Doctrine MongoDB Object Document Mapper
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Introduction to the PHP Doctrine MongoDB Object Document Mapper

Introduction to the PHP Doctrine MongoDB Object Document Mapper

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Doctrine MongoDB Object Document Mapper Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Doctrine MongoDB Object Document Mapper (ODM) Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 2. What is Doctrine? Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 3. What is Doctrine? • Open source PHP project started in 2006 • Relational database abstraction layer. • mysql, oracle, pgsql, sqlite, etc. • Object persistence layers for RDBMS, MongoDB, etc. • Other database related functionalities. http://www.doctrine-project.org Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 4. What is MongoDB? • Key-Value document based storage system. • Bridge between traditional relational databases and key-value data stores. http://www.mongodb.org Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 5. Terminology RDBMS MongoDB Database Database Table Collection Row Document Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 6. Using MongoDB in PHP Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 7. Connecting $mongo = new Mongo('mongodb://localhost'); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 8. Selecting Databases $mongo = new Mongo('mongodb://localhost'); $db = $mongo->selectDB('dbname'); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 9. Selecting Collections $mongo = new Mongo('mongodb://localhost'); $db = $mongo->selectDB('dbname'); $coll = $db->selectCollection('users'); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 10. Inserting Documents Insert a new user document and echo the newly generated id $user = array( 'username' => 'jwage', 'password' => md5('changeme') 'active' => true ); $coll->insert($user); echo $user['_id']; Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 11. Updating Documents Update username and password and save the whole document $user = $coll->findOne(array('username' => 'jwage')); $user['username'] = 'jonwage'; $user['password'] = md5('newpassword'); $coll->save($user); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 12. Atomic Updates • Faster than saving the entire document. • Safer than updating the entire document. • Updates are done in place and are atomic. Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 13. Atomic Updates Update username and password where username is jwage $coll->update(array( 'username' => 'jwage' ), array( '$set' => array( 'username' => 'jonwage', 'password' => md5('newpassword') ) )); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 14. Atomic Updates Many other atomic operators exist for manipulating a documents data • $inc - increments field by the number value • $set - sets field to value • $unset - deletes a given field • $push - appends value to an array • $pushAll - appends multiple values to an array • $addToSet - appends multiple values to an array that don’t already exist in the array • $pop - removes the last element in an array • $pull - removes all occurrences of a value from an array • $pullAll - removes all occurrences of multiple values from an array Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 15. Removing Documents $coll->remove(array('username' => 'jwage')); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 16. Doctrine + MongoDB Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 17. DocumentManager • Abstraction on top of the PHP Mongo class • Manages the persistent state of PHP objects • Implements UnitOfWork for change tracking http://martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/unitOfWork.html Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 18. Document States • A NEW document instance has no persistent identity, and is not yet associated with a DocumentManager (i.e. those just created with the "new" operator). • A MANAGED document instance is an instance with a persistent identity that is associated with an DocumentManager and whose persistence is thus managed. • A DETACHED document instance is an instance with a persistent identity that is not (or no longer) associated with an DocumentManager. • A REMOVED document instance is an instance with a persistent identity, associated with an DocumentManager, that will be removed from the database upon transaction commit. Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 19. DocumentManager Create your DocumentManager instance for managing object persistence $config = new DoctrineODMMongoDBConfiguration(); $config->setMetadataCacheImpl(new DoctrineCommonCacheArrayCache); $driverImpl = $config->newDefaultAnnotationDriver(array(__DIR__."/Documents")); $config->setMetadataDriverImpl($driverImpl); $config->setProxyDir(__DIR__ . '/Proxies'); $config->setProxyNamespace('Proxies'); $dm = DoctrineORMDocumentManager::create($mongo, $config); Wraps around existing $mongo connection Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 20. Defining Document A document is just a regular ole’ PHP class class User { private $id; private $username; private $password; public function getId() { return $this->id; } public function getUsername() { return $this->username; } public function setUsername($username) { $this->username = $username; } public function getPassword() { return $this->password; } public function setPassword($password) { $this->password = md5($password); } } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 21. Mapping the Document /** @Document */ class User { /** @Id */ private $id; /** @String */ private $username; /** @String */ private $password; // ... } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 22. Ready to Go Doctrine now knows about this document and is able to manage its persistent state Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 23. Inserting, Updating and Deleting Documents Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 24. Inserting Documents $user = new User(); $user->setUsername('jwage'); $user->setPassword('changeme'); $dm->persist($user); $dm->flush(); // inserts document $users = array( array( 'username' => 'jwage', 'password' => 'changeme' ) ); $coll->batchInsert($users); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 25. Updating Documents $user = $dm->findOne('User', array('username' => 'jwage')); $user->setUsername('jonwage'); $user->setPassword('newpassword'); $dm->flush(); // updates document $coll->update( array('_id' => 'theid'), array('$set' => array( 'username' => 'jonwage', 'password' => '5e9d11a14ad1c8dd77e98ef9b53fd1ba' ) ); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 26. Removing Documents $user = $dm->findOne('User', array('username' => 'jwage')); $dm->remove($user); $dm->flush(); // removes document $coll->remove(array('_id' => 'theid')); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 27. Query API Fluent OO Query API Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 28. Querying MongoDB Directly // Get user array directly from mongo $user = $mongo->db->users->findOne(array('username' => 'jwage')); Returns an array of information and not a User object Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 29. Querying Through Doctrine // Get user class instance through Doctrine $user = $dm->findOne('User', array('username' => 'jwage')); Going through Doctrine gives you managed objects back instead of arrays Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 30. Querying Through Doctrine Query API // Get user class instance through Doctrine Query API $user = $dm->createQuery('User') ->field('username')->equals('jwage') ->getSingleResult(); Query for same user using the Query API Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 31. Querying Through Doctrine Query API // Find posts within a range of dates $posts = $dm->createQuery('Post') ->field('createdAt')->range($startDate, $endDate) ->execute(); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 32. Updating Documents // Update a document $dm->createQuery('User') ->update() ->field('username')->set('jonwage') ->field('password')->set('newpassword') ->field('username')->equals('jwage') ->execute(); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 33. Removing Documents // Remove a document $dm->createQuery('User') // Remove a document $dm->createQuery('User') ->remove() ->remove() ->field('username')->equals('jwage') ->execute(); ->field('username')->equals('jwage') ->execute(); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 34. Embedded Documents Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 35. class User { /** @Id */ public $id; /** @String */ public $name; /** @EmbedMany(targetDocument="Address") */ public $addresses = array(); } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 36. /** @EmbeddedDocument */ class Address { /** @String */ public $address; /** @String */ public $city; /** @String */ public $state; /** @String */ public $zipcode; } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 37. $user = new User(); $user->name = 'Jonathan H. Wage'; $address = new Address(); $address->address = '6512 Mercomatic Ct'; $address->city = 'Nashville'; $address->state = 'Tennessee'; $address->zipcode = '37209'; $user->addresses[] = $address; $dm->persist($user); $dm->flush(); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 38. $users = array( array( 'name' => 'Jonathan H. Wage', 'addresses' => array( array( 'address' => '6512 Mercomatic Ct', 'city' => 'Nashville', 'state' => 'Tennesseee', 'zipcode' => '37209' ) ) ) ); $coll->batchInsert($users); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 39. Updating Embedded Documents Uses dot notation and atomic operators for updating Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 40. $user = $dm->findOne('User', array('name' => 'Jonathan H. Wage')); $user->addresses[0]->zipcode = '37205'; $dm->flush(); $coll->update( array('_id' => 'theuserid'), array('$set' => array('addresses.0.zipcode' => '37209')) ); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 41. Add New Address Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 42. $user = $dm->findOne('User', array('name' => 'Jonathan H. Wage')); $address = new Address(); $address->address = '475 Buckhead Ave.'; $address->city = 'Atlanta'; $address->state = 'Georgia'; $address->zipcode = '30305'; $user->addresses[] = $address; $dm->flush(); $coll->update( array('_id' => 'theuserid'), array('$pushAll' => array( 'addresses' => array( array( 'address' => '475 Buckhead Ave.', 'city' => 'Atlanta', 'state' => 'Georgia', 'zipcode' => '30305' ) ) )) ); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 43. unset($user->addresses[0]->zipcode); $dm->flush(); $coll->update( array('_id' => 'theuserid'), array( '$unset' => array( 'addresses.0.zipcode' => 1 ) ) ); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 44. References MongoDB does not have joins or foreign keys but you can still store references to other documents and resolve the references in your application code. Doctrine abstracts the handling of referneces for you so working with them is seamless. Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 45. Organization /** @Document */ class Organization { /** @Id */ private $id; /** @String */ private $name; /** @ReferenceMany(targetDocument="User") */ private $users = array(); public function setName($name) { $this->name = $name; } public function addUser(User $user) { $this->users[] = $user; } } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 46. User /** @Document */ class User { /** @Id */ private $id; /** @String */ private $name; /** @ReferenceOne(targetDocument="Organization") */ private $organization; public function setName($name) { $this->name = $name; } public function setOrganization(Organization $organization) { $this->organization = $organization; $organization->addUser($this); } } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 47. $organization = new Organization(); $organization->setName('Sensio Labs'); $user = new User(); $user->setName('Jonathan H. Wage'); $user->setOrganization($organization); $dm->persist($organization); $dm->persist($user); $dm->flush(); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 48. The Result Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 49. Array ( [_id] => 4c86acd78ead0e8759000000 [name] => Sensio Labs [users] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [$ref] => User [$id] => 4c86acd78ead0e8759010000 [$db] => doctrine_odm_sandbox ) ) ) Array ( [_id] => 4c86acd78ead0e8759010000 [name] => Jonathan H. Wage [organization] => Array ( [$ref] => Organization [$id] => 4c86acd78ead0e8759000000 [$db] => doctrine_odm_sandbox ) ) Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 50. Working with References Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 51. $user = $dm->find('User', array('name' => 'Jonathan H. Wage')); // instance of uninitialized OrganizationProxy $organization = $user->getOrganization(); // calling getter or setter for uninitialized proxy // queries the database and initialized the proxy document // query invoked, organization data loaded and doc initialized echo $organization->getName(); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 52. $organization = $dm->find('Organization', array('name' => 'Sensio Labs')); $users = $organization->getUsers(); // uninitialized collection // Queries database for users and initializes collection foreach ($users as $user) { // ... } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 53. Change Tracking Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 54. UnitOfWork • Tracks changes in objects between flushes • Maintains copy of old values to compare new values to • Changesets computed and persisted in the most efficient way using atomic operators $inc, $set, $unset, $pullAll, $pushAll, etc. Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 55. Other Features Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 56. Document Query Language Language for querying documents in a similar way to SQL Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 57. BNF Grammar Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 58. QueryLanguage ::= FindQuery | InsertQuery | UpdateQuery | RemoveQuery FindQuery ::= FindClause [WhereClause] [MapClause] [ReduceClause] [SortClause] [LimitClause] [SkipClause] FindClause ::= "FIND" all | SelectField {"," SelectField} SelectField ::= DocumentFieldName SortClause ::= SortClauseField {"," SortClauseField} SortClauseField ::= DocumentFieldName "ASC | DESC" LimitClause ::= "LIMIT" LimitInteger SkipClause ::= "SKIP" SkipInteger MapClause ::= "MAP" MapFunction ReduceClause ::= "REDUCE" ReduceFunction DocumentFieldName ::= DocumentFieldName | EmbeddedDocument "." {"." DocumentFieldName} WhereClause ::= "WHERE" WhereClausePart {"AND" WhereClausePart} WhereClausePart ::= ["all", "not"] DocumentFieldName WhereClauseExpression Value WhereClauseExpression ::= "=" | "!=" | ">=" | "<=" | ">" | "<" | "in" "notIn" | "all" | "size" | "exists" | "type" Value ::= LiteralValue | JsonObject | JsonArray UpdateQuery ::= UpdateClause [WhereClause] UpdateClause ::= [SetExpression], [UnsetExpression], [IncrementExpression], [PushExpression], [PushAllExpression], [PullExpression], [PullAllExpression], [AddToSetExpression], [AddManyToSetExpression], [PopFirstExpression], [PopLastExpression] SetExpression ::= "SET" DocumentFieldName "=" Value {"," SetExpression} UnsetExpression ::= "UNSET" DocumentFieldName {"," UnsetExpression} IncrementExpression ::= "INC" DocumentFieldName "=" IncrementInteger {"," IncrementExpression} PushExpression ::= "PUSH" DocumentFieldName Value {"," PushExpression} PushAllExpression ::= "PUSHALL" DocumentFieldName Value {"," PushAllExpression} PullExpression ::= "PULL" DocumentFieldName Value {"," PullExpression} PullAllExpression ::= "PULLALL" DocumentFieldName Value {"," PullAllExpression} AddToSetExpression ::= "ADDTOSET" DocumentFieldName Value {"," AddToSetExpression} AddManyToSetExpression ::= "ADDMANYTOSET" DocumentFieldName Value {"," AddManyToSetExpression} PopFirstExpression ::= "POPFIRST" DocumentFieldName {"," PopFirstExpression} PopLastExpression ::= "POPLAST" DocumentFieldName {"," PopLastExpression} InsertQuery ::= InsertClause InsertSetClause {"," InsertSetClause} InsertSetClause ::= DocumentFieldName "=" Value RemoveQuery ::= RemoveClause [WhereClause] Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 59. Creating Query $users = $dm->query('find all FROM User'); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 60. Selecting Fields $users = $dm->query('find username FROM User'); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 61. Paging Results $users = $dm->query('find all FROM User limit 30 skip 30'); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 62. Selecting Slice of Embedded Documents $post = $dm->query('find title, comments limit 20 skip 10 FROM BlogPost WHERE id = ?', array($id)); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 63. Other Examples // Find all posts greater than or equal to a date $posts = $dm->query('find all FROM BlogPost WHERE createdAt >= ?', array($date)); // Find all posts sorted by created at desc $posts = $dm->query('find all FROM BlogPost sort createdAt desc'); // Update user $dm->query('update DocumentsUser set password = ? where username = ?', array('newpassword', 'jwage')); Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 64. Lifecycle Events Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 65. “A lifecycle event is a regular event with the additional feature of providing a mechanism to register direct callbacks inside the corresponding document classes that are executed when the lifecycle event occurs.” http://www.doctrine-project.org/projects/mongodb_odm/1.0/docs/reference/events/en#lifecycle-callbacks Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 66. • preRemove - The preRemove event occurs for a given document before the respective DocumentManager remove operation for that document is executed. • postRemove - The postRemove event occurs for an document after the document has been removed. It will be invoked after the database delete operations. • prePersist - The prePersist event occurs for a given document before the respective DocumentManager persist operation for that document is executed. • postPersist - The postPersist event occurs for an document after the document has been made persistent. It will be invoked after the database insert operations. Generated primary key values are available in the postPersist event. • preUpdate - The preUpdate event occurs before the database update operations to document data. • postUpdate - The postUpdate event occurs after the database update operations to document data. • postLoad - The postLoad event occurs for an document after the document has been loaded into the current DocumentManager from the database or after the refresh operation has been applied to it. Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 67. Event Examples Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 68. /** * @Document * @HasLifecycleCallbacks */ class BlogPost { /** @Id */ public $id; /** @Date */ public $createdAt; /** @Date */ public $updatedAt; /** @PreUpdate */ public function prePersist() { $this->createdAt = new DateTime(); } /** @PreUpdate */ public function preUpdate() { $this->updatedAt = new DateTime(); } } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 69. Migrating Data Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 70. Initial Document /** * @Document */ class User { /** @Id */ public $id; /** @String */ public $name; } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 71. New Document /** * @Document */ class User { /** @Id */ public $id; /** @String */ public $firstName; /** @String */ public $lastName; } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 72. Migrate Documents With Old Field Name /** * @Document * @HasLifecycleCallbacks */ class User { /** @Id */ public $id; /** @String */ public $firstName; /** @String */ public $lastName; /** @PreLoad */ public function preLoad(array &$data) { if (isset($data['name'])) { $e = explode(' ', $data['name']); unset($data['name']); $data['firstName'] = $e[0]; $data['lastName'] = $e[1]; } } Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org
  • 73. Questions? Jonathan H. Wage • http://www.twitter.com/jwage • http://www.jwage.com • http://www.facebook.com/jwage You can contact Jonathan about Doctrine and Open-Source or for training, consulting, application development, or business related questions at jonathan.wage@sensio.com Doctrine MongoDB ODM www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.org