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BUS 51 - Mosley7e ch10


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Cengage Professor, Karen Gordon-Brown, Peralta Community College District @ Merritt College, Oakland, CA

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BUS 51 - Mosley7e ch10

  1. 1. Part 4 Skill Development Chapter 10 Meetings and Facilitation Skills Mosley • Pietri PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2008 Thomson/South-Western All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Learning Objectives After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain how technology is enhancing meetings. 2. Explain the four basic purposes of meetings. 3. Differentiate between the leader-controlled approach and the group-centered approach used in meetings. 4. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of meetings. 5. Describe the actions that a supervisor can take before, during, and after a meeting to make it effective. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (cont’d) Learning Objectives (cont’d) After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: 6. Explain the process of consensus decision making in meetings. 7. Define group facilitation. 8. Explain the role of group facilitator. 9. Differentiate between process consultation and other models of consultation. 10. Specifically identify what can be done to make teleconferencing more effective. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–3
  4. 4. The Changing Technology of Meetings • Technology that Enhances Meetings:  Cell phones  Videoconferences  Computers and software meeting-support programs  Onscreen display of discussion points, voting by members, actions taken, and meeting minutes © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–4
  5. 5. EXHIBIT 10.1 Purposes of Meetings © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–5
  6. 6. Purposes of Meetings • Information-Giving Meeting  Held to announce new programs and policies or to update present ones. • Information Exchange Meeting  Held to obtain information from group members. • Fact-Finding Meeting  Held to seek out relevant facts about a problem or situation. • Problem-Solving Meeting  Held to identify the problem, to discuss alternative solutions, and to decide on the proper action to take. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–6
  7. 7. Approaches Used at Meetings • Leader-Controlled Approach  Used at meetings of large groups in which the leader clearly runs the show and the open flow of information is impeded. • Group-Centered Approach  Used at meetings in which group members interact freely and address and question one another. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–7
  8. 8. EXHIBIT 10.2 Interaction in the Leader-Controlled Approach © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–8
  9. 9. EXHIBIT 10.3 Interaction in the Group Centered Approach © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–9
  10. 10. Advantages and Disadvantages of Meetings Advantages of Meetings: 1. Save time. 2. Ensure consistency of information. 3. Permit formal exchange of information. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Disadvantages of Meetings: 1. May be unnecessary. 2. May not be cost effective. 3. May result in watered down decisions. 4. May become impersonal. 10–10
  11. 11. EXHIBIT 10.4 Meetings Cost! Many managers overlook the cost of meetings. The following table approximates hourly costs for employees at four salary levels. The hourly rates include only salary and normal benefits. They do not include costs of meeting planning and preparation time, travel time/costs, follow-up costs, and the like. Salary/Benefit Hourly Meeting Costs Number of Participants Salary 25 10 8 6 4 $100,000 $1,825 $730 $584 $438 $292 80,000 1,460 584 467 350 234 60,000 1,095 438 350 263 175 40,000 730 292 234 175 117 © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–11
  12. 12. Making Meetings Effective • Factors to Consider Before the Meeting:  Determine whether or not the meeting is necessary.  Have a clear purpose for the meeting. • Preplan the Meeting:  Give adequate advance notice.  Make sure that key people will be able to attend.  Distribute copies of the meeting agenda in advance.  Let people know in advance if they need to provide information.  Check that the meeting room is arranged and that visual aids are functioning properly.  Form an idea of how long the meeting should last. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–12
  13. 13. Making Meetings Effective (cont’d) • Factors to Consider During the Meeting:  Start the meeting on time.  Designate someone to take minutes.  Clarify your expectations; introduce each item on the agenda by stating your purpose for including it.  Provide leadership.  Keep the meeting moving and focused on the agenda.  Encourage contributions by all present.  Summarize positions of the group periodically.  Address problems of participant behavior.  Encourage two-way communication. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–13
  14. 14. EXHIBIT 10.6 Agenda Planning 1. If possible, distribute an agenda several days before a meeting. 2. Allow an opportunity for members to add topics to the agenda. 3. Indicate the time allotted for agenda topics. This will help time management during the meeting. 4. Where the list of agenda topics is long, begin with routine items. 5. In longer meetings, controversial topics should be addressed sufficiently early in the agenda while group energy is sufficiently high. Placing controversial items at the end of an agenda when discussion time is limited may give the impression that you are manipulating the group. 6. Build a break into meetings that last longer than 90 minutes. This will allow members to network, address other workrelated items, and use the restroom as needed. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Sample Agenda adapted from Deborah J. Barrett, Leadership Communication: (New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2006, p. 216. Other information from http://www.3com/meetingnetwork/reaingroom/meetingguide_anatomy.html) 10–14
  15. 15. EXHIBIT 10.8 Questioning Techniques for Leaders of Meetings • Clarifying or elaborating on a point made by someone. Example: “Are you saying that . . . ?” or “Alice, would you mind giving us a little more detail about the situation? When did it happen?” • Calling on someone who is reluctant to talk. Example: “Pete, you’ve been through more maintenance shutdowns than most of us. What do you think about all of this?” • Getting specific facts. Example: “Exactly what were our production figures last month? Can someone give us those figures?” • Examining possible alternatives. Example: “What are the pros and cons of converting to the new system?” or “Would we be able to keep up our quality under the new system?” or “What 2008 Thomson/South- would happen if . . . ?” © Western. All rights reserved. 10–15
  16. 16. EXHIBIT 10.8 Questioning Techniques for Leaders of Meetings (cont’d) • Initiating group discussion. Example: “What is your reaction to this new vacation policy?” or “Does this new policy affect anyone here?” • Obtaining more participation from the group. Example: “We’ve heard two alternatives. Are there any more?” • Guiding the meeting tactfully in certain directions. Example: “We seem to have already discussed this issue pretty thoroughly and agreed on a course of action. Is everyone ready to move on?” • “Testing the water” as to the group’s feeling. Example: “What would be your reaction if we went to the system we’ve been discussing? Would you support it?” © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–16
  17. 17. Work to Achieve Consensus Decisions • Consensus is likely when a group’s members:  Openly state their true feelings, ideas, and disagreements.  Examine their different views fully.  Try to understand underlying reasons behind their differences on an issue.  Actively listen to and seek to understand other members’ positions.  Focus on issues rather than on personalities.  Avoid actions that polarize members or lock them into positions. • Closure  Successfully accomplishing the objective for a given item on the agenda. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–17
  18. 18. EXHIBIT 10.9 Eleven Team Member’s Point Allocations Using 10-4 Prioritizing Format Item for 10-4 Scoring: “Possible Actions to Increase Teamwork in Our Department” a) Change incentive system so that it reflects part individual, part department results 3, 1, 2, 1 = 7 b) Include teamwork as an item on performance evaluation system 2, 3, 1, 3, 4, 4, 3, 4, 3, 4 = 31 c) Develop system for recognizing when someone has been a good team player 4, 4, 4, 4, 3, 4, 4, 4, 2, 4, 3 = 40 d) Include teamwork related behaviors as part of everyone’s job description 2, 2, 2, 3, 1, 1, 2, 2 = 15 e) Cross train members so that they better understand all jobs in the department 4, 1, 2, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1 = 16 f) Rotate positions occasionally so that members perform each other’s jobs 2=2 Key: letter = alternative numbers = each member’s allocation of 10 points; maximum of four points can be awarded by a team member to an alternative. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–18
  19. 19. Making Meetings Effective (cont’d) • Factors to Consider After the Meeting:  Distribute Copies of the Minutes  The minutes serve as a permanent record of what has been agreed on and committed to at the meeting.  The minutes identify topics on the agenda that have not been dealt with completely or that have been suggested for a future meeting.  The minutes permit a smooth transition, allowing you to take up where you left off at the next meeting.  Follow Up on Decisions Made  Personal observations, visits, and reports to supervisors on commitments made. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–19
  20. 20. What is Group Facilitation? • Group Facilitation  The process of intervening to help a group improve in goal setting, action planning, problem solving, conflict management, and decision making in order to increase the group’s effectiveness. • Roles of the Facilitator  Purchase-of-expertise model  Doctor-patient model  Process consultation model © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–20
  21. 21. EXHIBIT 10.10 Core Skills for the Effective Facilitator • Communication skills listening and asking the right questions. • Leadership skills participative management and developmental leadership. • Problem-solving skills. • Group dynamics skills. • Conceptual and analytical skills. • Conflict management skills principled negotiation. • Process consultation skills intervention and diagnostic insights. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–21
  22. 22. EXHIBIT 10.11 Basic and Developmental Facilitation Characteristic Basic Facilitation Developmental Facilitation Group objective Solve a substantive problem or problems. Achieve group goals along with solving substantive problems while learning to improve processes. Facilitator role Help group temporarily improve its processes. Take primary responsibility for managing the group’s processes. Help group permanently improve its processes. Help group assume primary responsibility for achieving goals and managing processes. Outcome for group Emphasize dependence on facilitator for solving future problems. Reduce dependence on facilitator for solving future problems. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Roger M. Schwartz, The Skilled Facilitator: Practical Wisdom for Developing Effective Groups, Table 1.1, p. 7, adapted as submitted. Copyright © 1994 Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 10–22
  23. 23. Roles of the Facilitator • Purchase-of-Expertise Model  Assumptions: 1. The manager has correctly diagnosed the organization’s needs. 2. The manager has correctly communicated those needs to the consultant. 3. The manager has accurately assessed the capabilities of the consultant to provide the information or the service. 4. The manager has considered the consequences of having the consultant gather such information 5. The manager is willing to implement changes that may be recommended by the consultant. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–23
  24. 24. Roles of the Facilitator (cont’d) • Doctor–Patient Model  Assumptions: 1. The initial client has accurately identified which person, group, or department is “sick.” 2. The “patient” has revealed accurate information. 3. The “patient” accepts the prescription that is, does what the “doctor” recommends. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–24
  25. 25. Roles of the Facilitator (cont’d) • Process Consultation Model  Involves others in making a joint diagnosis of the problem and eventually provides others with the skills and tools to make their own diagnoses.  Assumptions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Clients do not know what is wrong and need special help in diagnosing what their problems are. Clients do not know what help consultants can give to them; they must be informed of what help to seek. Clients have the intent to improve things, but they need help identifying what to improve and how to improve it. Most organizations are more effective if they learn to diagnose and manage their strengths and weaknesses. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–25
  26. 26. Roles of the Facilitator (cont’d) • Process Consultation Model (cont’d)  Assumptions: 5. 6. 7. 8. A consultant cannot learn enough about the culture of the organization to suggest reliable new courses of action that will resisted because they come from an outsider. The client must see the problem and think through the remedy to be willing to implement the solution and learn how to fix such problems should they recur. The process consultant can provide alternatives, but decision making about such alternatives must remain in the hands of the client. Process consultation teaches the skills of how to diagnose and fix organizational problems so that the client is able to continue to improve the organization. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–26
  27. 27. EXHIBIT 10.12 Tips for Facilitating Teleconferencing Preparation 1. Decide who will be in on the call. 2. Establish a clear set of desired outcomes. 3. Create and distribute an agenda. Facilitation 1. Designate a timekeeper and note taker. 2. Ask members to identify themselves each time they speak. 3. Call on the silent. 4. Poll each member. 5. Watch the clock. 6. Consider alternatives for difficult issues. 7. Review assignments and close positively. Follow-Up As soon as the call is complete, prepare the to-do list with the deadlines and designees and send it out immediately. It also helps to solicit feedback about how participants viewed the usefulness of the call. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Copyright © 1999, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission. 10–27
  28. 28. EXHIBIT 10.13 The Facilitators at Leadership Strategies, Inc. Characteristics of effective facilitators: 1. Enjoy working with people and have a genuine desire to help people feel good about themselves and achieve their desired results. 2. Think quickly and logically, and have the ability to analyze comments, understand how they relate to the topic, and develop appropriate responses. 3. Communicate clearly and expressively by making specific, concise points, and using appropriate levels of energy to build excitement and enthusiasm. 4. Practice active listening skills by engaging a speaker, listening attentively, and asking probing questions. 5. Convey warmth to others by using smiles, praise, and gestures in one-on-one and group interactions. 6. Demonstrate self-confidence and leadership when working with others, and are the people others look to for direction and counsel. 7. Have a process orientation, with an interest in finding methods to improve the way things are done, looking beyond the narrow focus of a job to the greater scope of the organization. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: From “About Our Facilitators.” Reprinted by permission of Leadership Strategies—The Facilitation Company. Visit us on the web at: 10–28
  29. 29. Important Terms Important Terms • closure • consensus • fact-finding meeting • group-centered approach • group facilitation • information exchange meeting • information-giving meeting • leader-controlled approach • minutes • problem-solving meeting • process consultation © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 10–29
  30. 30. Qualities Valued in a Leader (For use with Skill Builder 10-1) Quality Rank a. intelligent ____ b. caring ____ c. dependable ____ d. inspiring ____ e. mature ____ f. forward-looking ____ g. courageous ____ h. honest ____ i. fair-minded ____ j. competent © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. ____ 10–30