Part 3

Leading

Chapter 8

Leadership

Mosley • Pietri
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
The University of West Ala...
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter, you should
be able to:
1. Describe factor...
Learning Objectives (cont’d)
Learning Objectives (cont’d)
After reading and studying this chapter, you should
be able to:
...
Leadership: What Is It All About?
• Leadership Defined
 A process of influencing individual and group activities

toward ...
EXHIBIT 8.1

Factors Affecting Choice of Leadership Style

© 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved.

8–5
Factors Affecting Leadership Style
• Factors Affecting a Supervisor’s
Management Philosophy:
1. The supervisor’s family an...
Theory X and Theory Y Management Philosophy
• Theory X
 Employees have an inherent dislike of work and wish to avoid

res...
Theory X and Theory Y… (cont’d)
• Theory Y
 Work is as natural as play or rest.

• Assumptions of Theory Y:
 Physical an...
Theory X and Theory Y… (cont’d)
• Implications of Theory X and Theory Y
 Theory X supervisors will be more inclined to pr...
Factors Affecting Leadership Style (cont’d)
• The Followers’ Readiness Level
 Is the state of a follower’s drive and need...
Two Contingency Leadership Models
• Leadership Grid®
 Categorizes leadership styles according to concern

for people and ...
EXHIBIT 8.2

The
Leadership
Grid® Figure

Source: The Leadership Grid® figure,
Paternalism Figure and Opportunism from
Lea...
Situational Leadership
• Life-Cycle Theory of Leadership
 Leadership behaviors should be based on the

readiness level of...
EXHIBIT 8.3

The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership® Model

Participating and
Supporting Style
Best used with ready
i...
EXHIBIT 8.4

Continuum of Leadership Behavior (Tannenbaum and Schmidt)

Continuum of Leadership Behavior
The full range of...
Three Forces Affecting Leadership Approach

Forces in the Employee
Forces in the Employee

Forces in the Leader
Forces in ...
Developmental Leadership
• Developmental Leadership
 An approach that helps groups to evolve effectively

and to achieve ...
Developmental Leadership (cont’d)
• Characteristics of the Heroic Manager
 Knows at all times what is going on in the dep...
EXHIBIT 8.5

The Self-Fulfilling Consequences of Using the Heroic Management Approach

© 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All ri...
Developmental Leadership (cont’d)
• Characteristics of the
Developmental Manager
 Builds a shared-responsibility

team.
...
Transformational and Transactional
Leadership
• Transformational Leadership
 Converts followers into leaders and may conv...
EXHIBIT 8.7

Contrasting Leadership Approaches

Transactional

Transformational

Characteristics
Exchange Process
Evolutio...
EXHIBIT 8.8

A Distant Drum

1. Tell the truth.
2. Do your best, no matter how trivial the task.
3. Choose the difficult r...
Servant Leadership
• Servant Leadership
 Defines success as a leader as giving and measures

achievement by devotion to s...
EXHIBIT 8.9

Ten Characteristics of Servant Leadership

1. Listening.
2. Empathy.
3. Healing.
4. Persuasion.
5. Awareness....
Core Leadership Functions
• Valuing. Having a grasp of the organization’s values and being able
to translate values into p...
EXHIBIT 8.10

The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence at Work
Definition

Hallmarks

Self-Awareness

The ability to ...
EXHIBIT 8.11

Boyatzis’ Theory of Self-Directed Learning (Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee,
2002)

© 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern...
Important Terms
Important Terms
• authority compliance
• coaching and selling style
• continuum of leadership
behavior
• c...
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BUS 51 - Mosley7e ch08

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Cengage Professor, Karen Gordon-Brown, Peralta Community College District @ Merritt College, Oakland, CA
kgordon@peralta.edu

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  • BUS 51 - Mosley7e ch08

    1. 1. Part 3 Leading Chapter 8 Leadership Mosley • Pietri PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2008 Thomson/South-Western All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Learning Objectives Learning Objectives After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe factors that affect the leadership style used. 2. Discuss and explain two frequently used leadership models. 3. Determine which leadership style is most appropriate in different situations. 4. Contrast heroic supervisors with developmental supervisors. 5. Contrast transformational leadership with transactional leadership. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–2
    3. 3. Learning Objectives (cont’d) Learning Objectives (cont’d) After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: 6. Discuss how to inspire self-confidence, develop people, and increase productivity. 7. Explain why emotional intelligence is so important for effective leadership. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–3
    4. 4. Leadership: What Is It All About? • Leadership Defined  A process of influencing individual and group activities toward goal setting and goal achievement. • Leadership Questions:  Why don’t all leaders use the same style?  What effects do different styles have on employee productivity and morale?  What style is most appropriate in a particular situation?  Should a particular style be used consistently, or should it be changed as circumstances change? © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–4
    5. 5. EXHIBIT 8.1 Factors Affecting Choice of Leadership Style © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–5
    6. 6. Factors Affecting Leadership Style • Factors Affecting a Supervisor’s Management Philosophy: 1. The supervisor’s family and early school environment 2. The supervisor’s experience and training in the area of leadership 3. The supervisor’s present work environment, including the type of work and the general management system © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–6
    7. 7. Theory X and Theory Y Management Philosophy • Theory X  Employees have an inherent dislike of work and wish to avoid responsibility. • Assumptions of Theory X:  Employees have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.  Employees must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives.  Employees prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have relatively little ambition, and, above all, seek security.  Employees cannot be trusted. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–7
    8. 8. Theory X and Theory Y… (cont’d) • Theory Y  Work is as natural as play or rest. • Assumptions of Theory Y:  Physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.  Employees will exercise self-direction and self-control in the      service of objectives to which they are committed. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. Employees learn, under proper conditions, not only to accept but also to actively seek greater responsibility. Imagination, ingenuity, and creativity is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population. The intellectual potential of employees is only partially utilized. Employees believe they are winners, so treat them like winners. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–8
    9. 9. Theory X and Theory Y… (cont’d) • Implications of Theory X and Theory Y  Theory X supervisors will be more inclined to prefer a structured, autocratic leadership style.  Theory Y supervisors will be more inclined to prefer a supportive, participative leadership style when the situation calls for it. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–9
    10. 10. Factors Affecting Leadership Style (cont’d) • The Followers’ Readiness Level  Is the state of a follower’s drive and need for achievement.  Results from the follower’s experience, education, attitudes, and willingness and ability to accept responsibility. • Formula for the Readiness Concept  Readiness = Ability + Willingness  If followers are less ready, the leader should use a different style than if followers are more ready. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–10
    11. 11. Two Contingency Leadership Models • Leadership Grid®  Categorizes leadership styles according to concern for people and concern for production results. • Leadership Styles on the Grid  Authority compliance—high concern for production results and a directive approach.  Country club management—high concern for people.  Middle of the road management—places equal emphasis on people and production.  Impoverished management—little concern for people or production. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–11
    12. 12. EXHIBIT 8.2 The Leadership Grid® Figure Source: The Leadership Grid® figure, Paternalism Figure and Opportunism from Leadership Dilemmas—Grid Solutions, by Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse (Formerly the Managerial Grid by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton). Houston: Gulf Publishing Company (Grid Figure: p. 29, Paternalism Figure: p. 30, Opportunism Figure: p. 31). Copyright 1991 by Scientific Methods, Inc. Reproduced by permission of the owners. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–12
    13. 13. Situational Leadership • Life-Cycle Theory of Leadership  Leadership behaviors should be based on the readiness level of employees. • Task Behaviors of Leaders  Clarifying a job, telling people what to do and how and when to do it, providing follow-up, and taking corrective action. • Relationship Behaviors of Leaders  Providing people with support and asking for their opinions. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–13
    14. 14. EXHIBIT 8.3 The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership® Model Participating and Supporting Style Best used with ready individuals or groups. Coaching and Selling Style Used with individuals or groups that have potential but haven’t realized it fully. Delegating Style Used with exceptionally ready and capable individuals and groups. Structuring and Telling Style Used with individuals or groups relatively less ready for a given task. Source: Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, 8th ed., p. 200. Reprinted by permission of the Center for Leadership Studies. All rights reserved. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–14
    15. 15. EXHIBIT 8.4 Continuum of Leadership Behavior (Tannenbaum and Schmidt) Continuum of Leadership Behavior The full range of leadership behaviors in terms of the relationship between a supervisor’s use of authority and employees’ freedom. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Modified and reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern” by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt (May–June 1973). Copyright © 1973 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corp. All rights reserved. 8–15
    16. 16. Three Forces Affecting Leadership Approach Forces in the Employee Forces in the Employee Forces in the Leader Forces in the Leader Choice of Choice of Leadership Leadership Approach Approach Forces in the Situation Forces in the Situation © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–16
    17. 17. Developmental Leadership • Developmental Leadership  An approach that helps groups to evolve effectively and to achieve highly supportive, open, creative, committed, high-performing membership. • Heroic Managers  Those managers who have a great need for control or influence and want to run things. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–17
    18. 18. Developmental Leadership (cont’d) • Characteristics of the Heroic Manager  Knows at all times what is going on in the department.  Has enough technical expertise to supervise subordinates.  Is able to solve any problem that comes up or at least solve it before the subordinate does.  Is the primary (if not the only) person responsible for how the department is working. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–18
    19. 19. EXHIBIT 8.5 The Self-Fulfilling Consequences of Using the Heroic Management Approach © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Adapted from Managing for Excellence. David L. Bradford and Allen R. Cohen, Copyright © 1984, John Wiley & Sons, reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 8–19
    20. 20. Developmental Leadership (cont’d) • Characteristics of the Developmental Manager  Builds a shared-responsibility team.  Continuously develops individual skills of team members.  Works with the team to build a common departmental vision of the team’s overarching goal in support of the mission and overall goals of the organization. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–20
    21. 21. Transformational and Transactional Leadership • Transformational Leadership  Converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents.  Charismatic leadership  Individualized consideration  Intellectual stimulation • Transactional Leadership  Leaders identify desired performance standards and recognize what types of rewards employees want from their work. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–21
    22. 22. EXHIBIT 8.7 Contrasting Leadership Approaches Transactional Transformational Characteristics Exchange Process Evolutionary Ideas Within Existing Structure Reactive Relations Orientation Revolutionary Ideas Emerges in Crisis Proactive Motivation Contingent Reward (Extrinsic) Inspiration; Recognition (Intrinsic) Power Traditional Charismatic Focus Outcomes Vision Leader Specifies Talk Clarifies Roles Recognizes Needs Manages by Exception Consultant, Coach, Teacher Emphasis on Empowering the Individual Gives Autonomy; Good Listener; Informal Accessible; Model of Integrity Employees Seek Security; Needs Fulfilled Separate Organization from Individual Transcend Self-Interests for the Organization Do More than They Are Expected to Do Outcomes Expected Performance Quantum Leaps in Performance © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–22 Source: George McAleer’s presentation at APT Type and Leadership Symposium, Crystal City, VA, March 5–7, 1993.
    23. 23. EXHIBIT 8.8 A Distant Drum 1. Tell the truth. 2. Do your best, no matter how trivial the task. 3. Choose the difficult right over the easy wrong. 4. Look out for the group before you look out for yourself. 5. Don’t whine or make excuses. 6. Judge others by their actions, not their race, culture, religion, or sexual orientation. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Cherl Templet, My Leadership Autobiography, March 1, 1999. A requirement in an MBA Leadership course taught by Donald C. Mosley, Spring Semester 1999, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama. 8–23
    24. 24. Servant Leadership • Servant Leadership  Defines success as a leader as giving and measures achievement by devotion to serving and leading.  Winning becomes the creation of community through collaboration and team building. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–24
    25. 25. EXHIBIT 8.9 Ten Characteristics of Servant Leadership 1. Listening. 2. Empathy. 3. Healing. 4. Persuasion. 5. Awareness. 6. Foresight. 7. Conceptualization. 8. Commitment to the growth of people. 9. Stewardship. 10. Building community. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Larry C. Spears, “Creating Caring Leadership for the 21st Century,” The Not-For-Profit CEO Monthly Letter 5, No. 9, July 1998 (The Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership, 921 East 86th Street, Suite 2000, Indianapolis, IN). Reprinted with permission. 8–25
    26. 26. Core Leadership Functions • Valuing. Having a grasp of the organization’s values and being able to translate values into practice and elevate them to higher levels. • Visioning. Having a clear mental picture of a desired future for the organization or organizational unit. • Coaching. Helping others develop the knowledge and skills needed for achieving the vision. • Empowering. Enabling others to move toward the vision. • Team building. Developing a coalition of people who will commit themselves to achieving the vision. • Promoting quality. Achieving a reputation for always meeting or exceeding customer expectations. • Listening with empathy. Clarifying where others are coming from and acceptance of others even with imperfections. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 8–26
    27. 27. EXHIBIT 8.10 The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence at Work Definition Hallmarks Self-Awareness The ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their effect on others Self-confidence Realistic self-assessment Self-deprecating sense of humor Self-Regulation The ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods The propensity to suspend judgment—to think before acting Trustworthiness and integrity Comfort with ambiguity Openness to change Motivation A passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status A propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence Strong drive to achieve Optimism, even in the face of failure Organizational commitment Empathy The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people Skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions Expertise in building and retaining talent Cross-cultural sensitivity Service to clients and customers Social Skill Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks An ability to find common ground and build rapport Effectiveness in leading change Persuasiveness Expertise in building and leading teams © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Daniel Goleman, “What Makes a Leader?” Harvard Business Review, November–December 1998, p. 95. Copyright © 1998 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corp. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission. 8–27
    28. 28. EXHIBIT 8.11 Boyatzis’ Theory of Self-Directed Learning (Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee, 2002) © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Richard E. Boyatzis, Ellen Van Oosten, “A Leadership Imperative: Building the Emotionally Intelligent Organization, Ivey Business Journal, January/February 2003, p. 3. 8–28
    29. 29. Important Terms Important Terms • authority compliance • coaching and selling style • continuum of leadership behavior • country club management • delegating style • developmental leadership • emotional intelligence • heroic managers • impoverished management • leadership • Leadership Grid® • life-cycle theory of leadership © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. • • • • • • • • • • • • • middle of the road management participating and supporting style readiness level relationship behaviors servant leadership Situational Leadership® Model structuring and telling style task behaviors team management Theory X Theory Y transactional leadership transformational leadership 8–29
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