Fundamentals of Drawing


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I have tried to explain the elementary fundamentals of drawing like shapes, forms, shading, perspective drawing etc.

This training material was prepared for my team consisting primarily of Graphic Designers with the objective that they'd start approaching their work like artists.

There are plenty of exercises at the end of each section as well... hope you enjoy it!

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Fundamentals of Drawing

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Drawing - Kabir Malkani * This presentation has been compiled from references available from the Internet. This is meant purely for educational purposes and the presenter does not claim to hold any ownership whatsoever; of the content (textual or graphical) included in this presentation. The ownership and copyrights of the following content belong to the respective brands /agencies / artists showcased in this presentation.
  2. 2. Topics covered… O Introduction O Origin of Basic Drawing Materials O Gripping the Pencil O Basic Shapes & Forms O Shading O Perspective Drawing O Drawing the Human Face
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Introduction O O An artist who practices or works in drawing may be called a draftsman or draughtsman. O Raphael, study for what became the Alba Madonna, with other sketches Drawing is a form of visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. The medium has been a popular and fundamental means of public expression throughout human history. It is one of the simplest and most efficient means of communicating visual ideas.
  5. 5. Introduction O O André Masson Ink on paper Instruments used for drawing include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, Crayons, Charcoal, Chalk, P astels, Markers, styluses and various metals (such as silverpoint). Other materials used for drawing include various kinds of erasers, pencil sharpeners, geometric apparatus such as rulers, protractors, compass etc. O The most common surfaces for drawing is paper, although other surface materials such as cardboard, plastic, leather, canvas, a nd board, may be used. Temporary drawings may be made on a blackboard or whiteboard or indeed almost anything. Pencil portrait by Ingres
  6. 6. Origin of Basic Drawing Materials
  7. 7. Origin of Basic Drawing Materials Paper O O O Hemp wrapping paper, China, circa 100BC. O Stack of modern day copy paper The precursor to modern paper dates back to 2nd century BC in China. From China, the paper making process spread to the Middle East, then to medieval Europe in the 13th century, where the first waterpowered paper mills were built. In 1844, Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and German F.G. Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibers significantly lowering the cost Modern day paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
  8. 8. Origin of Basic Drawing Materials Pencil Ancient Roman Stylus First mass-produced pencils in 1662 by Faber-Castel Modern day HB graphite pencils Origination of the word “Pencil” O from French: “pincel”, which means ―a small paintbrush‖ O From Latin: “penicillus” a "little tail― Evolution O Modern day pencils evolved from an ancient Roman writing instrument made of lead called a stylus. Lead poisoning from pencils was not uncommon Discovery of Graphite O Some time before 1565, an enormous deposit of graphite was discovered Cumbria, England. The locals found that it was very useful for marking sheep and thought it was some form of Lead. Graphite from a pencil stick is not poisonous. Grading and classification Pencils are usually graded on the European System using a continuum from "H" (for hardness) to "B" (for blackness), as well as "F", a letter arbitrarily chosen to indicate midway between HB and H. The standard writing pencil is graded HB.
  9. 9. Origin of Basic Drawing Materials Eraser O O O An old-fashioned gum eraser O Faber Castell Vinyl Erasers An eraser is an article of stationery that is used for removing pencil markings. Typical erasers are made from synthetic rubber, but more expensive or specialized erasers are vinyl, plastic, or gum-like materials. Before rubber erasers, tablets of rubber or wax were used to erase lead or charcoal marks from paper. Bits of rough stone such as sandstone or pumice were used to remove small errors from parchment or papyrus documents written in ink. Crustless bread was used as an eraser in the past. In 1770, Edward Nairne, an English engineer, is credited with developing the first widely-marketed rubber eraser for an inventions competition. He sold natural rubber erasers for the high price of three shillings per half-inch cube.
  10. 10. Gripping the Pencil
  11. 11. Gripping the Pencil Scribe Grip O The ―scribe’s grip‖ that feels natural for most people is surely the worst grip for drawing: writing and drawing are fundamentally different activities. O Writing is done with minute motions of the hand and fingers, with the elbow fixed O Drawing is done with broad movement of the whole arm, from hand to shoulder-blade
  12. 12. Gripping the Pencil Pen Grip O Hold the pencil like you would hold the writing pen, but much further from the tip O This grip is good for detailing, and for smallsize sketching O It is also the grip Wacom tablets are designed for
  13. 13. Gripping the Pencil Violin bow grip O Hold the pencil with the thumb against all four fingers. This removes most control from the fingers, and emphasizes the wrist and especially the arm at elbow and shoulder. O This grip is the preferable basic drawing grip. O it produces flowing, economical sweeping line and is ideal for rough sketching, hatching and tonal work with the side of lead.
  14. 14. Gripping the Pencil Gesture grips and variations O Between the ―pen‖ and the ―violin bow‖, there is any number of intermediate grips, suitable mostly for gesture drawing with varying paper size and motion range. O Usually, the smaller the page or detail, the closer the grip will be to the ―pen‖.
  15. 15. Gripping the Pencil Brush Grip O Sometimes a brush grip is used for detail work — it is the pencil held like a brush, in a pen grip with index finger resting along the shaft. O It offers more motion freedom than the pen grip and works with or without elbow support, but when used with a pencil it also takes away some fine control. O It is fairly good for holding the Wacom stylus, too.
  16. 16. Basic Shapes & Forms
  17. 17. Basic Shapes & Forms Exercise #1: Drawing Straight Lines O Draw each line with a single motion. You'll discover the best angle at which you can draw a straight line. Then, all you have to do is turn the paper to execute a horizontal, a vertical, or diagonal line.
  18. 18. Basic Shapes & Forms
  19. 19. Basic Shapes & Forms Exercise #2 O List down a few objects that you see in the real world that follow these structure types
  20. 20. Basic Shapes & Forms Contour Lines O Defines the edges and surface ridges of an object. O A contour line also creates a boundary separating one area from another. A contour drawing by Egon Schiele.
  21. 21. Shading
  22. 22. Shading Definition O The use of light and dark values to give the illusion of form and depth
  23. 23. Shading - Terms O O O O O Highlights: small areas of white used to show the very brightest spots of an object Transitional Light / Midtones: used to show the actual color of the object Core of the Shadow: Represents the shadowed side of an object Cast Shadow: the shadow where the object meets the surface (the darkest tone) Reflected light – is a faint rim of light reflected back onto an object from the surfaces surrounding the object.
  24. 24. Shading - Techniques Hatching Crosshatching Stippling Scribbling Blending
  25. 25. Shading - Techniques Hatching is a series of straight or curved lines (called a set), drawn beside one another to give the illusion of a value. Crosshatching is a shading technique in which one set of lines crosses over (overlaps) another set. The act of Stippling involves covering an area with dots. It is a wildly timeconsuming technique, in which an image is drawn dot. Pointillism in art is based on this technique.
  26. 26. Shading - Techniques Scribbling has many different names and techniques such as Scumbling, Circling & Squirkling. Basically, this technique involves shading using random strokes or circlular strokes. Blending, also known as Smooth Shading is where you use your finger or some smudge tool such as a piece of cloth or cotton swab and smear the shading for a more uniform shade. If controlled correctly this can give a smooth polished look.
  27. 27. Shading - Techniques Hatching Crosshatching Stippling
  28. 28. Shading - Techniques Scribbling Blending
  29. 29. Shading - Techniques Exercise #3 O Identify the different shading techniques used in the above diagram
  30. 30. Perspective Drawing
  31. 31. Perspective Drawing Perspective Drawing is a technique used to represent threedimensional images on a two-dimensional picture plane.
  32. 32. Perspective Drawing - Terms SUBJECT refers to the object or scene that we are dealing with in the composition of our drawing or painting. It can be one item or many things, such as a complex scene from nature.
  33. 33. Perspective Drawing - Terms Low Elevation of View HORIZON LINE The horizon is represented by the point at which the sea and sky, or flat land and sky, meet. Normal Elevation of View High Elevation of View The true horizon line is always at the “Eye Level” and will change as you change the elevation of view.
  34. 34. Perspective Drawing - Terms VIEWING POINT Every object appears different when viewed from various angles. The viewing point can be seen as a straight line from our eye to the horizon line. If we move to the right/left OR up/down, we are changing the viewing point and there will be major changes in the drawing.
  35. 35. Perspective Drawing - Terms THE PICTURE PLANE The picture plane (PP) is the plane that is used to record the 'picture' or 'drawing' that the eye sees. It is easiest to think of the picture plane as being a sheet of glass, and the observer having a marking pen that can trace onto the glass exactly what their eye sees.
  36. 36. Perspective Drawing - Terms VANISHING POINT is that spot on the horizon line to which the receding parallel lines diminish. As things get further away, from us, they seems smaller and closer together. When they get far enough away, distances become ever tinier and so form a single point.
  37. 37. Perspective Drawing - Terms VANISHING POINT Look at a long table from one end and notice that the far end appears to be smaller than the near end. We know that the ends of the table are the same width, but due to perspective, we notice the viewing difference. This is the Illusion of Depth.
  38. 38. Perspective Drawing - Terms VANISHING POINT If we draw imaginary lines along the sides of the table and extend them to meet each other , they will meet at a point. The meeting point where the two lines meet is a Vanishing point. And the parallel line which passes through the vanishing point is Horizon Line. Lines that are parallel to the table side lines will also meet at the same vanishing point on the horizon line. All objects in the picture will also seem to grow smaller as they move into the picture, toward the horizon line. So, the horizon line plays a number of important role in the rules of perspective.
  39. 39. Perspective Drawing - Types There are three types of perspective that we use most. one-point, two-point and threepoint perspective. Let’s learn how to draw these…
  40. 40. One-Point Perspective Steps Draw a Horizon Line 2. Mark a point on that line… this will be the Vanishing Point 1.
  41. 41. One-Point Perspective Steps 3. Draw a neat rectangle NOTE: Ensure the vertical edges are perpendicular and horizontal edges are parallel with the Horizon Line
  42. 42. One-Point Perspective Steps 4. Draw 4 lines originating from each of the corners of the rectangle and converging at the Vanishing Point. These are also called Vanishing Lines
  43. 43. One-Point Perspective Steps 5. Draw another rectangle behind the existing one using the Vanishing Lines as coordinates for it’s corners. NOTE: Ensure the vertical edges are perpendicular and horizontal edges are parallel to the edge of the paper
  44. 44. One-Point Perspective Steps 6. Now you can delete the Vanishing Lines. NOTE: If you want to draw a see-through box, you can choose not to erase the lines inside the box.
  45. 45. One-Point Perspective Exercise #4 O Try drawing these boxes in one-point perspective following the steps mentioned above
  46. 46. One-Point Perspective Examples
  47. 47. One-Point Perspective Examples
  48. 48. Two-Point Perspective Steps Draw a Horizon Line 2. Mark two points on that line… these will be the Vanishing Points 1.
  49. 49. Two-Point Perspective Steps 3. Now, draw a vertical line that will be the front corner edge of your box NOTE: Ensure this line is not too close to the Horizon Line and that its perpendicular to it
  50. 50. Two-Point Perspective Steps 4. Now, draw the first Vanishing Lines starting from the two ends of the line and diminishing at the two Vanishing Points
  51. 51. Two-Point Perspective Steps 5. Now complete the visible sides of the box by drawing the corner edges (shown here with red lines). Note: Make sure these lines are perpendicular to the Horizon Line
  52. 52. Two-Point Perspective Steps 6. Now draw two sets of Vanishing Lines from the ends of the corner edges you drew in the last step. Note: The Vanishing Lines from the left corner edge of the box should connect to the Vanishing Point on the Right & those from the Right corner edge should connect to the Vanishing Point on the Left.
  53. 53. Two-Point Perspective Steps 7. Now you simply have to draw a vertical line from the where the lower two vanishing lines intersect, to the intersection of the upper two lines (shown as a red line in this example).
  54. 54. Two-Point Perspective Steps 6. Now you can delete the Vanishing Lines. NOTE: If you want to draw a see-through box, you can choose not to erase the lines inside the box.
  55. 55. One-Point Perspective Exercise #5 O Try drawing this box in two-point perspective following the steps mentioned above
  56. 56. Two-Point Perspective Examples
  57. 57. Two-Point Perspective Examples
  58. 58. Three-Point Perspective Steps Draw a Horizon Line closer to the bottom of your page 2. Mark two Vanishing Points on that line… and add the third one above the line closer to the top of the page 3. Draw a perpendicular line from the 3rd VP to the Horizon Line 1.
  59. 59. Three-Point Perspective Steps 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Now, draw a line beginning from the Left VP intersecting the perpendicular line at about 2/3rds its height From this intersection draw another line to the Right VP Draw another line again beginning from the Left VP intersecting the perpendicular line at about 1/3rds its height From this intersection draw another line to the Right VP Now, draw two lines starting from the 3rd VP on either side of the perpendicular line
  60. 60. Three-Point Perspective Steps 9. Draw a line from the lower back corner to the left vanishing point. And draw one from the lower left corner to the right vanishing point.
  61. 61. Three-Point Perspective Steps 10. If you want to show a see- through box… draw the 3 green lines as shown in the diagram
  62. 62. Three-Point Perspective Steps 10. Now erase the Vanishing Lines
  63. 63. Three-Point Perspective Examples
  64. 64. Three-Point Perspective Examples
  65. 65. Drawing the Human Face
  66. 66. Drawing the Human Face 1. 2. 3. Courtesy soas95 Draw a circle Lightly draw a vertical line splitting it in half Extend this line downwards – the length being roughly about the radius of the circle (Take note of the measurements shown)
  67. 67. Drawing the Human Face 4. 5. Draw the outline of the face as shown Lightly mark the vertical half line. This is where the eyes should be drawn. Tip: The shape of the face can be fine-tuned later. Don’t aim for perfection at this stage. Courtesy soas95
  68. 68. Drawing the Human Face 6. 7. Courtesy soas95 Lightly draw the eyebrow line halfway between the eye line and the center of the circle Similarly mark the guidelines for key features such as hair & the nose
  69. 69. Drawing the Human Face 8. Courtesy soas95 Divide the eye line into 5 equal parts. The 2nd & the 4th division demarcates the location of the eyes
  70. 70. Drawing the Human Face Divide the bottom third of the face into 3 equal parts – these will mark the opening of the mouth & the top of the chin 10. The middle third of the face decides the position of the ears 9. Courtesy soas95
  71. 71. Drawing the Human Face 11. Erase the guidelines 12. Detail out the key features Courtesy soas95
  72. 72. Drawing the Human Face Tips: 1. You must be able to draw realistically before stylizing 2. Understanding of Anatomy is the key to drawing decently 3. Look up the web, observe film actors & actresses or casually observe people around you to understand the basic differences in features such as eyes, lips, noses, hair & ears 4. Practice this exercise over and over again Courtesy soas95
  73. 73. Assignment Choose from projects listed below: O Draw the inside of a room using One-Point Perspective O Draw a popular Indian monument using TwoPoint Perspective OR O Draw the side profile of the face you have just drawn during the course of this training. (Feel free to look up the web for references) * Final Date for submitting this assignment is the 21st of Jan 2014