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Krish edu,semi2

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  • 1. SUMANDEEP NURSING COLLEGE VADODARA Seminar on Administering A Test, Scoring, Grading Versus Marks SUBJECT: Nursing Education SUBMITTED TO: - Ms. Sijo Koshy Assist.Professor. SUBMITTED BY: - Miss. Krishna Patel F.Y.M.Sc.(N)
  • 2. General objective:-after taking a class about administering a test, scoring, grading versus marks students will be able to give answer some questions regarding administering a test, scoring, grading versus marks & have sufficient knowledge about administering a test, scoring, grading versus marks. Specific objectives: - after taking a class student will be understand. 1. Introduction of administering tests. 2. Enlist Steps in the administration of test. 3. Describe about guiding principles in administering test. 4. Enlist Avoiding things while test administering. 5. Describe about test administering. 6. Introduction about scoring & its issues. 7. Describe about score. 8. Introduction about grading. 9. Description about grading methods. 10. Explain advantages & limitations of grading methods. 11. Introduction of marking. 12. Describe Marking Schemes. 13. Describe about Criteria and Standards of marking. 14. Describe about grading vs. Marks. 15. Bibliography. Administering a test, scoring, grading versus marks:-
  • 3. ADMINISTERING A TEST:- Introduction:-  Administering the written test is perhaps the most important aspect of the examining process. The atmosphere the test administrator creates in the test room and the attitude the test administrator displays in performing his/her duties is extremely important.  The test administrator’s manner, bearing, and attitude may well inspire confidence in competitors and put them at ease while participating in the testing process.  A teacher’stest administration procedures can have great impact on students test performance.  Before the test  After distributing test papers  During the test  After the test Steps in the administration of test:- The steps to be followed in the administration of group tests are:- a) Motivate the students to do their best. b) Follow the directions closely. c) Keep time accurately. d) Record any significant events that might influence test scores. e) Collect the test materials promptly. Guiding principles in administering test:-  The guiding principles in administering test is that all students must be given a fair chance to demonstrates their achievement of the learning outcomes being measured this means a physical and psychological environment conducive to their best effort and the control of factors that might interfere with valid measurement.  Students will not perform at their best if they are tense an anxious during testing, the antidote to anxiety is to convey to students, by word and deed, that the test results are to be used to help them to complete the test. Avoiding things while test administering:- The things to avoid while administering a test are:- a) Do not talk unnecessarily before the test. b) Keep interruption to a minimum during the test. c) Avoid giving hints to pupils who ask about individual items. d) Discourage cheating. Test administration:-
  • 4. Environmental condition:- The environment condition of test administration can be a source of measurement error if they interfere with the students’ performance. If possible, the teacher should select a room that limits potential distractions during the test. Distributing the materials:- Careful organization allows the teacher to distribute test materials and give instruction to the students efficiently. With large group of students, several proctors may be needed to assist with this process. If separate answer sheet is used, it usually can be distributed first, followed by the test booklets. During distribution of the test booklets, the teacher should instruct students not to turn over the test booklets and begin the test until told to do so. Answering questions during the test:- Some students may find it necessary to ask questions of the teacher during a test, but responding to these questions is always somewhat distributing to other students. Also, by responding to student questions during a test, a proctor may inadvertently give hints to the correct answer, which would put that student at an advantage while not making the same information available to other students. however, it is not appropriate to refuse to allow questions during a test. Preventing cheating:- Cheating is widely believed to be common on college campuses in the United States. Cheating is defined as any activity whose purpose is to gain a higher score on attest or other academic assignment than a student is likely to earn on the basis of achievement. Traditional forms of cheating on a test include but are not limited to the following:-  Acquiring test materials in advance of the test or sharing materials with others.  Arranging for a substitute to take a test.  Preparing and using unauthorized notes or other resources during the test.  Exchanging information with others or copying answers from another student during the test.  Coping test items or retaining test materials to share with others who may take the test later. In addition to the low-technology forms of cheating on a test such as writing on body parts, clothing or belongings and copying answers from others, technological advances have created many new, more sophisticated methods. Because of the widespread and growing use of technological aids to cheating, teachers should consider instituting slandered procedures to be followed during all tests, especially if testing large groups of students. Collecting test materials:- For traditional on-site tests, when students are finished with the test and are preparing to leave the room, the resulting confusion and noise can disturb students who are still working. the teacher should plan for efficient collection of test material to minimize such distractions to maintain test security. Collaborative testing:- Collaborative testing, an assessment method in which pairs or small groups of students work together during summative assessment, is gaining support from both teachers and students at All educational levels. There are a number of method of collaborative testing, but most involve students taking the same test twice: once individually, and then after submitting their
  • 5. answer sheet, the seconds time in small groups to discuss the test items and then retake the test SCORING:- Some standardized testing uses multiple-choice tests, which are relatively inexpensive to score, but any form of assessment can be used. Standardized testing can be composed of multiple-choice questions, true-false questions, essay questions, authentic assessments, or nearly any other form of assessment. Multiple- choice and true-false items are often chosen because they can be given and scored inexpensively and quickly by scoring special answer sheets by computer or via computer- adaptive testing. Some standardized tests have short-answer or essay writing components that are assigned a score by independent evaluators who use rubrics (rules or guidelines) and benchmark papers (examples of papers for each possible score) to determine the grade to be given to a response. Most assessments, however, are not scored by people; people are used to score items that are not able to be scored easily by computer (i.e., essays). For example, the Graduate Record Exam is a computer-adaptive assessment that requires no scoring by people (except for the writing portion). Scoring issues:- Human scoring is often variable, which is why computer scoring is preferred when feasible. For example, some believe that poorly paid employees will score tests badly. Agreement between scorers can vary between 60 to 85 percent, depending on the test and the scoring session. Sometimes states pay to have two or more scorers read each paper; if their scores do not agree, then the paper is passed to additional scorers. Open-ended components of tests are often only a small proportion of the test. Most commonly, a major test includes both human-scored and computer-scored sections. These major tests do not measure the student's overall ability in learning. Score:- Sample scoring for the history question: What caused World War II? Student answers Standardized grading Non-standardized grading Grading rubric: Answers must be marked correct if they mention at least one of the following: Germany's invasion of Poland, Japan's invasion of China, or economic issues. No grading standards. Each teacher grades however he/she wants to, considering factors like the answer, the student's academic potential, and attitude. Student #1: Teacher #1: Teacher #1:
  • 6. WWII was caused by Hitler and Germany invading Poland. This answer mentions one of the required items, so it is correct. Teacher #2: This answer is correct. I feel like this answer is good enough, so I'll mark it correct. Teacher #2: This answer is correct, but this good student should be able to do better than that, so I'll only give partial credit. Student #2: WWII was caused by multiple factors, including the Great Depression and the general economic situation, the rise of nationalism, fascism, and imperialist expansionism, and unresolved resentments related to WWI. The war in Europe began with the German invasion of Poland. Teacher #1: This answer mentions one of the required items, so it is correct. Teacher #2: This answer is correct. Teacher #1: I feel like this answer is correct and complete, so I'll give full credit. Teacher #2: I feel like this answer is correct, so I'll give full points. Student #3: WWII was caused by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. Teacher #1: This answer does not mention any of the required items. No points. Teacher #2: This answer is wrong. No credit. Teacher #1: This answer is wrong. No points. Teacher #2: This answer is wrong, but this student tried hard and the sentence is grammatically correct, so I'll give one point for effort. There are two types of standardized test score interpretations: a norm-referenced score interpretation or a criterion-referenced score interpretation.  Norm-referenced score interpretations compare test-takers to a sample of peers. The goal is to rank students as being better or worse than other students. Norm- referenced test score interpretations are associated with traditional education. Students who perform better than others pass the test, and students who perform worse than others fail the test.  Criterion-referenced score interpretations compare test-takers to a criterion (a formal definition of content), regardless of the scores of other examinees. These may also be described as standards-based assessments, as they are aligned with the standards-based education reform movement. Criterion-referenced score interpretations are concerned solely with whether or not this particular student's answer is correct and complete. Under criterion-referenced systems, it is possible for all students to pass the test, or for all students to fail the test.
  • 7. Either of these systems can be used in standardized testing. What is important to standardized testing is whether all students are asked equivalent questions, under equivalent circumstances, and graded equally. In a standardized test, if a given answer is correct for one student, it is correct for all students. Graders do not accept an answer as good enough for one student but reject the same answer as inadequate for another student. GRADING: - grading, often confused with evaluation, involves quantifying data and assigning value. Grade serves two purposes. Grades notify students of their achievements and inform the public of student’s performance. Methods of grading: - a) Analytic method in the analytical method the ideal answer to a question is specified in advance, although it need not be in the am the ideal or model answer is broken down into specific points. The students sure are based upon the number of point contained in his answer. In addition, component parts such as “effectiveness of expulsion”, logical organization and support statement are specifies and assigned points or values. Advantages:- 1. It can yield very reliable scores. 2. The preparation of detailed answer may bring to the teachers. Attention such errors as faculty wording extreme difficulty, complexity of the question and unrealistic time; limits. 3. The subdivision of the model answer can make it easier to discuss with the students the marks awarded to them. Limitations:- 1) It is very laborious and time consuming. 2) In attempting to identify the elements, Undue attention may be given to superficial aspects. b) Global method :-( sometimes referred to as the holistic or rating method). In global scoring the ideal answer is not subdivided into specific points and component points. the examiner is interacted to read the responses rapidly from a general impression and using some slandered assign a rating to the responses-use good-average-poor for final discrimination use. Advantages:-it is very effective when large numbers of essays are to be ready. Grading in education is the process of applying standardized measurements of varying levels of achievement in a course. Grades can be assigned in letters, as a range (for example 1 to 6), as a percentage of a total number correct, or as a number out of a possible total (for example out of 20 or 100).
  • 8. In some countries, all grades from all current classes are averaged to create a grade point average (GPA) for the marking period. The GPA is calculated by taking the number of grade points a student earned in a given period of time of middle school through high school. The GPA can be used by potential employers or educational institutions to assess and compare applicants. A Cumulative Grade Point Average is a calculation of the average of all of a student's grades for all of his or her complete education career Grading is the grouping of student academic work into bands of achievement. Grading usually occurs at a larger level, for example: significant assessment tasks, entire modules or courses and again is represented by a symbol (Sadler, 2005). The most common grading symbols are A,B,C,D etc and HD, D, C, P (High Distinction, Distinction, Credit, Pass) etc. Grades are commonly determined by adding up the raw data of marks or scores, and converting this to a band of achievement. MARKING: - or scoring is the process of awarding a number (usually), or a symbol to represent the level of student learning achievement. The most common method is by adding up the number of correct answers on a test, and assigning a number that correlates (Sadler, 2005). Higher numbers reflect better quality work. As a rule, marking applies to students' level of performance in individual assessment tasks, not to overall achievement in a course. Marking Schemes Criteria-based assessment tasks need to be accompanied by clear marking schemes, providing students with detailed information about how their work will be judged. A number of terms are used (often interchangeably) when referring to marking schemes including marking guides, marking matrices, marking keys and marking rubrics. Regardless of the terminology used, the purpose is to set out: a. The categories or criteria against which the students work will be judged; and b. The explicit standards of performance for each category No matter how well constructed and clear you feel your marking scheme is; students may still misinterpret it. Language, by its very nature is open to a myriad of interpretations, and what seems clear and obvious to you may not be so for students. Involve Students Getting students involved in the development of the marking scheme; as part of your teaching and learning strategy can aid their understanding. It provides an opportunity for students to be a part of the thinking process around judging performance and deepens their understanding of what is required. It can also allow for discussion and agreements to be reached about the meanings of certain words and phrases in the context of the assessment task. Once a marking scheme is agreed upon, it affirms that the students do indeed know the criteria and that you know they know.
  • 9. Marking Criteria and Standards Marking criteria are the categories or dimensions that the marker will be using to judge the student work. (e.g. quality of argument, research, technical aspects, etc). Standards are the actual level of performance which might be achieved by students against each criterion. Standards may be described using a variety of outcome descriptors: • Excellent, good, satisfactory, poor, very poor • Competent, satisfactory, not yet satisfactory • Level 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 What is essential is that there is a clear, unambiguous statement describing what level of performance is expected for each standard. GRADING VS. MARKS:- Both marks and grades are symbolic representations that summarise the quality of student work and level of achievement. Marks and Grades are used to represent the level of learning a student has achieved. Marks are scores, mostly numerical, applied to individual tasks. Raw marks are usually added up and converted to a Grade which represents a band of achievement at course level.  Why Grading System Is Better Than Marks?  A grading system and a "marks" system are really the same thing, so one of them is not better than the other. For example, getting a grade of B on a report card will mean (in most school systems) that a student received a mark between 80 and 90 percent. Usually, a letter grade will be assigned' however, a teacher or professor will also record an exact percentage, such as 80 or 82 percent. Therefore, there is really no difference between a letter grade or mark system, in terms of how a student is doing in classes.  Both the marking system and the grading system have their pros and cons. Whereas marks help students identify their exact scores, grades place students in predefined categories such as A and B.  Under the marking system, even if two students are of similar calibre, one can ace out the other by a fraction of a point. This level of assessment encourages competitiveness.  To score that one extra mark, students devote more time to study and pay attention to detail. The positive side-effect of this is that the students acquire knowledge.  However, the marking system can also lead to the perception that high marks, rather than real knowledge, are important. If students learn to differentiate between the two, give importance to learning and knowledge acquisition, and consider marks just a
  • 10. means to gauge their knowledge, the marking system can work well for them. Even so, if knowledge enhancement and overall development of students is the prime goal, the grading system is preferable. This system places students of similar calibre on an equal footing and, thus, zeroes out complexes and negativity.  Education becomes a pleasant pastime rather than a chore. Ultimately, the students, as well as the teachers, emerge wiser.
  • 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Neeraja KP. Text book of Nursing Education. New Delhi: JAYPEE brothers medical publishers(P) LTD;2003. P.443-448. 2.Neelam Kumari. Text book of Management of Nursing services and Education.3rd ed. India: PV publication:2011. P.-349-351 3.International Journal of Lifelong Education. Vol.7. April-June 1988; Available from: URL: http://www.trandfonline.com. 4.Administering a test. URL: :http://www.weborawler.com/info. 5.scoring .URL: http://www.scoring.rapidfinder.co.in. 6.grading URL: http://www.myasthenia.org/link click