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African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle
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African American Leadership Forum of Greater Seattle

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  • 1. john a. powellExecutive Director of the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & EthnicityWilliams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of Law Seattle, Washington December 10-11, 2010
  • 2.  Structural Racialization and Opportunity Systems and Structures Seattle’s Landscape of Opportunity Leadership Making Transformational Change 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4.  Individual Institutional Structural Racialization 4
  • 5. “Much of what we call race is nonphenotypical.All of what we call race is nonbiological.Race is a process.” ~john powell 5
  • 6.  It is a very different way of looking at race The practices, cultural norms, and institutional arrangements that help create and maintain (disparate) racialized outcomes Structuresunevenly distribute benefits, burdens, and racialized meaning 6
  • 7. Context: The Dominant Consensus on Race White privilege National values Contemporary culture Current Manifestations: Social and Institutional Dynamics Processes that maintain racial Racialized public policies and hierarchies institutional practices Outcomes: Racial Disparities Racial inequalities in current levels Capacity for individual and community of well-being improvement is undermined Ongoing Racial InequalitiesSource: Adapted from the Aspen Roundtable on Community Change. “Structural Racism and Community Building.” June 2004 7
  • 8. Traditional Understanding {-} Structural Understanding {+} An independent-isolated- An outcome that results from individual psychological interactivity of institutions & issue actors De jure De facto Static Dynamic Past, if present an anomaly Present Overt Overt and covert Irrational Rational Tautological Non-tautological (multidimensional)Source: Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (1997) 8
  • 9.  Our understanding has changed over time From single-dimensional understanding…  One variable can explain why opportunity has been restricted …to multi-dimensional understanding  Structural inequality  Example: a bird in a cage—examining one bar cannot explain why a bird cannot fly; but multiple bars, arranged in specific ways, reinforce each other and trap the bird 9
  • 10.  …to an understanding of processes and relationships  Understanding the relationships among these multiple dimensions, and how these complex intra- actions change processes  Relationships are neither static nor discrete 10
  • 11. …Some people ride the “Up” …Others have to run up theescalator to reach opportunity “Down” escalator to get there 11
  • 12.  A series of mutually reinforcing federal policies across multiple domains have contributed to the disparities we see today  School Desegregation  Suburbanization/ Homeownership  Urban Renewal  Public Housing  TransportationDisparities in how federalgovernment invested inpeople and in places…. 12
  • 13. This historic exclusion is perpetuated through our institutions…Source: Barbara Reskin. http://faculty.uwashington.edu/reskin/ 13
  • 14.  We can define opportunity through access Opportunity includes access to  Education  Healthcare  Employment  Services  Healthy Food  Housing 14
  • 15.  In 1960, African American families in poverty were 3.8 School Segregation & Lower Educational times more likely to Concentrated Poverty Outcomes be concentrated in high-poverty neighborhoods than poor Whites Increased Neighborhood Flight Segregation of Affluent Families In 2000, they were 7.3 times more likely 15
  • 16.  Structural racialization involves a series of exclusions, often anchored in (and perpetuating) spatial segregation Historically marginalized people of color and the very poor have been spatially isolated from opportunity via reservations, Jim Crow, Appalachian mountains, ghettos, barrios, and the culture of incarceration 16
  • 17.  Our world today is more complex and interconnected Current and future changes will not only be driven by local/national issues, but influenced by systemic global trends and challenges  Examples  Globalization  Climate change  The credit and foreclosure crisis  Growing diversity and widening inequality 17
  • 18. We must adjust our lens of analysis toreflect these changing conditionsMoving toward a systems approach ofproblem solving and identifying solutions 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. An analysis of anyone area will yield Health an incomplete understanding Childcare Employment Housing Effective Education We must consider Participation how institutions Transportation interact with oneanother to produceracialized outcomes 20
  • 21.  Discussions about regions are enhanced by thinking about opportunity both structurally and socially We need to think about the ways in which the institutions that mediate opportunity are arranged— systems thinking  The order of structures  The timing of the interaction between them  The relationships that exist between them 21
  • 22. Health School segregation Educational achievement Exposure to crime; arrest Neighborhood Segregation Transportation limitations and other inequitable public services Job segregation Racial stigma and other psychological issues Community power and individual assetsSource: Barbara Reskin, http://faculty.washington.edu/reskin 22
  • 23. Where would you want to live?It’s more than just a matter of choice 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. Homeownership Rate by Race/Ethnicity (2000) High Interest Rate Loans as Share of Home Purchase Loans by Race/Ethnicity and Metro Area Income (2008) Black 36.8% Low- Middle- Upper- Indian 44.9% Income Income Income Asian/Pac. Islander 55.7% Hispanic 9.5% 10.7% 4.6% Hispanic 36.2% Non- 5.5% 4.0% 3.5% Non-Hispanic White 66.0% Hispanic White High Interest Rate Loans as Share of Home Non- 5.6% 6.6% 7.8% Purchase Loans by Race/Ethnicity (2008) Hispanic Black Metro Area Non- _ 3.2% 6.9% Hispanic 8.4% Hispanic Non-Hispanic White 4.1% American Indian Non-Hispanic Black 6.7% Non- 4.0% 2.9% 3.6% Non-Hispanic American 5.3% Hispanic Indian Asian/Pac. Non-Hispanic Asian/Pac. 3.5% Islander IslanderSource: http://diversitydata.sph.harvard.edu/Data/Profiles/Show.aspx?loc=1276&notes=True&rgn=None&cat=-1 25
  • 26.  For the state of Washington  41,800 projected foreclosures for 2010  132,092 projected foreclosures for 2009-2012  $19.5 billion projected home equity wealth lost due to nearby foreclosures  65% of foreclosures are concentrated in low and very low opportunity neighborhoodsSources: Kirwan Institute. Geography of Opportunity: Mapping to Promote Equity Community Development and FairHousing in King County, WA. April 2010.Center for Responsible Living, http://www.responsiblelending.org/mortgage-lending/tools-resources/factsheets/washington.html 26
  • 27. Poverty Rate of School Where Average Primary School Student Attends by Race/Ethnicity (2007-08) Metro Area Hispanic 50.2% Non-Hispanic White 28.3% Non-Hispanic Black 55.4% Non-Hispanic American 44.6% Indian Non-Hispanic Asian/Pac. 38.5% Islander The poverty of a school, more than the poverty of the individual, determines students’ educational outcomesSource: Center for Responsible Living, http://www.responsiblelending.org/mortgage-lending/tools-resources/factsheets/washington.html 27
  • 28. Low Birthweight Births by Race/Ethnicity (2005-2006) Metro Area Hispanic 4.9% Non-Hispanic American Indian 6.0% Non-Hispanic Asian/Pac. Islander 6.2% Non-Hispanic Black 8.5% Non-Hispanic White 4.0% Low birthweight babies are more likely to suffer from impaired physical and cognitive development and decreased health overall throughout childhoodSource: Center for Responsible Living, http://www.responsiblelending.org/mortgage-lending/tools-resources/factsheets/washington.html 28
  • 29. Poverty Rate by Race/Ethnicity (1999)  Increases in child Metro Area poverty, Black 19.0% homelessness, and American Indian 20.0% temporary relief Asian/Pac. Islander 18.0% indicate that children Hispanic 6.0% across the U.S. are Non-Hispanic White 12.0% experiencing “a quiet Child Poverty Rate by Race/Ethnicity (1999) disaster.” Metro Area  “We are seeing the emergence of what Black 25% amounts to a ‘recession American Indian 26% generation.’” Asian/Pac. Islander 14% Hispanic 22% Non-Hispanic White 7%Source: Bob Herbert, “Children in Peril.” New York Times Op-Ed published April 20, 2009. Herbert is quoting Dr. IrwinRedlener, president of the Children’s Health Fund in New York. 29
  • 30. Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty by Race/Ethnicity (1999) Metro Area Living in a Hispanic 11.0% disadvantaged Non-Hispanic Asian/Pac. Islander 10.7% neighborhood is Non-Hispanic Black 13.6% equivalent to missing Non-Hispanic White 7.8% a full year of school, Children’s Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty by Race/Ethnicity (1999) and these effects Metro continue on even Area Hispanic 10.8% after a family has Non-Hispanic Asian/Pac. Islander 10.3% moved Non-Hispanic Black 13.5% Non-Hispanic White 7.0%Sources: Sampson, 2007 30Center for Responsible Living, http://www.responsiblelending.org/mortgage-lending/tools-resources/factsheets/washington.html
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. 35
  • 36.  Transformative thinking to combat structural racialization We need to find new approaches Personal and social responsibility are important—we should maintain them in our advocacy and analysis Approaches should consider the structures that are creating and perpetuating these disparities and work to reform them for lasting change 36
  • 37.  Structural Racialization  Policy is important, but only one piece of the puzzle  Understanding relationships between institutions, not just within one organization, is criticalSource: Leadership for a New Era 37
  • 38.  Shift in thinking from leadership as the influence an individual exerts over others by virtue of skills/position to understanding leadership as a dynamic process exercised within groupsSource: Leadership for a New Era 38
  • 39. Types of Leadership  Laissez Faire Leadership  Autocratic Leadership  Participative Leadership  Emergent Leadership  Transactional Leadership  Transformational LeadershipSource: http://www.legacee.com 39
  • 40.  Laissez faire leadership  Hands off view that tends to minimize the amount of direction and face time required  Works well if you have highly trained and highly motivated direct reports Autocratic leadership  Falling out of favor in many countries  This style is popular with today’s CEOs who have much in common with feudal lords in Medieval Europe 40
  • 41.  Participative leadership  Addresses difficulties in demanding someone to be creative, perform as a team, solve complex problems, improve quality, and provide outstanding customer service  Presents a happy medium between over controlling (micromanaging) and not being engaged  Tends to be seen in organizations that must innovate to prosper 41
  • 42.  Emergent leadership  Contrary to the belief of many, groups do not automatically accept a new “boss” as leader  A number of ineffective managers do not know the behaviors to use when taking over a new group Transactional leadership  Emphasizes work within the umbrella of the status quo; almost in opposition to the goals of transformational leadership  Considered to be a “by the book” approach in which a person works within the rules  Commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations 42
  • 43.  Transformational leadership  Transformational leaders have been written about for thousands of years—praised and cursed  Implement new ideas  Continually change themselves  Flexible and adaptable  Improve those around them 43
  • 44. From slavery to the age of ObamaCharismatic, religious, spiritual leadersand activists Modern political leaders who influence policy directly but also are more symbolic 44
  • 45.  Black politics and leadership has “transformed itself in response to the dominant society in at least eight distinct sociopolitical regimes throughout American history”  Black Slavery, Black Freedom, and White Supremacy (1619- 1865)  Emancipation, Reconstruction, and Nullification (1866-1883)  The Nadir: Terror, Lynching, and the Reimposition of White Supremacy (1884-1914)  The Struggle for Black Leadership (1915-1944)  The Struggle for Civil Right or Racial Integration (1945-1965)  The Rise and Fall of Black Power (1966-1976)  The Golden Age of Integration (1970-1980)  The Disappearance of Black Leadership and the Emergence of Symbolic Politics (1980-present)Source: Kelley, Norman. 2004. The Head Negro in Charge Syndrome: The Dead End of Black Politics. 45
  • 46.  For the past 100 years, Black politics had been geared toward ending de jure and de facto segregation and challenging White supremacy  The Million Man March represented a shift away from results oriented politics to symbolic politicsSource: Kelly, Norman. 2004. The Head Negro in Charge Syndrome: The Dead End of Black Politics. 46
  • 47.  Emerging Black leaders  Came of age after Jim Crow segregation and the Civil Rights Movement  Were raised in integrated neighborhoods and educated in majority White institutions  Are more likely to embrace deracialized campaign and governance strategies  Will have a wholly different relationship with White cultureSource: Gillespie, Andra. 2009. Whose Black Politics? Cases in Post-Racial Black Leadership 47
  • 48.  Tensions within own community/group vs. outside his/her own community/group Not distance the community from others but link to other communities Resist the trap of focusing particularly and wholly on one community 48
  • 49. Universal TargetedPrograms Programs Targeted Universalism 49
  • 50. 50
  • 51.  This approach supports the needs of the particular while reminding us that we are all part of the same social fabric  Universal, yet captures how people are differently situated  Inclusive, yet targets those who are most marginalized  Example goal: Every school as a performing school  What does each school need to get there?  What does each student, family, teacher, community need?  What are their strengths and constraints? 51
  • 52.  Targeted Universalism recognizes racial disparities and the importance of eradicating them, while acknowledging their presence within a larger inequitable, institutional framework Targeted universalism is a common framework through which to pursue justice  A model which recognizes our linked fate  A model where we all grow together  A model where we embrace collective solutions 52
  • 53. “All residents have access to opportunities for meeting basic needs and advancing their health and well-being: good jobs, transportation choices, safe and stable housing, a good education, quality health care, a range of parks and natural areas, vibrant public spaces, and healthful food. The benefits and burdens of growth and change are fairly shared among our communities… All residents and communities are fully involved as equal partners in public decision-making.” Who’s measuring this? Who’s accountable? Source: Coalition for a Livable Future. Regional Equity Atlas Project. 2007. 53
  • 54. Keep grounded to yourcommunity/group But also serve as a bridge for your community/group to other communities/groups 54
  • 55.  Leaders must be collaborators and connectors  Willingness to network with other movements  Ability to bring divergent actors together  Commitment for the long haul  Have a wide vision for sustainable advocacy/work  Leaders can change how we talk about race  Should not focus solely on disparities  The disparity model is limiting when talking about the racialization of poverty  Stress of poor White middle class  Fear of (White) middle class that welfare programs might be disadvantageous for them (that feeling of “what about us?”)Source: Program for Environmental and Regional Equity 55
  • 56.  Start from the assumption that an awareness of racial disparities is fundamental to fostering race-conscious approaches to social justice policy  When disparities are seen as absent, trivial, or declining, support for color-conscious policies will wane  Increasing awareness of racial disparities may not be sufficient to change attitudes It is also necessary to foster the proper explanations for racial disparities 56
  • 57.  Counter the perception that social justice programs that take race into account are somehow inconsistent with treasured American ideals such as egalitarianism and meritocracy Tell a story with everyone in it Talk about values 57
  • 58. Ten Things That Could Be Done To Revitalize Black Politics 1. Recognize Black politics has regressed and has been demobilized; greater organizational and institutional effort has to be emphasized rather than symbolic posturing 2. Develop an agenda driven, grassroots, voter mobilization politics 3. Develop an urban agenda as well as a rural agenda for rural-based Blacks 4. Develop a national caucus-based politics in localities that demands new ideas, methods, and actions from local and national Black political leaders and intellectuals that is based on accountability, communication, and transparencySource: Kelley, Norman. 2004. The Head Negro in Charge Syndrome: The Dead End of Black Politics. 58
  • 59. 5. Develop Black think tanks that will look critically at problems and issues affecting Blacks and create plans and policies to assist organizations that are addressing issues and problems 6. Black economic development should be based on a new institutionalism that is a blend of private capital, community-owned, cooperatively run, and state supported enterprises 7. Develop an effective public affairs infrastructure that critically looks at issues in the realm of politics, culture, economics, and gender relationsSource: Kelley, Norman. 2004. The Head Negro in Charge Syndrome: The Dead End of Black Politics. 59
  • 60. 8. Encourage women to seek a larger leadership role in Black politics since they are often the primary caregivers and are affected by public/private policy decisions regarding work, education, taxation, etc. 9. The Black church needs to become more actively engaged in attending to its congregation’s and Black America’s temporal needs 10. Rather than concentrating on reparations, lawyers, historians, economists, and activists should scrutinize the relationship between Blacks and the music industry which has often been rank with exploitation (Blacks have developed various genres of music yet have no significant control over the industry)Source: Kelley, Norman. 2004. The Head Negro in Charge Syndrome: The Dead End of Black Politics. 60
  • 61.  Institutions can enhance engagement  Not just “outreach”. That is, anchor institutions cannot simply make their offer and “sell” the community hoping they will buy it. Anchor institutions must engage with the community to shape the offer itself, especially marginalized communities of color 61
  • 62.  Connect with leaders from other communities to learn from each other and open a constructive dialogue between leadership of different communities  Have knowledge of what is happening in other communities; this can inform work in one’s own community  Recognize the importance of collaborative discourseSource: Walters, Ronald W.; Robert Charles Smith. African American Leadership 62
  • 63.  Build coalitions across racial groups and interests  Multi-issue and multi-constituency  Take up issues, but do not be defined by them  Be motivated by the unequal balance of power between the financial elite and everyone elseSource: Program for Environmental and Regional Equity 63
  • 64. “The Four Amigos” Roberto Maestas, Bernie Whitebear, Larry Gossett, Bob Santos—“Four men of different races and ethnicities who shared a common civil rights agenda” “‘All the issues—equality, employment, education and housing— with each individual group having those kinds of problems that was sort of the glue keeping us together,’ Santos says.” “‘When we had black, brown and red joining us we would see the dramatic attitudes that powerful officials would have. University presidents, and whomever, this is a different ballgame,’ Maestas 64Source: http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/kplu/news.newsmain/article/1/0/1577092/KPLU.Local.News/Honoring.Seattle%27s.Four.Amigos
  • 65.  Collective and deliberate action Horizontal collaborations: regional collaborations, public/private/nonprofit partnerships Vertical collaborations: local, state, and federal policy reforms 65
  • 66.  A systems response  Where are your key leverage points?  What are the critical intervention points? Equity focused  Creating a community for all Emphasis on strategic collaboration  Across multiple domains Opening pathways to opportunity through engagement  People, places, linkagesSource: “Pathways to Opportunity: Partnership and Collaboration for Revitalizing the Rosemont-Walbrook Neighborhood”available at www.kirwaninstitute.org 66
  • 67.  Monitoringand evaluations  Do proposed projects:  Perpetuate residential segregation?  Exacerbate jobs-mismatch?  Perpetuate environmental injustice? Without addressing the social, racial, and interregional inequities facing the region, our future is compromised 67
  • 68.  Accountability at Both Ends  Organizations and officials must be held accountable, but what about the community? 68
  • 69. 38  Everyone should have fair access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life  Communities are linked to a larger system  Affirmatively connecting people to opportunity creates positive, transformative change in communities 69
  • 70. 70
  • 71. Transformative change requires substantive efforts in three areas Talking about race: Understanding how language and messages shape reality and the perception of reality Thinking about race: Understanding how framing and priming impact information processing in both the explicit and the implicit mind Linking these understandings to the way we act on race and how we arrange our institutions and policies 71
  • 72.  History has left its mark, but we can and must intervene in segregated and inequitable landscapes to achieve a more promising future for all. Systems and structures can be changed. To do this, we need to unmask how we got here—what policies, processes, assumptions historically shaped our experiences and opportunities? Where should we intervene, what resources can be leveraged? Then, we need to challenge those policies, processes, assumptions and develop new ones with equity as the overarching outcome  These need to be developed in socially and racially inclusive, collaborative ways 72
  • 73. Our fates are linked, yet our fates have beensocially constructed as disconnected, especially through the categories of race, class, gender, nationality, religion… We need to consider ourselves connected to— instead of isolated from—“thy neighbor” 73
  • 74. www.race-talk.orgFollow the KirwanInstitute 74

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