Fileds Fileds Fileds Filed %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% PatentsPatentsPatentsPatents FiledFiledFiledFiled %%%% 1.1.1.1. Chemical 5810 12.67 6354 11.29 6375 10.36 5884 8.75 6014 9.60 2.2.2.2. Drug 2211 4.82 3239 5.76 4267 6.94 3672 5.46 3070 4.90 3.3.3.3. Food 101 0.22 1223 2.17 233 0.38 340 0.51 276 0.44 4.4.4.4. Electrical 1274 2.78 2371 4.21 2210 3.59 2319 3.45 2376 3.79 5.5.5.5. Mechanical 4734 10.32 5536 9.84 6424 10.44 6360 9.46 6775 10.82 6.6.6.6. Computer/ Electronics 5700 12.43 5822 10.35 4842 7.87 7063 10.50 7646 12.21 7.7.7.7. Bio Technology 1525 3.33 2774 4.93 1950 3.17 1844 2.74 1303 2.08 8.8.8.8. General 0000 0.00 0000 0.00 0000 0.00 2946 4.38 885 1.41
  • 94. 83 9.9.9.9. Other Fields 24505 53.43 28940 51.44 35218 57.25 36812 54.75 34287 54.74 Total 45860 100.00 56259 100.00 61519 100.00 67240 100.00 62632 100.00 6.6.6.6. ConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusions:::: R&D scientists filed 32,889 patents in India during the period 2005-06 to 2009-10 with an average of 6577 patents per year. The annual filing the patent showed a lot of fluctuations over the years, which may be associated with frequent reorientation of R&D policies and shifting priorities in research. The number of patents filed increased significantly during 2009-10. Among 33 Indian states/ union territory, Maharashtra state filed more filing patents during 5 consecutive years. Low productivity came from the states like Arunachal Pradesh (2009-10), Tripura, Sikkim and Manipur (2007-08) filed only one patent during the study years. When we cross examined the patent filing contribution by SAARC countries, expected result was India, which filed more patents during 5 years. The SAARC countries like, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Maldives not made an single attempt to file a patent during 2005-06 to 2009-10. There is no patent filing in the general subject during 2005-06 to 2007-08. More number of patents are filed other than Chemical, Drug, Food, Electrical, Mechanical, Computer/Electronics, Biotechnology disciplines during five years. ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference:::: 1. Bowman, W.H. Importance of patents and information services to research workers. J. Chem. Inf. Comp. Sci., 1978, 18, 81-82. 2. Coombs, R. Core competencies and the strategic management of R&D. R&D Manage., 1996, 26(4), 345-55. 3. http://ipindia.nic.in/ 4. http://ipindia.nic.in/ipr/patent/patents.htm 5. http://web.mit.edu/e-club/hadzima/the-importance-of-patents.html 6. http://www.blonnet.com/2007/05/23/stories/2007052304882300.htm 7. http://www.commonwealthfoundation.com/Aboutus/TheCommonwealth/Commonweal thcountries 8. Ishita G. Tripathy, Surendra S. Yadav, Seema Sharma .Research and Development, Patenting and Performance: Evidence from Indian Pharmaceutical Industry Vol. 32, No 3 (2012) 9. Muqbil Burhan, Sudhir K. Jain. Tools for Search, Analysis and Management of Patent Portfolios, Vol. 32, No 3 (2012) 10. N.B. Dahibhate, S.K. Patil. Trends in Indian Patent Filing in Chemical Sciences: An Analysis, Vol. 32, No 3 (2012) 11. Pradeep P. Paranjpe. Patent Information and Search , Vol. 32, No 3 (2012) 12. Pratibha Gokhale, Sudha Kannan. Retrieving Patents: An Overview for Pharmaceutical Industry, Vol. 32, No 3 (2012) 13. Sujit Bhattacharya. Delineating the Patent Data: A Case Study of Prolific Patenting Institutions of India and China Vol. 27, No 1 (2007)
  • 95. 84 14. Gupta, V K. Evolution of Technical Competence in CSIR: A Case Study using Patents Data. Vol. 27, No 1 (2007). 15. Gupta, V K. Security-related Provisions in IPR Laws in India Vol. 27, No 4 (2007)
  • 96. 85 COPYRIGHT ACT AND INFORMATION LITERACYCOPYRIGHT ACT AND INFORMATION LITERACYCOPYRIGHT ACT AND INFORMATION LITERACYCOPYRIGHT ACT AND INFORMATION LITERACY Dr. Moorttimatee Samantaray Deputy Librarian L.D.D., NCERT Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-16 AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract In the current knowledge driven society, copyright and intellectual property right plays an important role. Traditionally knowledge was considered as the property of the society and knowledge was being created for the benefit of the society. In course of time, due to invention of the printing press and wide dissemination copyright act came into existence. This paper indicates the importance of copyright law, its history, international protection and underlying principles with an emphasis on the author’s right, copyright transfer, exceptions in copyright and copyright infringement etc. The author highlights to sensitise the user community to be literate about the act and understand and use which will help in not violating the law. She also throws light on the role of the librarians in this direction. 1.01.01.01.0 Introduction:Introduction:Introduction:Introduction: In ancient days, creative persons like writers, artists, musicians wrote, made or composed their works for fame and recognition. There was no question of copyright. Today, we live in a world of instant global communications. Everyone is familiar with the technological developments that have come with dazzling rapidity. In recent decades, photocopying has revolutionized the possibilities for quick, easy copying of printed works. New techniques for recording sound and visual images have proliferated. Home video machines provide the means to copy television programmes off-air for later use. Computer technology has created a new dimension in communication and information science to store and retrieve knowledge. These technologies are providing unprecedented opportunities for communication between peoples. Copyright owners are being law suits where unauthorized use is made of their work. They are also seeking new forms of legislative protection. Copyright laws are also being revised to meet the challenges of the new technologies. 2.02.02.02.0 History of Copyright:History of Copyright:History of Copyright:History of Copyright: Origin of copyright has been linked to the European invention of printing in the fifteenth century. Prior to Gutenberg’s invention, works of intellectual creation were regulated by a the laws of property. The author of a work became the proprietor of a material object and could sell it to another person. Plagiarism was very rare and was being severely condemned when noticed with the development of the printing press, the costs of the manufacturing books decreased and they became more widely available. Thus, the work of intellectual creation became the object of commerce and could bring benefits to their authors. The first beneficiaries of this commerce were the printers, who were given the privilege of printing manuscripts. Later, they started printing the work of the living authors. At the end of the 15th century, as printing came into its own, piracy of copyrighted works was also born. During the 17th century, under the liberalizing influence of the English Philosopher John
  • 97. 86 Locke and others, the old order was shaken. Booksellers and printers defended their privileges referring to the theory of Intellectual Property. In England, on 11th Jan, 1709 a draft bill was introduced in the House of Commons “for the encouragement of learning by vesting the copies of printed books in the authors or purchasers of such copies during Times therein mentioned.” This draft became the law of 10th April 1710 known as Queen Anne’s Statute. It was the first law on copyright in the modern sense of the term and it recognized for the first time the existence of an individual right to protection of a published work. The statute of Anne gave the author of already printed books the sole right to reprint them for a period of 21 yrs from the date of enactment of the law. For unpublished books, it was for 14th yrs which can be renewed for another 14 yrs if the author is alive. Protection granted in the statue was subject to some formalities. It did not mention other printed matter, engravings or art form. It was soon recognized that, 1970 law did not provide sufficient prerogative to book authors. There was a question to public performances, dramatic versions and translations. The English satiric artist Higarth, victim of piratical copying of his drawings, led a successful more for the protection of artists, designers and painters which resulted the enactment for 1735 of an Engravers’ Act. Copyright law of 1790 provided protection for books, maps and charts. Germany recognized the author’s right 27th February; 1686.In Russia the first law on copyright only with literary work was enacted in1830.In India Copyright Act was passed in 1914, based on U.K. Copyright Act, 1911 and the copyright bill was introduced in 1957 giving rise to copyright Act 1957. 3.0 International Protection:3.0 International Protection:3.0 International Protection:3.0 International Protection: Development of international relations, cultural exchanges, and translation of works into other languages required protection of works of national origin outside national territories and of foreign authors within national boundaries. Historically foreign works were originally accorded protection by establishment of special clauses in national laws providing for reciprocity. In other words, if the works of nationals of state ‘A’ were protected in state ‘B’, the works of state ‘B’ would be protected in state ‘A’. Some bilateral treaties were also concluded. But these problems did not meet the whole problem of international protection. A need was felt for international co-operation. At the end of 19th century, joint efforts of a number of states led to the conclusion of the first multilateral agreement – The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works – signed in 1886. 4.0 Underlying Principles:4.0 Underlying Principles:4.0 Underlying Principles:4.0 Underlying Principles: Need of society for access to knowledge and right of the individual writers are the principles behind the copyright act. Copyright act keeps the balance between both. Copyright laws differ from country to country. On the national level, copyright protects the creation of nationals of one state within its borders or works first published in that state. Copyright laws protect literary, artistic and scientific works in various forms. Multilateral conventions or bilateral treaties extend copyright protection across national boundaries. There are other laws that protect works of the mind. Copyright is also called intellectual property. Intellectual creations in the other fields of human endeavour are not the subject matter of copyright but may be protected under patent, trademark or design protection law for industrial drawings. Copyright is a personal property. Creator of the literary, artistic or scientific work is referred to as author. Author may be a painter, sculptor, composer, choreographer or other artist depending on the form of expression. Author’s rights lie at the heart of all copyright laws. The rights are exclusive and use of a work requires prior authorization of the author. To find a balance between the author’s personal rights and the need of the society for knowledge and information the exclusive rights of the authors sometimes has been limited by law. But the authors need to be paid remuneration known as “royalty”. Author is benefited economically. It is the right of the author to decide whether his work may be
  • 98. 87 made available to the public or not. This is the right of an author to claim recognition for his work and to associate or not. The author has the right to communicate to the public under his name or borrowed name (Pseudonym) or anonymously. If any change without the consent of the author by the publisher is made, he has every right to withdraw from circulation. Some laws give the author the right to make correction or improvements when the new edition is prepared and should involve undue expenses for the publisher. The author is also granted the right to defend himself against abusive criticism. So, the author has every control on the integrity of his work. Economic rights of authors are those that enable him to earn a living from his work. It should be a reasonable share of the economic return. Right to reproduce and rights to communicate to the public are the two basic economic rights of the author. Right to distribution covers certain terms and conditions. Copyright protects the works of the author. But, will not prevent anyone from using the work/idea. Therefore, the concept of derivative works i.e., translations and collection of works came into existence. However, the copyright lied with the original author. Preparation of a new work in the same or different form based upon the existing work is known as adaptation. Textbooks developed and published by NCERT are also adapted by other states. Translation is based on the original work (pre-existing).The translator brings a special skill to his task and often knowledge not only of the two languages involved, but of the subject matter of the material to be translated. In this case, agreement between both author and translator is signed. Collections and compilations are protected if they have involved intellectual creativity in the editing and arrangement. 5.0 Limits/Exceptions5.0 Limits/Exceptions5.0 Limits/Exceptions5.0 Limits/Exceptions Keeping in mind the need of the society, there are certain exceptions in the copyright law. Few to mention are: • Publishers publish without the consent of the authors. • Fair use/ fair dealings. • Public should be allowed to use freely (libraries, archives etc.) • In some countries, documents published by the Government may be copyrighted. • News reports made by means of photocopying, cinematography, newspapers, magazines, radio and T.V. – protected work must be incidental, accidental or necessary to the information purpose of the news reports. In such cases, the author’s permission is not requested. • Most laws also exclude from protection certain oral works such as political speeches and speeches made in the court of law by judges or counsel, may be reproduced for public interest. • Rules for quotation – Must be limited to users specified in the law. • Literature – Quotations may only be made of extracts. • Special provision for education. Authors, producers and users – students, teachers, and libraries – find in conflict over permissible limits of free use. • For photocopying and off-the-air taping of the programmes, even for non-profit educational uses, have not yet clearly established. • Only some brief passages of the same author may be used. • Length is strictly defined. • Archives, public libraries, non-commercial documentation centres and scientific and educational institutions provide a valuable public service. Certain laws incorporate special provisions for copying by such institutions. (Conservation of collection and the rational organization of loan services.)
  • 99. 88 • Reproduction of works of art, monuments, and buildings, permanently located in public places without author’s permission is not allowed. • Statutory licence of compulsory licence and legal licence are synonymous terms used for printed works recording and radio broadcasting purpose. In case of anonymous works, publishers own the copyright. But, this is wrong. This happens as long as the real author does not reveal the real name. In case of cinematographic works, writer and producer hold the responsibility jointly. 6.06.06.06.0 Transfer of copyrightTransfer of copyrightTransfer of copyrightTransfer of copyright:::: During the lifetime of the author, copyright is not transferable. Only economic right is transferable. Transfer of rights in future work is restricted. The rights are always transferred through contract. Time limit on transfer of copyright varies from place to place. Rights can be transferred to any person by will. In the absence of a will, the power to assure protection of moral rights is transmitted to his heirs by operation of law. Moral and economic right is limited to a given period varies from country to country. The copyright protection varies from country to country. When the terms of protection expires: • The work is available in the public domain. • May be used by any person. • Once the work is available in public domain, the copyright is lost forever. 7.07.07.07.0 Violation of copyright law and Indian Book Publishing:Violation of copyright law and Indian Book Publishing:Violation of copyright law and Indian Book Publishing:Violation of copyright law and Indian Book Publishing: Indian Book Industry is ever growing and has great potential to excel in terms of publication. But in certain cases, it is felt that, there is violation of copyright law: • Change of title • Classic books available in new format • Availability of pirated books • Change of title without the permission of authors • One original book published in two or three parts • Promoting pseudo-authorship • Publishing sub-standard books • Misconception of authorship 8.08.08.08.0 Role of Librarians:Role of Librarians:Role of Librarians:Role of Librarians: The librarian should have knowledge of publishing practices of book publishing industry in order to trace out the forgery involved in the processes of publishing. The librarian should- • Examine the title page and the content page. • Check, if the title is duplicate i.e., if the same title is already published by any other publisher.
  • 100. 89 • Check the price of the book because sometimes the publishers publish the pirated books in higher rate than the original ones. • Follow the book selection tools like – publishers’ catalogues, booksellers’ list, book reviews, national bibliographies, trade bibliographies, subject bibliographies etc. • Advise the book selection committee members to visit the book exhibitions, book shops to understand the trend of book market. 9.09.09.09.0 Copyright infringement and remedies:Copyright infringement and remedies:Copyright infringement and remedies:Copyright infringement and remedies: Any act with respect to any exclusive right in a protected work constitutes infringement, if authorization has not been obtained in advance. Infringement copyright in any form is tantamount to theft and liable to action. Most common forms of infringement are plagiarism and counterfeiting. Plagiarism describes the act of copying another person’s writing and passing as one’s own whereas counterfeiting is the unauthorized reproduction, performance or communication by any means. The remedies are to follow:The remedies are to follow:The remedies are to follow:The remedies are to follow: • The Copyright Act, 1857 came into force on 21st Jan, 1958. • The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1983 • The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1984 • The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1992 • The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994, 1995 • The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1999 • The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2010 • The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 No. 27 of 2012 10.010.010.010.0 Copyright and the developing worldCopyright and the developing worldCopyright and the developing worldCopyright and the developing world:::: Intellectual production is very important to the process of nation-building. Therefore, a variety measures are being taken by developing countries, including the national production of books and other educational and cultural products and development of modern communications to achieve these goals. Developing countries are anxious to have access to the best works of other countries. By protecting expression of human mind, copyright law enables countries to communicate. Developing countries need access to university texts in their local languages, which copyright was blocking. Then the role of copyright, translation and reproduction came into existence. To mention few acts in the international scenario are: • Universal copyright convention as signed at Geneva on 6 September, 1952 (1952 convention) • Berne convention for the protection of literary and artistic works – Paris Act of July 24, 1971 (Amended on September 28, 1979) • WIPO (World International Property Organization) Copyright Treaty, 1996. • Convention relating to the distribution of programme-carrying signals transmitted by satellite (Brussels on May 21, 1974) • The cinematograph Act, 1952
  • 101. 90 11.0 Piracy related loss and Software11.0 Piracy related loss and Software11.0 Piracy related loss and Software11.0 Piracy related loss and Software:::: Some examples of the piracy related loss are mentioned below: • The annual loss world-over from piracy of books, music, films and software runs to billions of dollars, • In 2003, India suffered a loss of 350 crore due to piracy of films and video records, • India has a piracy rate of 69% in 2007, 68% in 2008 and 65% in 2009. In order to overcome the piracy related loss some software has come into limelight. • The plagiarism detecting software is: Turnitin, Viper, iThenticate; • It works like search engine; • The student’s/research scholar’s paper is uploaded and the software checks the database. 12.0 Conclusion12.0 Conclusion12.0 Conclusion12.0 Conclusion There is no disagreement among schools and experts that since antiquity people have been lifting academic and literary works and ideas and presenting them as their own. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that, using work without attribution is plagiarism. The internet has made it easy to plagiarise, but the same medium is used to catch the wrongdoer. Many companies and institutions use internet based plagiarism detection services. There are many software’s used to check originality in professional writing. Copyright laws are there in national and international levels for infringement. We, the academic community need to respect the laws and produce the intellectual property accordingly. In many cases, it is found that, some research scholars try to copy and paste the work of one researcher in their own work. In order to avoid such type of plagiarism, UGC- INFLIBNET has taken up the project “SHODHGANGA”, which is an online library of theses and dissertations. There is a need to develop proper understanding among the users about “Fair Use” and “Library Copying”. Copyright Act should encourage the use of information not for creating a barrier for steady and smooth flow of information. It is a challenge for information professionals to work as a liaison between owners of copyright and users of information by organizing information literacy programmes. References:References:References:References: 1. Basheer, Shamnad. “Publishers vs Students.” The Indian Express (New Delhi), August 30, 2012, sec. The OP-ED Page. 2. Chatterjee, Koshik. “What’s wrong with I P R in India: a legalistic approach” IASLIC Bulletin 49, no. 4 (2004): 249-254. 3. India, Government of. “The Copyright (Amendment) Act, No.27 of 2012.” In Gazette of India: extraordinary. Delhi: Controller of Publications, 2012. 1-14. 4. Malhotra, Dina N. 60 years of book publishing in India 1947-2007. New Delhi: The Fedration of Indian Publishers, 2006. 5. Matthan, Rahul. “To copy or not, within the bounds of law.” The Indian Express (New Delhi), August 30, 2012, sec. The OP-ED Page. 6. Murty, A. L. “Copyright in Digital Era.” Workshop on Intellectual Property Right with reference to patents and copyrights. DRDO, New Delhi & INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad. Mizoram University, Aizawl. 27 Aug. 2012. Lecture.
  • 102. 91 7. Singh, Shuchita. Copyright law and Indian book publishing industry. Implications for libraries. “IASLIC Bulletin 52, no.2 (2007): 115-119. 8. The ABC of copyright. Paris: Unesco, 1981.
  • 103. 92 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ININTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ININTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ININTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN INDIAINDIAINDIAINDIA Abdul Rashid Librarian National Institute of Technology Hazratbal, Srinagar 190006 J&K AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract:::: IPRs are statutory rights granted to the products of intellect i.e. rights granted for innovative and creative products/works. Like any other property rights, IP can be sold, gifted, licensed and inherited. 1.1.1.1. Introduction:Introduction:Introduction:Introduction: Man is superb i.e., he is endowed with ‘intellect’ and this creative genius of human being creates intellectual property and in turn, when this property is exploited leads to all round progress and prosperity. Every human endeavour which promote economic, social, scientific and cultural development of society must be encouraged and the creator must be suitably rewarded by affording legal protection to his intellectual creation i.e., Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). Moreover, to harmonise laws to facilitate international trade and the free flow of technology, it was necessary to obtain sufficient protection in other countries of the world, in view of the disparity in the laws in each country. Thus, IPRs are the legal rights governing the use of creations of human minds and prevents third parties from becoming unjustly enriched by reaping what they have not sown. 2.2.2.2. Notion and Scope:Notion and Scope:Notion and Scope:Notion and Scope: IPRs are statutory rights granted to the products of intellect i.e. rights granted for innovative and creative products/works. Like any other property rights, IP can be sold, gifted, licensed and inherited. IPRs cover patents, copyright, trademark, industrial designs, geographical indications, layout design of integrated circuits, new plant varieties and undisclosed information or trade secrets. Patents designs, trademarks and geographical indications are administered by the Controller General of Patents. Designs and Trademarks are under the control of the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Copyright is under the charge of MHRD. The Act on Layout design of Integrated Circuit is administered by the Ministry of Telecommunication and Information Technology. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Authority is administered by Ministry of Agriculture. A patent is an exclusive right granted by a country to the owner of an invention to make use, manufacture and market the invention. An invention may be defined as a novel idea which permits in practice the solution of a specific problem. For an innovation to be registered as patent, it must be new, involve an inventive step, capable of industrial application. Patents can be granted for products as well as processes. In India, the term of a patent is 20 years from the date of filing the application. Plants and animals except microorganisms cannot be patented. However, new plant varieties are protected under the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Act 2001. Copyright is a legal term describing rights given to creators for their literary and artistic. Copyright can be acquired in relation to works of authorship that include literary works, musical works, and accompanying
  • 104. 93 lyrics, dramatic works and dialogues, pantomimes, choreography, pictorial, graphic and sculptural works inclusive of drawings, paintings photographic works, architecture, works of applied arts, maps, plans, sketches, motion picture and other audio-visual works and sound recording. Computer programs or software are covered within literary work. The term of a copyright is the lifetime of author plus 60 years. In India, the right is protected by the Copyright Act of 1957, which was amended a number of times. Under the Act, registration of a work is not compulsory, i.e. there is no requirement of completion of any formality of registration. A Trademark is a visual system in the form of a word, a symbol or a label applied to article of manufacture or sale with a view to indicating to the consumer the origin of manufacture. It helps to distinguish such goods from similar goods manufactured by the others in the same trade. The term of protection of Trademark is 7 years renewable from time to time. Example: Parker for pen, Titan for watch, Nike for shoes. In India, this protection is obtained through legislation covered under the Trade and Merchandise Act 1958. Industrial design protects the aesthetic aspects such as shape, texture, colour and pattern of a product rather than technical features. The term of an industrial design is 15 years. Geographical indications (GI) identify a good as originating from a territory, a region or a locality where a given quality reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographic origin. Some examples of GI are Darjeeling tea, Basmati rice, Kashmiri shawl etc. Any association of persons or producers or any organization or authority established by law can apply for GI’s registration. The term of GI is 10 years but may be renewed from time to time. Semiconductors Integrated Circuit Layout Design Act 2000 provides protection for IC layout designs. The term of IC layout protection is 10 years. Undisclosed information refers to trade secrets or know-how that has the commercial value because it is secret and that has been subjected to reasonable steps to keep it secret. For example the know-how to produce Rooh Afza, a popular drink is a trade secret. 3.3.3.3. Implications:Implications:Implications:Implications: Positive: Intellectual property plays an important role in an increasingly broad range of areas, ranging from the internet to health care to nearly all aspects of science and technology and literature and the arts. Understanding the role of intellectual property in these areas – many of them still emerging – often requires significant new research and study. The 21ST Century ushered in unprecedented advances in global protection for Intellectual Property and the process is going on and on. Thus, the leadership of the world in the present century will increasingly be in the hands of those who create and harness knowledge. This century, often called the century of knowledge, is indeed the century of the mind. A nation’s ability to convert knowledge into wealth and social good through creativity and innovation will determine its future standing in the comity of nations. In a highly competitive international trade, increased importance is placed on planning and forecasting, and development of appropriate commercial and industrial strategies by enterprises, industrial groups, and countries. This strategic planning is an increasingly important part of the successful implementation of the product marketing policy of companies, and of the establishment and development of an appropriate technological base that is appropriate to the capacities and opportunities of each country. Every human endeavour which promotes economic, social, scientific and cultural development of society must be encouraged and the creator must be suitably rewarded by affording legal protection to his intellectual creation. Intellectual property creation and protection is one of the tools, which can enrich and empower the common man or transform a feeble firm into a giant corporation. Intellectual property creates economic tigers and offers much more to an individual, society and corporate world. History has numerous examples of people or corporations hitting it big with a new technology or
  • 105. 94 inventions. Take the examples of Graham Bell (AT&T), Thomas Alva Edison (GE), to James Watt. All of these individuals indirectly created giant businesses on the trump of their Patents. Corporations like Texas Instruments (TI), International Business Machines (IBM) or Microsoft (MSN) have created wealth by mere licensing their patented technology. Can we say there is a connection between a good patent regime and advancement of a nation? Studies of patent systems of developed countries in the world reveal a matured patent system whereas developing or poor countries show a poor patent protection system. In fact, the IPR system attempts to: 1. Encourage and safeguard intellectual creativity. A strong IP system of protection gives inertia to a country’s inventive and creative activity and in turn, this serves to fuel the entrepreneurial spirit; 2. Promote investment, by giving a guarantee against unauthorized use of the patented inventions to those who accept the risk of advancing from the prototype stage to mass production. Thus IP protection is a crucial factor for luring or attracting direct foreign investment in a country; 3. Provide consumers with the fruits of inventive and innovative activity, by the large-scale production and distribution of higher performance and higher quality goods; 4. Disseminate quickly and widely new ideas and technologies, by creating a public database of new inventions and technologies and thus avoid duplicative research work. Negative: The impact of copyright is more ubiquitous than in the case of patent. Copyright is a determining factor in pricing and access so far books, journals and software are concerned. With the result, a major portion of journals and periodicals is beyond the purchasing budget of higher institutes of learning not only in developing but also in developed countries. Although the philosophy of the internet has been about the free access yet sites with valuable information are charging for its use. Thus, too much prevention by IPRs may restrict a free flow of ideas on which the further progress of ideas and technology depends. There is a general perception that making copies for personal use is fair use or dealing but the question arises: how much? At one time, the UK publishing industry suggested 10 % copying fair but later on it was subsequently withdrawn. Moreover, the rapid technological advancements have greatly affected the manner in which works are created, used and disseminated. The digital technology enables unauthorized creation of unlimited but costless copies and their distribution. This is a major problem raised by international copyright, concerns piracy. The illegal production and distribution of protected works and other flagrant infringements of copyright is, one way of redefining as to what is permissible and what is otherwise illegal and considered infringement of copyright or piracy. 4.4.4.4. Indian Scenario:Indian Scenario:Indian Scenario:Indian Scenario: Historical perspective: The concept of IPRs emerged towards the end of 19th century. The first Indian Copyright Act was enacted in India in 1847. Subsequently, in 1914, the British Copy Right Act of 1911 was made applicable to India. Around the same time, a Patent Act and a Design Act were also enacted. India joined the Berne Union as early as 1928. India was given protection to literary and artistic works of all countries even when Europe was crying hoarse over the piracy of European works in the United States. Since technological innovations pose new challenges to enforcement of IPRs. To ensure protection, India has been amending IPRs periodically to make them modern and up-to-date. Eventually following the TRIPS agreement, Indian Parliament passed the Patents (Amendment) Act of 2005. Similarly, the Indian Merchandise Act of 1889 that
  • 106. 95 awarded exclusive rights to individuals and businesses to use their recognised brands’ and enforce their rights against other traders has, through a series of stages metamorphosed over the years into the currently active Trademarks Act of 1999. Currently the other pieces of legislation that govern IPR in the country are – The Copyrights Act, 1957; last amended in 1999, The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and the Protection) Act, 1999 and The Designs Act, 2000. The Government plans to revamp the existing IP implementation mechanism to address concerns of international players in the pharmacy, food and information technology industries. The Department of Industrial policy and Promotion (DIPP), the nodal department that handles intellectual property rights (IPR) related matters under the Commerce Ministry is launching an ambitious Rs 300 crore project to sensitize all stakeholders, including law enforcement agencies, scientists, companies, ministries and the general public on IPR issues. State-of-the-art trademark registry office is being setup in Ahmedabad to enhance infrastructure capacities of existing trademark office in New Delhi. A National Institute of Intellectual Property Management is planned at Nagpur to improve IPR protection in the country. Bollywood, the largest producer of feature films in the world still complains about IPR issues for cinematography which is 60 years whereas for literary, musical and artistic works, it is life term of the author plus 60 years. 5.5.5.5. InfringementInfringementInfringementInfringement –––– Legal and other Remedies:Legal and other Remedies:Legal and other Remedies:Legal and other Remedies: Copyright in a work shall be deemed to be infringed- A.A.A.A. When any person, without a licence granted by the owner of the copyright or the Registrar of Copyrights under Copyrights Act 1957 ( this Act ) or in contravention of the conditions of a licence so granted or of any condition imposed by a competent authority under this Act- i. Does anything, the exclusive right to do which is by this Act conferred upon the owner of the copyright, or ii. Permits for profit any place to be used for the communication of the work to the public where such communication constitutes an infringement of the copyright in the work, unless he was not aware and had not reasonable ground for believing that such communication to the public would be an infringement of copyright: or B. When any person,- • Makes for sale or hire, or sells or lets for hire or by way of trade displays or offers for sale or hire, or • Distributes either for the purpose of trade or to such an extent as to affect prejudicially the owner of the copyright, or • By way of trade exhibits in public, or • Imports into India any infringing copies of the work • Provided that nothing in sub-clause IV shall apply to the import of one copy of any work for the private and domestic use of the importer. Explanation – For the purpose of this section, the reproduction of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work in the form of a cinematograph film shall be deemed to be an “Infringing copy”.
  • 107. 96 6.6.6.6. Remedies against infringement:Remedies against infringement:Remedies against infringement:Remedies against infringement: The Act has laid down very effective mechanism for protecting the various infringements through score of remedies, as follows: 7.7.7.7. Civil Remedies (Sections 54 to 62):Civil Remedies (Sections 54 to 62):Civil Remedies (Sections 54 to 62):Civil Remedies (Sections 54 to 62): ---- Search and Seizure Order The English Courts devised a preventive measure in response to growing piracy of sound recording, video and other copyrights, called as Anton Pillar Order (1976 RPC 719). It is an ex parte order requiring the defendant to permit the plaintiff accompanied by solicitor to enter the premises and make inspection of relevant documents and articles, take copies thereof and remove them for safe custody. 8.8.8.8. Injunctions:Injunctions:Injunctions:Injunctions: The plaintiff may restrain defendant from infringement of copyright /s by seeking relief through • Temporary injunction • Permanent injunction / Interlocutory injunction 9.9.9.9. Criminal Remedies:Criminal Remedies:Criminal Remedies:Criminal Remedies: The infringement of copyright is not only a civil wrong, but also a criminal offence. Hence criminal proceedings can be initiated against the infringer. Sections 63, 63-A, 63-B, 67, 68, 68 – A and 65 of the Act provides for the nature of offence and quantum of punishment for the offence. 10.10.10.10. Administrative RemedieAdministrative RemedieAdministrative RemedieAdministrative Remedies:s:s:s: Under Section 9 of the Act, the office of the Copyright, headed by the Registrar Copyright is created. Further, the Copyright Board is created under section 11. The Registrar copyright is the secretary of the Board of copyright. Under Chapter 11, the Registrar and Board of Copyright have been vested with some powers to check violations of copyrights. The Registrar may impose ban on importation of infringed copies of the work, incase reported by the owner of copyright. The holistic view of the Remedies provided in the Act, though seems adequate and effective, incase the provisions are implemented in letter and spirit, but taking the lead from the Indian infringement scenario of copyrights such as books, audio and video records and computer programmes and data, a strong and more stringent legal regime is required to be developed, in order to combat this menace, so that the actual owners of copyright are not put to monitory and mental disadvantage. A quick search of the decided cases in the Supreme Court and the High Courts with reference to Section 64 (Revocation of Patents) of the Patents Act, 1970 gives 22 results. The number is expected to increase dramatically because of the awareness about patents and the importance given to patent as a tool to protect the IP by businesses. 11.11.11.11. Education and TrainingEducation and TrainingEducation and TrainingEducation and Training:::: Teaching and training in IPRS are not issues of law faculty alone but should be promoted among the general public. They should span across all subjects, engineering, technology, applied sciences, management and even literature because IP is spawned in all branches of human endeavour. Promoting IP education in universities is crucial to promoting IP in society because the future clearly belongs to innovative society. Faculty members of professional institutions need to become more familiar with IPRs & IP laws. Engineering and management students
  • 108. 97 equipped with the knowledge of IPRs will make the industries they work, more competitive through timely sourcing the right technology. Day by day the knowledge of IPRs is becoming the basic need of all engineers and managers. Various IITs and NITs have an IPR Education Cell in their departments of management studies. IIT Delhi offers a full semester course (SM802N) ‘Management of IPRs’ as elective to all III/IV year B. Tech. And PG students of the institute. Technology and Science knowledge background now form a very essential condition for building specialized legal profession in Technology Law and IPRs. In order to bridge the gap in the specialized legal professionals and human resource, Rajiv Gandhi School of Intellectual Property Law has been established at IIT Kharagpur. It offers (i) three years LLB degree with specialization in IPR (ii) three semesters PG diploma in IP law (iii) doctoral programs in law related to IPR. A number of other institutions are also offering PG diploma, diploma, and certificate courses in the field of IP {full time, part time or distance learning mode}. The IGNOU has recently started PG Diploma in IPRs and also offers a non credit awareness course. The awareness course is suitable for working journalists, legal professionals, corporate & business organizations or any individual interested in learning about IPRs. The study materials can be downloaded from the IGNOU’s web site. Microsoft’s link to ‘The Teachers Guide to IPR’ is also available on net. The other Institutes offering IPR education are:- • Indian Law Institute, New Delhi • National Law Institute, Bhopal • University of Cochin • Amity Law School, New Delhi • Institute of Intellectual property studies, Mumbai • Asian School of Cyber Laws, Pune • Symbiosis Society’s Law College, Pune • Express Pharma Pulse, Mumbai • National Police Academy, Hyderabad etc. But this is not enough. To handle the increased number of prosecution matters, there is an urgent need of qualified and competent patent examiners, lawyers, judges and court staff. More and more institutions on the lines of Rajiv Gandhi School of Intellectual Property Law at IIT Kharagpur are needed. Necessary changes in the curriculum of Business and law schools; and other institutions of higher learning are the need of the day. There are many issues which need to be studied and researched in the Indian context to work towards a balanced practical state for our IPRs system. The research should be interdisciplinary in nature involving laws, science, engineering, business, economics, commerce and social sciences. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) assist universities and schools of higher learning, inter alia, in training of human resources who can teach IP in those institutions, development of curricula for the teaching of IP and development of teaching materials. The ultimate objective is to foster a healthy IP culture around the world. 12.12.12.12. Conclusion:Conclusion:Conclusion:Conclusion: Intellectual property is the result of conversion of knowledge into a commercially exploitable potential. It is for the betterment of all nations to promote IPRs. Only societies where such rights are protected witness cultural advancement and economic progress. IP has become a better understood as a great tool for wealth creation. It can be used as a facilitator, a catalyst for economic, social and cultural development and a nation that participates in the promotion of the protection of IP is surely bound to prosper. On the other hand, a country that does not have a
  • 109. 98 well developed IP infrastructure loses out on many fronts – competitive front, the investment front and the loss of revenue in direct and indirect taxes. Most of all, such a country is unable to develop its own authentic industrial assets. It remains a copycat, and thus has no soul of its own. Obviously, there is a need to bring down the concept of IPRs from the ivory tower of logistic jargon to the common man e.g., for protecting the new plant variety, take the farmers into confidence and educate them. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance basic awareness, upgrade legislation, strengthen infrastructure capabilities and fill in the many gaps that still remain in these areas. Considering the importance of IPR in today’s world, 26 April is celebrated as World Intellectual Property Day. ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences:::: 1. Anil Kumar, Nisitha and Surati Dakshaben (2005): Copyright in developed countries; an overview. IASLIC Bulletin. 50(4) p. 249-53 2. Bhat R K (2006): copyright law and libraries; current scenario. Journal of library and information science 31 (2) p. 141-52 3. Jain, Pankaj and Panday, Sangeet Rai (2005): Copyright & trademark law relating to computers. 5th ed., Lucknow, Eastern Books. 4. Kaur, Rajwant and Bhagi, Rekha Goyal (2005): Copyright in India; an overview. International Library Movement. 27(2) p 61-77 5. Krishan Kumar and Sharma, S R (2001): Cyber laws; intellectual property and e-commerce security. New Delhi, Dominant Publishers 6. Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights established in May 2001 7. Suri, Gunmala (2008): Challenges for world class Intellectual Property regime in knowledge economy: a glimpses of Indian scenario. The Indian journal of public administration. LIV(1) p. 48-60 8. Wadehra, B. L. (2000): Law Relating to patent, copyright, trademark, designs and geographical indications. 2nd ed., Delhi, Universal Pub. 9. Watal, Jayshree (2000): Intellectual property rights in WTO and developing countries, New York, Oxford University Press 10. www.copyrightservice.co.uk 11. www.iprcommission.org 12. www.umuc.edu/library/copy.shtml
  • 110. 99 ROLE OF INTELLECTUALROLE OF INTELLECTUALROLE OF INTELLECTUALROLE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS INPROPERTY RIGHTS INPROPERTY RIGHTS INPROPERTY RIGHTS IN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIESINSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIESINSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIESINSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES Dr. Subarna Kr. Das Assosciate Professor Dept. Of Library & Information Science Jadavpur University Kolkata – 700 032, West Bengal & Narendra Bhattacharya Research Scholar Dept. Of Library & Information Science, Jadavpur University Kolkata- 700032, West Bengal AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract:::: The Open Archives Initiative may be considered as an integral part of the “open access” movement. The proposition is that the work of academic authors should be made available free at the point of use to academic users anywhere in the world. The Open Archives Initiative has proposed to change the way people publish and share scholarly content. Institutional repositories are becoming prevalent in academic sector. It is one of the most popular tools for self-archival and dissemination of an organization’s intellectual or scholarly output. The primary objective is not just to support the open access movement or preservation or changing the scholarly publication process, but disseminating the institution’s research or work to the outside community. The IR serves as a qualitative indicator of an institution prestige, and public value. The challenges faced by the institutions are the copyright policies of publishers, which may not allow or allow self-archiving with associated riders. Issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and content licensing may be considered as most important policy issues from creation and depositing content in an IR. The paper examines the implications of IPRs in the context of populating IR. 1.01.01.01.0 IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction:::: The digital environment has been able to provide a conducive environment for facilitating fast and visible progress in the delivery mechanism of scholarly publications. Factors like the open- access movement, self-archiving and open access (OA) journal publishing, open-archives initiative (OAI), formation of Institutional Repositories (Irs), open source software, and development of cheap computing and storage costs are playing a major role in changing the whole paradigm. The shrinking budgetary support, increasing rise in prices of journals and the mind set and attitudinal patterns of the authorities in institution of higher learning clearly indicate that some alternatives to meet these challenges have to be found out. It is through the Institutional Repositories. (Irs) that quality of intellectual output can be measured since till now there is no quality measurement method for the publishers and contributors. Irs is becoming prevalent as the most preferred route to self-archiving. They are providing a centralised system for content capturing, organising, storage, retrieving, disseminating, and preservation from a single interface thus acting as a scholarly content management system.
  • 111. 100 1.11.11.11.1 Intellectual Property RightsIntellectual Property RightsIntellectual Property RightsIntellectual Property Rights:::: Intellectual property rights, in the broadest sense, are rights given to creators and owners for their intellectual creativity in the industrial, scientific, literary, and artistic domain. The work can be in the form of an invention, a manuscript, a suite of software, or a business name. In general, the objective of IPRs is to protect the rights of the creators/owners and at the same time allow the common people to access their creativities. IPRS maintain this balance by putting in place time- limits on the creators/owners mean of controlling a particular work. The law that regulates the creation, use and control of the protected work is popularly known as Intellectual Property (IP) Law.1 IPRS are mainly statutory rights that allow the creators of the products to prevent people from using the same commercially for a certain period of time. IPRS issues have today taken a global shape in the form of World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Trade-related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. The principal IPRs are copyright, patents, trademarks, registered designs, geographical indicators, anti-competitive policies in contractual licenses, and trade secrets. Research and development (R&D) involves a lot of funding and human intellectual exercise that finally resulted into products and processes, innovations/inventions, new designs, literary and artistic work. These are generally turning out in financial gains to their inventors, authors or creators, and thus are registered under one or the other heads of IPRs. 2.02.02.02.0 CopyrightCopyrightCopyrightCopyright:::: Copyright ensures the legal rights exclusively given for a definite period of time to the authors or creators of intellectual work such as a publication or an artistic or a literary work for sale or any other use. Copyright in such cases provides the authors/ creators the rights of ownership and legal protection against unlawful reproduction of such work. Besides, copyright also recognizes the benefits accrued by the reproduction or usage of their creative works by others. This obviates an agreement between the authors and the publishers (or users). The time span for which the law provides the copyright protection varies in different countries depending upon their regulations. It is life time of the author and a term of 60 years after the death of the author in India, 50 years in UK and USA, and 70 years in the European Union. After the expiry of the copyright period, the work falls into the public domain and then can be used by anyone without authorisation. The salient features of copyright are: • Protection of aesthetic creations without formalities. • Registration not necessary. • Protection of expression of ideas only, not the ideas themselves. • No concern with the quality of the work. • Protection to original work only. 2.12.12.12.1 Amended Copy Right Acts :Amended Copy Right Acts :Amended Copy Right Acts :Amended Copy Right Acts : Song writers, artistes and performers can now claim royalty for their works, as Indian Parliament on 22nd May 2012 approved amendments to the Copyright Act that entitles artistes to lifelong royalty. The Copyright Act (Amendment) Bill, 2012 was passed by the Lok Sabha unanimously, with members from all parties supporting the measure for creative artistes, whose benefits are cornered by producers under the existing law.
  • 112. 101 2.2 Importance2.2 Importance2.2 Importance2.2 Importance:::: Citing the examples of Shehnai exponent Bismillah Khan and music composer Ravi Shankar, to press home the point that the condition of such excellent artistes was pitiable, as they weren’t able to pay even house rent and hospital charges, this Bill made it mandatory for broadcasters — both radio and television — to pay royalty to the owners of the copyright each time a work of art was broadcast. It bans persons from bringing out cover versions of any literary, dramatic or musical work for five years from the first recording of the original creation. The Bill provides for exemption from copyright for any work prepared for the physically challenged in special formats such as Braille. It also permits compulsory license to be granted for a certain number of copies in non-special formats to non-profit organizations working to help disabled persons. It is expected that this amendment would allow authors to negotiate with music companies for royalty to be paid to them for their creations. The Bill also exempted students from the copyright laws for using such material for research purposes. It sought to impose a fine and two years’ imprisonment for persons indulging in piracy. 3.0 Institutional RepositoriesInstitutional RepositoriesInstitutional RepositoriesInstitutional Repositories:::: An IR is defined as a web-based database (repository) of scholarly material, which is institutionally defined cumulative and perpetual (a collection of records); open and interoperable; and thus collects, stores and disseminates mainly scholarly publications. Irs may contain pre-prints/post-prints of research articles, research reports, conference papers, teaching materials, project reports, doctoral theses and dissertations, datasets resulting from research projects, committee papers, computer software, and works of art, photographs, audio/video recordings, patents, standards, and the like. As a digital archive of an institution’s intellectual capital an Irs generally adheres to an OA model, by centralizing and preserving the knowledge of an institution and making it accessible over a network, preferably Internet. Irs are not discipline specific, and aims to archive the entire range of an institution’s scholarly output. Irs form part of a larger global system of repositories, which are indexed in a standardized and searchable way, using one interface, providing the foundation for a new model of scholarly publishing. The paradigm shifts in the social and technological arena surrounding the information and knowledge cycle or generation of scholarly literature are indications of the radical shift towards Irs. IR may cover content of which copyright is owned by institution, or for which permission has been obtained from the publisher to include a copy of the content in the repository. Thus, an IR should not contain content for which suitable copyright or licensing arrangements have not been made. The content of the IR is institutionally bounded, scholarly in nature, cumulative in growth and perpetual in access. 4.04.04.04.0 SalieSalieSalieSalient Features and Benefits of Int Features and Benefits of Int Features and Benefits of Int Features and Benefits of Irrrrs:s:s:s: a) Collection, preservation, and dissemination of an institution’s collective scholarly resources. b) Act as significant pointers of an institution’s academic or research quality. c) Wider accessibility and visibility to institution’s research. d) Challenges the monopoly of publishers. e) Free and OA to content (global access to local content). f) Provides measurable indicators of institutional productivity and increase in its prestige.
  • 113. 102 g) Reduces the time lag between a pre-print and a post-print thus facilitates more timely access to research and scholarship. h) Centralised storage to help carry out research auditing with ease, and acts as a central archive of author’s research profiles. i) Captures unconventional research material such as datasets, video, and audio which cannot be generally accommodated in traditional journals. 4.14.14.14.1 Growth and Development of IGrowth and Development of IGrowth and Development of IGrowth and Development of Irrrrs in Indias in Indias in Indias in India:::: Many universities and research institutes in India have developed institutional repository for archiving documents of their own. It is not only limited to Science and Technology but also on other disciplines. More than 60 academic and research institutions have set up their Institutional Repositories as indicated by ROAR (Registry of Open Access Repository) and DOAR (Directory of Open Access Repository) viz., IISc, IIMK, ISI, NCL, NIO, RRU, NAL, NIT and so on. There are a few institutions have not registered in ROAR or DOAR. Recently, MHRD (Ministry of Human Resource Development) has also advised all INDEST members (Indian National Digital Library in Engineering, Sciences and Technology) to set up institutional repository using open source software. 5.05.05.05.0 Issues Related to Creation of IIssues Related to Creation of IIssues Related to Creation of IIssues Related to Creation of Irrrrssss:::: 5.15.15.15.1 ContentContentContentContent:::: The first step towards creating an IR include establishment of content guidelines. Importantly, it would definitely ensure policies regarding the nature of the content to be deposited (pre-prints, post-prints, working papers, technical reports, etc.) and format of content. 5.25.25.25.2 TechnologyTechnologyTechnologyTechnology:::: Use of appropriate technology where a decision regarding the IR software has to be taken by the implementers. Lots of alternative choices (both commercial and open source) are there, but it depends upon a lot of factors such as the content volume, content format, access authentication, content workflow, user interfaces, and implementation of standards and so on upon which one needs to dwell on and carefully make a choice. Among the open source the most talked about are Dspace, Eprints, Fedora, and Greenstone. 5.35.35.35.3 MetadataMetadataMetadataMetadata:::: The main issue regarding metadata is the schema and the quantity of metadata the content needs to have. It is important to have a healthy mix of descriptive, structural, administrative and rights metadata to have a good indexing and storage system. Dublin Core is the minimum metadata required for OAI interoperability. However, depending on the type of content in the repository, one may want to include other metadata sets. 5.45.45.45.4 Copyright and Content LicensingCopyright and Content LicensingCopyright and Content LicensingCopyright and Content Licensing:::: While depositing content in IR, the major concern is the copyright and the licensing issue. The authors and the IR are concerned that whether or not their publisher’s copyright policies will allow it. It is now possible to search for many publishers and find out what permissions they normally give as part of copyright transfer agreement. The majority of publishers support the rights of academic authors to make available their work online. The archiving policy varies from publisher to publisher like green publishers allow both pre- and post-print archiving; blue publishers allow post-print (i.e. final draft after refereeing) archiving; yellow publishers allow
  • 114. 103 preprint publishers do not support archiving formally. Digital content available freely cannot be considered as OA content, because the copyright owner might not have given consent for the types of permissive uses outlined by the BOAI. In the same way, the lack of a copyright statement does not imply that a digital document is in the public domain. The user should assume that the document is under full copyright until a thorough check of the copyright status of the work has been conducted. The above implies content licensing because OA and free access are not synonyms (a license is used for explicitly granting rights by the copyright owner to the users of content). For example, an e-journal may be freely available, but if its articles are also not available with minimal use restrictions (e.g., proper author attribution), it cannot be termed as an OA journal. OA journals typically use the Creative Commons Attribution (CCA) license. The CCA initiative provides creators with a series of licenses under which creators may make their OA work available. Although e-prints in Irs are freely available, they do not have consistent copyright notice or license practices. The IR implementers need to deposit content with proper license agreements to protect the author’s rights and at the same time make the content more widely accessible. They can choose to write their own license agreement or use the CCA, as long as they embody the OA principles. They also need to offer information on the standard CCA licenses to the depositor and should encourage depositors who retain their copyright to use licenses like the CCA. 6.06.06.06.0 ConclusionConclusionConclusionConclusion:::: Open Access movement, development of Open Archives and the establishment of an IR have emerged as plausible negotiation platforms with publishers over the rights to publish and disseminate research articles in a wider manner. Copyright laws are meant to protect the author’s basic rights and help in advancement of knowledge and research through rewards to the creators. Institutions keep control over how their work is accessed, used and re-used, by ensuring recognition and preservation of author’s intellectual rights. Copyright may be considered as a pivotal issue in the acceptance of an IR service. The author/submitter should go through the copyright policies of the publishers. Although this may vary from publisher to publisher. Authors should also be convinced that they are not losing their IPRs by depositing their work into the repository. The key issue for IR is to ensure that they do not violate or infringe copyright or other IPRs. Project RoMEO’s list of publisher policies is one such tool to prevent this. Content licensing is also one of the areas where active interest from IR implementers and authors has to be put in to generate more user-friendly copyright licenses and remove unnecessary restrictions. To increase deposition of research output in IR is to increase copyright awareness and making deposition mandatory. To ensure initial content for the IR in order to encourage more deposits, implementers can identify the ‘green’ publishers and would ask the authors who have published in those journals for permission to deposit their papers in the institution’s IR. To maximize the use and re-use of research works, all government-funded agencies needs to be self archived and put under minimum restrictive licenses so for the benefit of the society at large. References:References:References:References: 1. ATKINS (D E). Et al., January 2003,Revolutionizing Science and Engineering through Cyber infrastructure: Report of the National Science Foundation Blue- Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyber infrastructure, http://www.communitytechnology.org/nsf_ci_report 2. GASSWAY (L). 2003, Archival materials and copyright ownership. Information Outlook, 7; p7-8.
  • 115. 104 3. GLADNEY ( H M). 1999, Digital dilemma: intellectual property synopsis and views on the study by the National Academies’ Committee on Intellectual Property Rights and the Emerging Information Infrastructure. D-Lib Magazine., 5 ;22 , http://www.dlib.org/dlib/december99/12gladney.html. 4. HARPER (G).2009, Open Access , Institutional Repositories and Intellectual Property : Open Access, Digital Copyright and Marketplace Competition , American Library Association Midwinter Conference. Denver,CO, http:// wikis.ala.org/midwinter2009/images/5/5e/Harper G Mwo9handout.pdf. 5. JAMES (T C). 2005, Digital technology and libraries: a copy-right law approach. Annals of Library and Information Studies, 52; 1; p1- 7.
  • 116. 105 CITATION ANALYSIS ASCITATION ANALYSIS ASCITATION ANALYSIS ASCITATION ANALYSIS AS A TOOL TO MODEL PROGA TOOL TO MODEL PROGA TOOL TO MODEL PROGA TOOL TO MODEL PROGRESS OF SCIENCE: A CRESS OF SCIENCE: A CRESS OF SCIENCE: A CRESS OF SCIENCE: A CASE STUDY ONASE STUDY ONASE STUDY ONASE STUDY ON ANTARCTIC OZONE HOLEANTARCTIC OZONE HOLEANTARCTIC OZONE HOLEANTARCTIC OZONE HOLE RESEARCHRESEARCHRESEARCHRESEARCH Dr.Prabir G.Dastidar Scientist/Director Ministry of Earth sciences Prithvi Bhavan (Opposite to India Habitat Centre) Lodi Road, New Delhi- 110003, INDIA. 1.1 Quantitative studies of science and technologyQuantitative studies of science and technologyQuantitative studies of science and technologyQuantitative studies of science and technology Nation’s science and technology (S&T) base is a critical element of its economic strength, political stature and cultural vitality. Government policy-makers, corporate research managers, and university administrators need valid and reliable S&T indicators for a variety of purposes; for example, to measure the effectiveness of research expenditures, to identify areas of strength and excellence; to set priorities for strategic planning; to monitor performance relative to peers and competitors; and to target emerging specialties and new technologies for accelerated development (Garfield and Welljams-Dorof (1992). As a result, in recent years, efforts to arrive at and subsequently employ these S&T indicators to evaluate and assess research activity have increased. National Science Board of USA regularly brings out science and technology indicators to evaluate their S&T system holistically (NSF 2000). The unprecedented information explosion and far and wide scattering of literature have made it a necessity to undertake an organized study to identify the significant frontier areas of ocean science and technology. The results of this study can be put to productive use and will help ensure that repetitions are avoided and efforts are concentrated on the needful areas to utilize them for the national development. The journals, the carriers of the knowledge entities, are governed by complex social, intellectual and economic imperatives. By applying distribution theories, like Bradford’s laws of journal scattering1 (Bradford 1934) and Lotka’s Law2 (Lotka 1926) in respect of author distribution it is possible to identify significant areas of the aggregations. Bradford (1934) viewed that the core literature for any given scientific discipline was composed of fewer than 1000 journals. Of these 1000 journals, there are relatively few with a very strong relevance to the given topic, whereas there are many with a weaker relevance to it. Those with a weak relevance to the given discipline or topic, however, typically have a strong relevance to another discipline. Thus, the core scientific literature can form itself around various topics with individual journals becoming more or less relevant, depending on the topic. Bradford felt that essential core of journals forms The literature basis for all disciplines and that most of the important papers are published in 1 Bradford's law simply suggests that if there are, say, 1,000 journals in a field, then one-third of the papers are to be found in each of three zones containing about 10, 100 and 1,000 journals, respectively. 2 Authors who are making 2 contributions would be about one-fourth of those making one; the authors making 3 contributions would be about one-ninth; the authors making ‘n’ contributions would be about 1/n2 of those making one. In other words if 100 authors are contributing one article each, there would be 25 authors contributing 2 articles each (100/22 ), about 11 authors would contribute three articles each (100/32 ), about 6 authors would contribute four articles each (100/42 ) and so on.
  • 117. 106 relatively few journals. It was seen that as few as 150 journals account for half of what is cited and one-quarter of what is published. It was also shown that a core of approximately 2,000 journals accounts for about 85% of published articles and 95% of cited articles (Garfield 1996a). Hamilton reported that in science 47.4% papers remain uncited, while 74.7% and 98% papers remain uncited in social science and arts & humanities respectively. Therefore identifying productive clusters remains to be a prerequisite exercise to model the dynamics of growth in science & Technology studies,. These productive clusters can bring great efficiency in the work environment by avoiding overcrowding of less significant entities in the work process. This can increase the quality of the work to a great extent by concentrating on the frontier/productive areas in a given subject specialty. While there may be several indicators to study science & technology dynamics, research publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals are widely regarded as one of the most important indicators. The most commonly used journal-based indicators are publication counts and citation counts. The number of scientific papers published in these international journals provides estimates of the volume of research activity and related knowledge production (Arunachalam 2003). Such Bibliometrics/Scientometrics analyses are regularly used as input into policy making activities (Crouch et al 2005). 1.21.21.21.2 Citation data as science indicatorsCitation data as science indicatorsCitation data as science indicatorsCitation data as science indicators Scientific knowledge itself might be largely intangible, but the written information (codified knowledge) resulting from scientific research has an objective existence and can be referred to. Some important measures of knowledge-production, transfer and utilization can thus be derived from the publications in which scientific knowledge is embodied. To model the dynamics of science and technology, to write history of science, to identify the frontier areas of research and development, information on the following is an essential prerequisite to the study (Garfield and Sher 1963, Garfield et al 1964): Where has an individual author or article been cited? Who are working in the given subject? What journals are publishing articles on a given subject? What are the publications of a given author? Structure and characterization of the network structure of the cognitive blocks and the production units, and Probable causal connections with the socio-economic attributes of the production units. These publications represent the intellectual contribution to a research topic. A majority of scientific researchers publish their major research findings in the scientific and technical journals. Journals play an important role in any scientific investigation, as 80% of the references cited in scientific fields are journal items, whereas in the humanities 80 % of the citations are of books (Garfield 2001). In the publication process, the researchers usually acknowledge work that has influenced them by citing the relevant source documents (research articles, books, reports, etc.) in the reference list or footnotes of those publications, thus establishing an intellectual linkage between the citing and cited paper. The basic premise is that a frequently-cited paper has a greater influence on subsequent research activities than a paper with no citations or only a few.
  • 118. References in the scientific literature to research papers are also used to measure the impact of research and scientific quality (Tijssen and Leeuwen 2003). The us quantitative indicators for science and technology evaluation and policy recognized (Garfield 1992, Garfield and Welljams network of scientific literatures in the form of citations a parameters of scientific research fronts. It obviously does not replace or obviate the need for qualitative analysis by experts in the field, rather they supplement the expert judgements by providing an objective dimension of the Science Citation Index (SCI) forecasting science (Garfield 1970). The correlation between citation frequency and the peer recognition was well studied by Garfield (1970). Twelve Nobel Prizes were awarded out of his 50 most-cited authors and a decade later, another study of Garfield (1981) on 1,000 most scientists further consolidated the potential of SCI as a powerful tool for res evaluation. Garfield and Small (1989) have used the data to carry out a systematic and quantitative analysis of citation data of published research output of Israel to identify emerging areas and extent of scientific research in specific area 1.31.31.31.3 Citations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole research Ozone layer acts like a shield in safeguarding the earth by preventing the harmful ultraviolet radiations from entering into the atmosphere. Reported damage of ozone l was a significant milestone in Antarctic Science research. The research work published by the scientists of British Antarctic Survey (BAS) played a significant role in generating international socio-political debate on this great envi surge of research on the ozone layer to find out a scientific solution to the problem. The dynamics of the research field were mapped using a newly developed indicator Direct Citations (WDC). WDC value indicates intellectual closeness between two citations in terms of co-citations and shared references. references and co-citations to derive WDC values. Fig:Fig:Fig:Fig: 1111 Growth of scientific research in ozone layer visGrowth of scientific research in ozone layer visGrowth of scientific research in ozone layer visGrowth of scientific research in ozone layer vis Citation based modeling was used to identify important scientific events in the development of the research fiel References in the scientific literature to research papers are also used to measure the impact of research and scientific quality (Tijssen and Leeuwen 2003). The use of citation data as quantitative indicators for science and technology evaluation and policy recognized (Garfield 1992, Garfield and Welljams-Dorof 1992, Arunachalam 2003). World network of scientific literatures in the form of citations among world’s articles define the parameters of scientific research fronts. It obviously does not replace or obviate the need for qualitative analysis by experts in the field, rather they supplement the expert judgements by providing an objective dimension to the entire judgement process. Eugene Garfield, the creator of the Science Citation Index (SCI)® , demonstrated the power of this tool in studying and forecasting science (Garfield 1970). The correlation between citation frequency and the peer was well studied by Garfield (1970). Twelve Nobel Prizes were awarded out of his cited authors and a decade later, another study of Garfield (1981) on 1,000 most scientists further consolidated the potential of SCI as a powerful tool for res evaluation. Garfield and Small (1989) have used the data to carry out a systematic and quantitative analysis of citation data of published research output of Israel to identify emerging areas and extent of scientific research in specific areas. Citations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole research Ozone layer acts like a shield in safeguarding the earth by preventing the harmful ultraviolet radiations from entering into the atmosphere. Reported damage of ozone l was a significant milestone in Antarctic Science research. The research work published by the scientists of British Antarctic Survey (BAS) played a significant role in generating international political debate on this great environmental crisis. This crucial discovery led to sudden surge of research on the ozone layer to find out a scientific solution to the problem. The dynamics of the research field were mapped using a newly developed indicator WDC value indicates intellectual closeness between two citations in citations and shared references. Direct citations were weighted with shared citations to derive WDC values. Growth of scientific research in ozone layer visGrowth of scientific research in ozone layer visGrowth of scientific research in ozone layer visGrowth of scientific research in ozone layer vis----aaaa----vis Antarctic science researchvis Antarctic science researchvis Antarctic science researchvis Antarctic science research ion based modeling was used to reconstruct the intellectual developments in the field and identify important scientific events in the development of the research field. 107 References in the scientific literature to research papers are also used to measure the impact of e of citation data as quantitative indicators for science and technology evaluation and policy-making is well Dorof 1992, Arunachalam 2003). World mong world’s articles define the parameters of scientific research fronts. It obviously does not replace or obviate the need for qualitative analysis by experts in the field, rather they supplement the expert judgements by to the entire judgement process. Eugene Garfield, the creator , demonstrated the power of this tool in studying and forecasting science (Garfield 1970). The correlation between citation frequency and the peer was well studied by Garfield (1970). Twelve Nobel Prizes were awarded out of his cited authors and a decade later, another study of Garfield (1981) on 1,000 most-cited scientists further consolidated the potential of SCI as a powerful tool for research faculty evaluation. Garfield and Small (1989) have used the data to carry out a systematic and quantitative analysis of citation data of published research output of Israel to identify emerging Citations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole researchCitations based modeling of historical developments in the ozone hole research Ozone layer acts like a shield in safeguarding the earth by preventing the harmful ultraviolet radiations from entering into the atmosphere. Reported damage of ozone layer in the year 1985 was a significant milestone in Antarctic Science research. The research work published by the scientists of British Antarctic Survey (BAS) played a significant role in generating international ronmental crisis. This crucial discovery led to sudden surge of research on the ozone layer to find out a scientific solution to the problem. The dynamics of the research field were mapped using a newly developed indicator—Weighted WDC value indicates intellectual closeness between two citations in Direct citations were weighted with shared vis Antarctic science researchvis Antarctic science researchvis Antarctic science researchvis Antarctic science research reconstruct the intellectual developments in the field and d.
  • 119. An attempt was made to decompose the citation network of articles to identify significant activity layers. The work of Farman et al (1985) and S Solomon (1986), which are the top 2 most-cited significant papers in the subject accounts for top WDC values Fig: 2Fig: 2Fig: 2Fig: 2 Shared and coShared and coShared and coShared and co----citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC) FigFigFigFig RRRReference:eference:eference:eference: 1. National Science Board (2000), ‘Science National Science Foundation. A An attempt was made to decompose the citation network of articles to identify significant The work of Farman et al (1985) and S Solomon (1986), which are the top 2 cited significant papers in the subject accounts for top WDC values jointly. citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC) FigFigFigFig:::: 3 Citation network in year layers3 Citation network in year layers3 Citation network in year layers3 Citation network in year layers National Science Board (2000), ‘Science and Engineering Indicators 2000,’ Arlington, VA, National Science Foundation. A C B D 108 An attempt was made to decompose the citation network of articles to identify significant The work of Farman et al (1985) and S Solomon (1986), which are the top 2 jointly. citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC)citation frequencies used to calculate Weighted Direct Citations (WDC) and Engineering Indicators 2000,’ Arlington, VA,
  • 120. 109 2. Lotka J.A. (1926), ‘The frequency distribution of scientific productivity’, J Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol.16, pp.217-223. 3. Arunachalam Subbaiah (2003), ‘Use of SCI-based publication counts’, Current Science, Vol.85, No.10, pp.1391-1392. 4. Crouch D., Irvine J. and Martin B.R. (2005), ‘Bibliometric analysis for science policy: An evaluation of the United Kingdom’s research performance in ocean currents and protein crystallography’, Vol.9, No.5-6, pp.239-267. 5. Garfield E. (1964), ‘Citation Indexing for Studying Science’, Nature, Vol.227, pp.669-671 6. Tijssen Robert J.W. and Leeuwen Thed N. Van. (2003), ‘Bibliometric analysis of world science’, In Third European Report on S & T indicators, Chapter 5, Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS), Leiden University, The Netherlands. 7. Garfield E. and Welljams-Dorof Alfred (1992), ‘Citation data: their use as quantitative indicators for science and technology evaluation and policy-making’, Science and Public Policy, Vol.19, No.5, pp.321-327. 8. Garfield E. (1970), ‘Citation Indexing for studying science’, Nature, Vol.227, No.5259, pp.669-671. 9. Garfield E. and Small H. (1989), ‘Identifying the changing frontiers of science, innovation at the cross roads between Science and Technology’, The S Neaman Press, pp.51-6.
  • 121. 110 LICENSING ISSUES ANDLICENSING ISSUES ANDLICENSING ISSUES ANDLICENSING ISSUES AND ELECTRONIC RESOURCESELECTRONIC RESOURCESELECTRONIC RESOURCESELECTRONIC RESOURCES Dr. K. Rama Patnaik Librarian Indian Institute of Management Bangalore Email: rama.patnaik@iimb.ernet.in Libraries of today are acquiring greater quantity of digital resources as compared to last two decades. However, publications manifested in this format can no longer be purchased and owned by libraries without negotiations with the content owners and publishers. Purchase and leased models of pricing with stringent terms and conditions are laid down in a document called “License agreement” which is required to be signed by libraries and respective publishers. It is executed and governed by contract law of jurisdiction other than native country and not the copyright law. Librarians are also expected to read and comply with the obligations by providing licensing profile articulating the rights of users, who could be the authorized users, restrictions on use, archival rights etc. Many libraries, so far used to the concept of permanent proprietorship of intellectual contents in paper media, are unaware of a different situation in this new electronic media especially in India. 1. Access RightsAccess RightsAccess RightsAccess Rights A purchase of print item ensured that library owned the item and provide access to both current and prospective users irrespective of their affiliation with the parent institute of the library. Secondly, under the first sale doctrine, it had the right to distribute the content of the item by issuing it to its borrowers and vendors able to sell the copies. But electronic realm, every activity with the content viz. download, print, email, distribute for course packs and creating reserve collection has to be negotiated prior to the purchase of the content. Before the advent of third party providers, Archives used to reside on publishers’ site. A faculty who intends to use the electronic content needs assistance from Librarians whether the content he wishes to use for classroom teaching is permissible under the license agreement. Similarly if a scholar or student wishes to forward a scholarly article to his community; he is expected to be aware of his right to communicate. Some resources expressly do not permit walk - in users who are not affiliated to the parent institute of the library 2. Failure of Legislative efforts:Failure of Legislative efforts:Failure of Legislative efforts:Failure of Legislative efforts: The first legislative attempt which tried to address the concern of librarians and individual scholars was the introduction of “fair use doctrine” in the copyright Amendment Act of 1976 USA which was conceived to deal with authors right Copyright related to multimedia formats and advanced copying technologies. WIPO copyright treaty of 1996, Digital Millennium copyright Act, 2000,Teach Act, 2002 for distance education have provided some sanctuary to advocate fair use, contract laws continue to prevail over the usage of electronic content. One draconian law which faces resistance across US states is “ Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act “ (UCITA) passed in two states of USA in 2004 which empowers the content owners and publishers to remove the content/software remotely without information and a chance to appeal before federal court in the event of breach of contact.
  • 122. 111 In spite of legal flexibilities such as Limitations and Exceptions, contract laws continue to govern the digital world. If librarians have to be cautious in going through each and every clause in the license agreements, to ensure that “fair use” and “limitation and exceptions” are inherent in these agreements 3. Alternate to License AgreementsAlternate to License AgreementsAlternate to License AgreementsAlternate to License Agreements Instead of focussing on articulating the legal terminology in license agreements, libraries in US (LIBLICENSE of Yale University since 1997) and UK (http://www.uksg.org/serials/neslisince January 1999) have come up with model license agreements which use natural language to comprehend the terms and conditions in this legal document. However, in USA, SERU (Shared Resource Understanding, 2008), a standard drafted by National information Standard Organization to which publishers and libraries can subscribe to and do away with license agreements. SERU reinforces the trust between libraries and publishers and advocates for fair use doctrine for academic and scholarly communication. In India no such efforts exist. INFLIBNET and INDEST consortia sponsored by Ministry of Human Resource Development to provide access to electronic databases and journals to institutes and universities in India have not come up with any model licenses and majority of the libraries are still ignorant and have been neglecting this issue for long. 4. The Indian ScenarioThe Indian ScenarioThe Indian ScenarioThe Indian Scenario As libraries transition to digital world, where users expect information to be available with just click of mouse, they have a daunting task ahead to overcome the challenges of these constrictions. The cartel comprising content providers and publishers restricting the access with illegitimate claims and misconstrued fears of abuse aided by reproduction technologies, with governing contract laws of Singapore, UK and USA without an arbitration clause, may cloud access to peer reviewed content in India. Stringent terms and conditions when violated unknowingly, would also deny access to the resources. Libraries in India need to act against unfairness and work together to come with a model license agreement or a standard like SERU, with Indian Laws governing the contracts, while the confluence of copyright and contract law and technological advancements reconcile towards greater public ability to access copyrighted scholarly information
  • 123. Platinum SponsorPlatinum SponsorPlatinum SponsorPlatinum Sponsor Silver SponsorSilver SponsorSilver SponsorSilver Sponsor SPONSORS Platinum SponsorPlatinum SponsorPlatinum SponsorPlatinum Sponsor Gold SponsorGold SponsorGold SponsorGold Sponsor Silver SponsorSilver SponsorSilver SponsorSilver Sponsor
  • 124. Other SponsorsOther SponsorsOther SponsorsOther SponsorsOther SponsorsOther SponsorsOther SponsorsOther Sponsors TBS, DELHI Sibyl Marketing Kolkata
  • 125. LIBRARY EVENTS @ NIT SILCHAR
  • 126. LIBRARY EVENTS @ NIT SILCHAR
  • 127. SILCHAR AT A GLANCESILCHAR AT A GLANCESILCHAR AT A GLANCESILCHAR AT A GLANCE
  • 128. BARAK VALLEYBARAK VALLEYBARAK VALLEYBARAK VALLEY ::::---- Barak Valley (Bengali: u t ) is situated in the southern part of the state of Assam, India. The place is named after the Barak river. Barak valley mainly consists of three districts namely Cachar, Karimganj, and Hailakandi. The heart of the valley is Silchar, which is the head quarter of Cachar district. The valley consists of many tourist places as well as ancient temples viz Kacha Kanti Mandir, Baram Baba Mandir, Harinam Mandir, ISCKON Mandir, Kachari Raja Rajdhani (now called as Khaspur), Tea Gardens etc. The valley has a good number of educational Institutions like Assam University which is a Central University, National Institute of Technology which is an institute of national importance and a Deemed University, Silchar Medical College, Silchar Polytechnic. Also it deserves to be mentioned that this valley consists of more than 20 Tea Gardens which add to the beauty of peace and joy of this valley. Our former Prime Minister (L) Smti Indira Gandhi designated this valley as Valley of Peace. KACHA KANTI MANDIRKACHA KANTI MANDIRKACHA KANTI MANDIRKACHA KANTI MANDIR One of the most visited spot in this region is the Kacha Kanti Mandir of the Mother Goddess Kaali. It is located in Kalibari Road in the village Udharbond. It is near about 11 km from Sadarghat and 15 km from Kumbhirgram Airport. Ambassador taxies as well as buses ply between Sadarghat/Airport and Udharbond. BARAM BABA MANDIRBARAM BABA MANDIRBARAM BABA MANDIRBARAM BABA MANDIR One of the most famous temples of Lord Shiva is the Baram Baba Mandir in Silcoorie . It is more than 120 years old. It is near about 3 km from NIT Silchar. The Mandir also has houses temples of Lord Hanuman Ji , Goddess Durga and Lakshmi Narayan . Adjoining to the temple there is a pond containing lots of white lotus. KAKAKAKACHARI RAJA RAJDHANI (KHASCHARI RAJA RAJDHANI (KHASCHARI RAJA RAJDHANI (KHASCHARI RAJA RAJDHANI (KHASPUR)PUR)PUR)PUR) The Kachari Kingdom (called Dimasa Kingdom in medieval times) was a powerful kingdom in medieval Assam. The rulers belonged to the Dimasa people, part of the greater Kachari ethnic group. Remnants of the Kachari Kingdom existed till the advent of the British and gave its name to two present districts in Assam: Cachar and North Cachar Hills which was renamed to Dima Hasao district in April 2010. The region of Khaspur was originally a part of the Tripura Kingdom, which was taken over by Chilarai in the 16th century. The region of Khaspur was originally a part of theThe region of Khaspur was originally a part of theThe region of Khaspur was originally a part of theThe region of Khaspur was originally a part of the TripurTripurTripurTripuraaaa
  • 129. The region was ruled by a tributary ruler, Kamalnarayana, the brother of Chilarai. After the decline of Koch power, Khaspur became independent. In the middle of the 18th century, the last of the Koch rulers died without a heir and the control of the kingdom went to the ruler of the Kachari Kingdom. The capital of the Kachari Kingdom was then moved to Khaspur, near present- day Silchar. ASSAM UNIVERSITY, SILCHARASSAM UNIVERSITY, SILCHARASSAM UNIVERSITY, SILCHARASSAM UNIVERSITY, SILCHAR Assam University came into existence through Assam (Central) University Act, 1989(Established under an Act of Parliament). It was established in 1994. Since then the University is steadily becoming an excellent centre of learning. The campus, situated in Dargakona, about 20 kms from Silchar and 10 km from NIT is set amid sprawling hillocks, a typical landscape in the North East. The campus spreads over an area of 660 acres surrounded by lakes and mountains. It provides an ideal environment for academic pursuit. Drawing its 300 plus faculty from many disciplines, from all over the country, the university sustains a multidisciplinary approach to higher education. The University has sixteen Schools on major disciplines. There are 35 Departments under these sixteen Schools. Assam University Main EntranceAssam University Main EntranceAssam University Main EntranceAssam University Main Entrance GANDHI BAGH PARK WITH SAHID MINAR:GANDHI BAGH PARK WITH SAHID MINAR:GANDHI BAGH PARK WITH SAHID MINAR:GANDHI BAGH PARK WITH SAHID MINAR: It is a small park located at the heart of the town. It is very near to Hotel Borail View and Hotel Riya Palace. One finds the 11 martyr's tombs at Gandhi Bagh on the bank of a lake. There are eleven monumental pillars for the eleven martyrs who sacrificed their lives on 19th May 1961 during the language movement in 1961. This is a must visit place for all Bengalees. The object of the language movement was to make Bengali the Official language of Cachar and this was achieved after the historic movement. Every year “Bhasha Sahid Diwas” is observed on 19th May.
  • 130. TEA GARDEN:TEA GARDEN:TEA GARDEN:TEA GARDEN:---- This valley consists of more than 25 Tea Gardens, providing spectacular scenery:- Rosekandy Tea Estate (12 km from NIT)Rosekandy Tea Estate (12 km from NIT)Rosekandy Tea Estate (12 km from NIT)Rosekandy Tea Estate (12 km from NIT) RAILWAYRAILWAYRAILWAYRAILWAY This valley is well connected with meter gauge train from Silchar to Lumding. The entire route is very beautiful to view with the train cutting through the mountains via thirty two tunnels. KAMAKHYA TEMPLE (GuKAMAKHYA TEMPLE (GuKAMAKHYA TEMPLE (GuKAMAKHYA TEMPLE (Guwahati)wahati)wahati)wahati) The Kamakhya Temple is a Shakti Peeth temple situated on the Nilachal Hill in western part of Guwahati city in Assam, India. It is the main temple in a complex of individual temples dedicated to different forms of the mother goddess as the Dasa Mahavidya, including Bhuvaneshvari, Bagalamukhi, Chinnamasta, Tripura Sundari and Tara. It is an important pilgrimage destination for general Hindu and Tantric worshipers. Silchar is well connected with Guwahati , the capital of Assam. Daily Day and Night Bus Service along with Flight Services available from Silchar. There are a number of daily Bus Services like that of Capital Tour and Travels, Network Tour and Travels and many more. The distance of Guwahati from Silchar is about 350 km and is covered up by 13-14 hours of bus journey. Snaps of Kamakhya TempleSnaps of Kamakhya TempleSnaps of Kamakhya TempleSnaps of Kamakhya Temple
  • 131. !! THANK YOU !!

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