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Whitepaper: Mining the AWR repository for Capacity Planning and Visualization
 

Whitepaper: Mining the AWR repository for Capacity Planning and Visualization

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    Whitepaper: Mining the AWR repository for Capacity Planning and Visualization Whitepaper: Mining the AWR repository for Capacity Planning and Visualization Document Transcript

    • MPARI1trAoDcaSining thRT 1 - WheI’m certain th108 AWR repthe bottleneckreports by hanAWR reportsof the 1000+ lDefinitely thiconsultant I malready availaSQL*Plus sese AWRNew CPUa cost. HavailableDBAs anguesswoproper pfor yoursavingsAWR issteroidsworkloasamplesto visuaAWR daand UtilmetricsIn this pto haveAnalysisre it all stahat DBAs or dports in just ank? And whatnd, and it is ageneration, elines of perfos will lead tomust also be awable to helpssion?RepositoUs and storage aHence, capacity pe and to handlend IT managersork youll end upplanning, and mar workload withfor the companya built-in data s". It has improd information ws, we could buildalize data and usta samples is weization in termsfor Capacity Planpaper you will leae a clear-cut mes, and Performanarteddevelopers don hour. How ais the bottlena daunting anespecially whrmance data to longer analyware on howwith the troutory for Cother ReKOracle ACEkarlaraarrays are gettingplanning plays aexpected and unis justifying thep getting the moanagement of grallowance for ay and a happier Istore that starteoved significantlwhen going throamazing reportsse statistical mete are able to defof CPU, IO, menning.arn how to makeeasurement onnce Firefighting.on’t have enoabout 108 AWneck? Well bend repetitive ehen you start rto correlate itysis periods hto optimize mubleshootingCapacityal WorldKarl AraoE, OCP-DBAao@gmail.cog faster, but thevery importantnexpected workloexpense of addst expensive harrowth, youll beparticular growIT shop.d in 10gR1 andy in 11gR2, enugh all the AWs that will let usthods for analysfine the databasemory, and netwe use of the AWRresources to aidough time to sWR reports inefore it will taexecution of areading eacht to the problehence longermy troubleshobut what ify Plannd StuffA, RHCEomse resources arerole to ensure proads. Another criding resources onrdware. With proable to get justwth period. Thisis very much liknabling you toR snapshots. Frnotice trends anis. Even more suse servers Capacwork, which are vR, specifically thed in Capacity Pspare to readn 5 minutes juake so muchawrrpt.sql. Yof them andem at hand.r time for a pooting time. Yyou are onlying, Vise finite and comeroper resources aitical matter for tn the system. Woper measuremethe right hardwawill result in huke a "Statspackhave a far betrom the AWR dd makes it possiurprising about tcity, Requiremenvery important ke DBA_HIST viewPlanning, Predictd 108 AWR reust to answerof my time juYou will be ovyou only neeproblem to beYou can arguy left with juualizatioe ataretheWithent,areugeontteratablethents,keyws,tiveeports in a dathe question wust to generatverwhelmed bed to see partie solved andue that there arust a commaon, anday, even morwhat period ite these AWRby the manuaicular sectionas a databasre visual tooland line or anesRalsesn
    • TpvPARAsOTap3tFdsdTfT3AtThis scenarioperformance dvisualize the dRT 2 - HowAWR is muchsources of theOracle versionThe AWR repan AWR repoperformance p339) within ththe workloadFor the querydata blocks resince instancedelta and tranTo transformformula. See tIO MB/s = ( (d                = ((5                = 73To validate th339. The imagAlso a run ofthe throughputriggered medata in moredata, or even pw to mine thh like “Statspae AWR reporn 11.2.port providesort for SNAPproblems wehe specified inchange that’sy output we aead from diske start. We arnsforming it tothe delta tothe example fdelta * <block_size5663126 * 8192) /3.37 MB/s he accuracy oge below showAutomatic Dut of 74 MB/se to mine on tmeaningful mpossible to dohe AWRack on steroidrt are the DBa single summP_ID 335 toare more intenterval. In ths happening.are investigatik. It is also imre particularlyo a more meaa more meanfor SNAP_IDe>) /1024/1024 ) /1024/1024) / 603 f the derivedws the delta wDatabase Diagthat is reallythe source tabmanner that wo some statistds” it is a wonBA_HIST viewmary report b339 that is aerested to seeat way we haing for the Smportant to noy interested oaningful and rningful outpuD 338 below:/ <snap_duration_value we neewe used to dergnostic Monitclose to our dbles of the AWwill be easiertics out of it.nderful data cws which havbased upon anan interval timwhat occurreave a granularYSSTAT staote this is a cuon the delta oeadable outpuut that we cou_in_seconds> ed to comparrive the MB/stor (ADDM)derived valueWR report tofor me to nocollector for Oave grown fron interval of tme from 6:20ed during eacr view of whaatistic “physicumulative phyof each SNAPut.uld easily unre it with thes is correct.on SNAP_IDecut out the uotice trends anOracle and OSom 67 in Oratime. On the i0 – 7:01AM.ch of the sampat’s going oncal reads” whysical reads bP_ID that isnderstand weactual AWRD 338 – 339 sunnecessary annd even possS statistics. Tacle version 1image belowHowever whple (335,336,n and have a bhich is the toby all the dataend_value –would applyreport on SNshows that wend present thible for me toThe underlying10.1 to 108 inwe can creathen analyzing, 337, 338 andbetter view ontal number oabase sessionstart_value =y the IO MB/NAP_ID 338 –e are reachingeognegdnofs= s–g
    • AT And checkingThe data showSELECT * FRO( SELECT s0.sn  TO_CHAR(s0  s10t0.stat_n  s10t0.value   s10t1.value   (s10t1.value  round(((((s1                                                                            ),2) as phyrFROM dba_h           dba_hi           dba_hi           dba_hiWHERE s0.dbAND s1.dbid  AND s10t0.dbAND s10t1.dbAND s0.instanAND s1.instanAND s10t0.inAND s10t1.inAND s1.snap_AND s10t0.snAND s10t1.snAND s10t0.stAND s10t1.st) WHERE snap_ORDER BY sng it with the Ewn above comOM nap_id snap_id, 0.END_INTERVAL_name, start_value,  end_value, e ‐ s10t0.value) de0t1.value ‐ s10t0.v          + EXTRACT(H          + EXTRACT(M          + EXTRACT(Sreads_mbps ist_snapshot s0, st_snapshot s1, st_sysstat s10t0,   st_sysstat s10t1 bid              = 26079              = s0.dbid bid             = s0.dbibid             = s0.dbince_number     = 1nce_number     = sstance_number  =stance_number  =_id             = s0.snanap_id          = s0.snnap_id          = s0.snat_name        = phat_name        = s10_id in (335,336,33ap_id ASC; Enterprise Manmes from quer_TIME,YY/MM/DDlta, value)* 8192)/102HOUR FROM s1.ENMINUTE FROM s1SECOND FROM s1              ‐‐ physica950532    ‐‐ DBID d d 1               ‐‐ INSTANs0.instance_numb= s0.instance_num= s0.instance_numap_id + 1 nap_id nap_id + 1 hysical reads 0t0.stat_name 7,338,339) nager Performry below:D HH24:MI) TIME,24/1024)  / ((roundND_INTERVAL_TIM.END_INTERVAL_T.END_INTERVAL_Tl reads, diffed NCE_NUMBER er mber mber mance page shd(EXTRACT(DAY FRME ‐ s0.END_INTERTIME ‐ s0.END_INTTIME ‐ s0.END_INThows that theROM s1.END_INTERVAL_TIME) * 60 TERVAL_TIME)  TERVAL_TIME) / 6e Disk IO is arERVAL_TIME ‐ s0.E60, 2))*60) round our derEND_INTERVAL_TIrived valueIME) * 1440  
    • You may have noticed that I used the SQL trick below that has similar effect to the LAG function. This enables thequery to get the start_value and end_value on a single row making it possible to get the delta value and apply theperformance formula. The view DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOT also acts as an ultimate reference of snap information thatallows joining to the other DBA_HIST views to provide meaningful data on other subsystems or workloadperformance data.AND s10t0.snap_id          = s0.snap_id AND s10t1.snap_id          = s0.snap_id + 1 The query I’ve shown you is just one part of the story, that’s only giving the “IO Read MB/s” - an IO subsystemstatistic. Ideally we must have a correlation on the following subsystems of the database server to fully characterizethe overall workload and performance:1) Oracle Oracle instance and database configuration2) Operating System CPU, memory, IO, and network3) Application SQLs and anything specific to the applicationFor the correlation we would be using the “3-circle analysis” technique [1] where each subsystem represents a circleand is diagnosed separately and then in combination. If the problem resides with the database server, the overlap ofthe 3 circles is the current performance problem. By doing this we will have a clear correlation of the workload andperformance across subsystems and will have targeted efforts to improve the overall response time.In mining the AWR having a query in a time series layout and only the relevant statistics shown side by side can bevery useful in various ways and even if it can’t be shown side by side each bottleneck period relates to a particularSNAP_ID so the correlation across various performance data is extremely possible!Having this we would have the following advantages Quickly notice trends for performance diagnosis We have the beautiful set of workload and performance data now in our control We have lots of data points for statistical and predictive analysis Faster analysis ever!
    • AaTTcScript Naawr_genwawr_topevawr_servicAs I go alongapplied succesThe chart beloThe table belcreated:ame DBwl DBDBDBDBvents DBDBDBces DBDBg with my ressfully on reaow shows thelow shows thIMBA_HIST vieBA_HIST_SNAPSBA_HIST_OSSTABA_HIST_SYS_TBA_HIST_SYSSTBA_HIST_SNAPSBA_HIST_SYSTEBA_HIST_SYS_TBA_HIST_SNAPSBA_HIST_SERVIesearch of mial world perfocategorical rhe importantMPORTANT NOewsSHOTATTIME_MODELTATSHOTEM_EVENTTIME_MODELSHOTICE_STATining the AWormance scenarelationship odetails of thTE: DiagnosticData presAASCPU capacCPU requirMemory reIO requireLogged onCPU UtilizaEventEvent RanWaitsTimeAvgwt (msDB Time %AASWait ClassService NaDB TimeDB CPUPhysical ReLogical ReaAASWR I have crarios.f the scripts:he scripts andc Pack Licensesentedcityrementsequirementsmentsusersationks)%ameeadsadsreated and cod some reasoe is needed forDescriptioThis is theoverview ofthe relationsUtilization =The AAS coperiods whejust idleThis is a vewith AAS mComing frommust be awdrilling dowof data overGraphing ththat outputsdifferent wayou could gService enaor allowingThis data isus a classifdatabase.Showing thicolumn willmost the woollected someon behind hor the scriptsonstarting point.f the load of thship of the form= Requirementsolumn serves aere the databarsion of "Top 5etric.m the awr_genwware about the cn on the time cr a period of timhis data will be ms a nice graph aait classes givingo back and drillables the groupithe distributions commonly seefication of theis data in a timgive us an ideaorkload of the de useful scripow they are fYou first runhe database semula/ Capacityas a (golden) mase could be hTimed Events"wl, for the AAScomponents of Acomponents) anme (across SNAPmuch like the Eand slicing the Ag you a broad “l down on the png of commonof connectionsen on the Enterapplication/mome series mannea if particular apdatabase.pts that I havformatted andthis SQL to harver. It clearlymetric on findihaving a bottlenbut across SNAto be more useAAS (much liked have this kindP_IDs).nterprise ManagAAS component“historical” viewpast load activitydatabase connes (e.g. RAC).prise Manager todule activity oer and adding applications areedave anshowsng theneck orAP_IDsful wedgerts towhichy.ectionsto giveon thean AASdriving
    • awr_sysstat DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_OSSTATDBA_HIST_SYS_TIME_MODELDBA_HIST_SYSSTATAASLIO/sDB Block Changes/sUser Calls/sParses/sHard Parses/sSorts/sLogon/sSQL*NET to client MBSQL*NET to dblink MBThis is a version of "Load Profile" but across SNAP_IDs withAAS metric.Useful to quickly notice the Oracle workload change. You mayput additional SYSSTAT statistic you want to monitor here.awr_topsqlx DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_SQLSTATDBA_HIST_SQLTEXTSQL_IDPlan Hash ValueModuleElapsed Time (s)Elapsed Time / exec (s)CPU Time (s)IO Time (s)App Time (s)Concurrency Time (s)Cluster Wait (s)LIOPIODirect WritesRowsExecParse CountPX ExecTime RankAASSQL_TEXTThe “SQL section” of the AWR report is usually segregated intosections ordered by the following: Elapsed Time CPU Time Gets Reads Executions Parse CallsHaving separate data for a particular problematic SQL_IDspread over 1000+ lines of report makes it hard to find everydetail about its performance.I feel there’s a better way to present the data. And here arethe info/sections youll get from the script and some shortdescription:1) snap_id, time, instance, snap durationThe time period and snap_id could be used to show the SQLsfor a givenworkload period..lets say you usual work hours is 9-6pm, youcould justshow the particular SQLs on that period.. theres a data rangesection onthe bottom of the script you could make use of it if you want tofilter.2) sql_id, plan_hash_value, moduleYou could make use of this info if you want to know where theSQL wasexecuted (SQL*Plus, OWB, Toad, etc.).. plus you couldcompare theplan_hash_value but I suggest you make use of KerryOsbornesawr_unstable_plans.sql script if youd like to search forunstable plans.3) total elapsed time, elapsed time per exec- cpu time- io time- app wait time- concurrency wait time- cluster wait timeThese are the time info.. at least without tracing the SQL youdknow whattime component is consuming the elapsed time of thatparticular SQL.. solets say your total elapsed time is 1000sec, and cpu time of30sec, and iotime of 300sec... you would know that it is consumingsignificant IO but youhave to look for the other 670sec which could be attributed by"other" waitevents (like PX Deq Credit: send blkd,etc,etc)4) - LIOs- PIOs- direct writes- rows- executions- parse count- PXSome other statistics about the SQL.. if your incurring a lot ofPIOs, howmany times this SQL was executed on that period, the # of PXspawed.. justbe careful about these numbers if you have "executions" of
    • lets say 8.. youhave to divide these values to 8 as well as on the timesection..only the "elapsed time per exec" is the per execution value..this is for formatting reasons because I cant fit them all on myscreen..5) - AAS (Average Active Sessions)- Time Rank- SQL type, SQL textThis is one of my favorites... this will measure hows the SQL isperforming against the database server.. Im using the AAS &CPU count as myyardstick for a possible performance problem (I suggestreading Kyles stuffabout this):if AAS < 1-- Database is not blockedAAS ~= 0-- Database basically idle-- Problems are in the APP not DBAAS < # of CPUs-- CPU available-- Database is probably not blocked-- Are any single sessions 100% active?AAS > # of CPUs-- Could have performance problemsAAS >> # of CPUS-- There is a bottleneckso having the AAS as another metric on the TOP SQL is goodstuff.. Ive alsoadded the "time rank" column to know what is the SQLsranking on the topSQL.. normally the default settings of the script will show timerank 1 to 5.. this could be useful also if you are finding aparticular SQL that is onrank #15 and you are seeing that theres an adhoc query thatis time rank #1and #2 affecting the database performance..And.... this script could also show SQLs that span acrossSNAP_IDs... Iwould order the output by SNAP_ID and filter on that particularSQL then youwould see that if the SQL is still running and span across letssay 2SNAP_IDs then the exec count would be 0 (zero) and elapsedtime per exec is0 (zero).. only the time when the query is finished youll seethese valuespopulated.. Ive noticed this behavior and its the same thingthat is shownon the AWR reports.. you could go here for that scenariohttp://karlarao.tiddlyspot.com/#%5B%5BTopSQL%20on%20AWR%5D%5Dawr_topsql DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_SQLSTATDBA_HIST_SQLTEXTSQL_IDPlan Hash ValueModuleElapsed Time (s)Elapsed Time / exec (s)CPU Time (s)Cluster Wait (s)LIOPIORowsExecParse CountPX ExecTime RankAASSimilar columns from awr_topsqlx but this time just showingthe top 20 SQLs across SNAP_IDs.awr_unstable_plans(by Kerry Osborne)DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_SQLSTATSQL_IDExecutionsMin,Max,Avg EtimeAvg LIOSTD_DEVThis script finds SQL statements with plan instability. I like theclever use of standard deviation to show SQLs with variableelapsed time.
    • awr_parm_mods(by Kerry Osborne)DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_PARAMETERV$INSTANCEParameter NameOld ValueNew ValueThis script shows all parameters (including hidden) that havebeen modified.awr_netwl DBA_HIST_SYSMETRIC_SUMMARY Network Minvalue (MB)/sNetwork Maxvalue (MB)/sNetwork Avgvalue (MB)/sNetwork STD_DEV (MB)/sThe data comes from the metric family of tables that shows“Network Traffic Volume Per Sec”Keep in mind that metrics are different from sysstat values. Onsysstat you just get the delta and the rate, in metric thesampling is different lets say the snap duration is 10mins whatmetric does is it samples on per 60sec interval (num_interval)and get the max, min, avg, std_dev of those samples.awr_est_gc_traffic(byJohn Kanagaraj)DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_SYSSTATDBA_HIST_DLM_MISCV$DATABASEV$PARAMETEREstimated InterconnectTraffic (KB)This script is ideal for RAC environment and shows theinterconnect throughput of an instance. Very useful if you wantto check if the interconnect is being saturated.awr_iowl DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_OSSTATDBA_HIST_SYS_TIME_MODELDBA_HIST_SYSSTATAASCPU IO WAIT UtilizationOS LoadSingle Block R/W IOPSMulti Block R/W IOPSR/W MB/sTotal R/W IOPSR/W RatioHW Disk IOPSHW # of DisksThis script is ideal for monitoring the Oracle IO activity. Veryuseful for sizing and consolidating storage for Oracledatabases. This can be used together with a storagemonitoring tool to have a complete picture of IO performance.The last two columns have the corresponding formula that isused by storage engineers to determine the number of diskneeded by the database.HW Disk IOPS = (IOPS * Read Ratio) + (IOPS * Write Ratio *RAID penalty)HW # of Disks = Total disk IOPS / IOPS per diskOf course the “HW # of Disks” is not the final number. Thereare other factors (bandwidth, throughput, service time, etc.)that need to be considered to determine the right storage for aparticular IO workload but this can be your starting point. Alsobenchmarking will help a lot on the storage decisions.awr_io_ts DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_FILESTATXSDBA_HIST_TEMPSTATXSTablespace R/W IOPSTablespace R/W latencyThis script shows the IO performance of the tablespaces. Thisis the same as what you see in AWR but across SNAP_IDs.The latency formula is as followslatency (ms) = (readtim / phy reads) * 10Keep in mind that on this script the IOPS and latency valuesare aggregated from all the datafiles of the tablespace. Sodiagnosing latency issues using this script may not representthe actual numbers but may warn you from the textual trendsof high latency (ms) numbers that way you’ll be interested onparticular workload periods to probe it with small durationsamples.awr_io_file DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_FILESTATXSDBA_HIST_TEMPSTATXSDatafile R/W IOPSDatafile R/W latencyThis script shows the IO performance of the datafiles. This isthe same as what you see in AWR but across SNAP_IDs.Keep in mind that the IOPS and latency values may benormalized if the snap interval is too long (60mins above)compared to per 5seconds or 10 minute snap interval. (seeAppendix)r2toolkit [2] DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_DATABASE_INSTANCEDBA_HIST_SYSSTATDBA_HIST_SYSTEM_EVENTDBA_HIST_SYS_TIME_MODELDBA_HIST_OSSTATDBA_HIST_WR_CONTROLY and X values that canbe plotted for LinearRegressionThis is a performance toolkit that uses AWR data and LinearRegression to identify what metric/statistic is driving thedatabase server’s workload. The data points can be very usefulfor capacity planning giving you informed decisions andcompletely avoiding guesswork!You can also do the same kind of mining with Statspack. Each DBA_HIST view has a counterpart Statspack view andyou can achieve similar resultsDBA_HIST_SNAPSHOT = STATS$SNAPSHOTDBA_HIST_OSSTAT = STATS$OSSTAT
    • DBA_HIST_SYS_TIME_MODEL = STATS$SYS_TIME_MODELDBA_HIST_SYSSTAT = STATS$SYSSTATThe scripts mentioned are freely downloadable and more details on the math and performance formulas (rates, time,IOPS, CPU, latency, utilization, AAS) will be discovered when you look into the SQL code. I would also suggest thatif you are serious on mining the AWR you must take time to play further with the DBA_HIST tables and theunderlying data and you’ll appreciate that you have a better understanding on how the data are derived on the plainAWR report.PART 3 - VisualizationAverage Active Sessions (AAS) has become my default (golden) metric on finding the periods where the databasecould be having a bottleneck or just idle. Essentially AAS is the database load; this value should not go above theCPU count (NUM_CPUS in DBA_HIST_OSSTAT) and if it does then that means the database is working very hardor waiting a lot for something.Together, the AAS & CPU count is used as a yardstick for a possible performance problem [3]    If AAS < 1        ‐‐ Database is not blocked      AAS ~= 0        ‐‐ Database basically idle       ‐‐ Problems are in the APP not DB      AAS < # of CPUs       ‐‐ CPU available       ‐‐ Database is probably not blocked       ‐‐ Are any single sessions 100% active?      AAS > # of CPUs       ‐‐ Could have performance problems      AAS >> # of CPUS       ‐‐ There is a bottleneck Just like a doctor, AAS could be your “stethoscope” when investigating performance problems but it doesn’t stopthere. For it to be more useful you must be aware about the components of AAS much like drilling down on thetime components and have this kind of data over a period of time (across SNAP_IDs). Well Enterprise Managerdoes this nice graphs on the “Performance and Top Activity page” and slicing the AAS components into different“Wait Classes” and it’s got a “Historical” view which you could go back and drill down on the past load activity.But what could be the problem?
    • SI know solong AWRbecause thsome otheSo what could1) USN2) OTo be coSNAP_IDThe imagthere’s acomponenome of you hR retention phere was an ier issue whered be the alterUse the Top TNAP_IDsOr use the scrionsistent withD 335-339. Noge below is abig spike onnts.have encounteperiod (365 dainstance shutde Enterprise Mrnative?imed Eventspt together wh the initial eote that the Astacked arean the databaseered this Entays to exaggedown betweeManager reallSQL (awr_towith Perfsheetexample weAAS during thawr_chart of thee load… buterprise Manaerate it) but En the date yoly can’t just gopevents.sql)! … a great towill focus onhis period had_genwl.sql ouawr_topeventwe want toager error atEnterprise Maou want to gogive you the vand focus onool for ad-hocn the same id a sudden spiutputnts.sql using Pknow moresome point. Yanager won’to and the datevisualization ythe AAS andc performanceinterval timeike that is on tPerfsheet. It’sabout it by dYou are conflet you go bae you are nowyou need.d wait class coe visualizatio6:20 to 7:0the range of 2s clear from tdrilling downfigured withack farther alw. Or could bolumns acroson [4]1 AM that i2.2 to 3.5the image than on the AASallessatS
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