Angela Kirby-Wehr Director PaTTAN-Harrisburg RtII in Pennsylvania: What We’ve Learned!
The mission of the Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network (PaTTAN) is to support the efforts and initiatives of the Bureau of Special Education, and to build the capacity of local educational agencies to serve students who receive special education services.
PDE’s Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Recognizing that the placement decision is an Individualized Education Program (IEP) team decision, our goal for each child is to ensure IEP teams begin with the general education setting with the use of supplementary aids and services before considering a more restrictive environment.
Explicitly define the connection between SAS and RtII.
What we’ve learned!
Identify robust instructional strategies and interventions.
What we’ve learned!
Apply characteristics of successful implementation in order to close the “what-how” gap.
Comprehensive School Reform Models… Instruction Use of Student Data Continuous Staff Development Leadership Policy Support Cross Role Learning Time Technical Assistance Sustained Effort
Objective #1: Define the connection between SAS and RTII.
Essential Question #1:
How would you explain the SAS/RtII connection to a colleague?
Define the connection between SAS and RtII
Tier I of the RtII framework provides access to high quality standards based curriculum and instruction for all students. RtII organizes assessment practices and requires schools to use the four types of assessments to determine the effectiveness of curriculum/intervention and drive instructional adjustments. Examples, Summative: PSSA, PVAAS Benchmark: 4 Sight Diagnostic: GRADE, GMADE Formative: Formal and Informal (progress monitoring, ticket out the door) RtII organizes curriculum and instruction to ensure all students receive the standards aligned core curriculum. ALL staff (Gen, Sp Ed, Title, ESL) assume responsibility and an active role in instruction in the core curriculum High quality instruction is at the heart of RtII. The framework organizes instruction to ensure the use of high leverage, research-based instructional practices at each Tier. Processes are in place to ensure instructional fidelity. RtII requires the selection and use of materials and resources that align with standards based curriculum and research based standard protocols to address specific skill acquisition. Research-validated interventions are implemented based on the type, level and intensity of student need . SAS and RtII: The Connection
The RtII Framework
In PA, RtII has dual meaning
A comprehensive standards-aligned school reform strategy that enables early identification and intervention for students needing additional opportunities to learn high level content -- while providing benchmark students the opportunity to enrich and “grow” their skills and talents
An alternate to the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model for the identification of students with learning disabilities
Supplemental Small Group Instruction/Intervention Period for
a FEW Students ( 5-10%)
Daily for an extended period of time
Basic Skill Deficiencies
Supplemental Instruction/ Intervention Period for SOME Students (15-20%)
3-5 times per week or cycle
Lower class size
Instructional Focus : Extended core instruction in subject area content and/or targeted instruction/intervention
High Quality Standards-Aligned Core Instruction for ALL students (100%)
English and Math Courses aligned to PA/Common Core standards and Keystones
ESL Core Instruction aligning ELP and Content Standards
Content literacy focus within all courses & use of evidenced-based strategies
Instructional Focus: Subject Area Content (e.g., 9th grade Algebra I &
9th grade English Composition)
Pennsylvania’s Secondary RtII Framework Examples of Relevant Data Current/Projected Academic Performance Data: *PVAAS Projections *Performance: PA Keystone exams *ACCESS for ELLs Data *Performance: Classroom Diagnostic Tools *4Sight *Common Summative Assessments *STAR *Formal instruments or informal observations used to inform instruction and enhance student learning outcomes. *Individually and/or group administered diagnostic measures Existing Data (Use to establish career and college risk and readiness) *PSSA * End of Year (EOY) Failing Grades in core subjects as early as 4 th grade *Failing Grades in beginning and end of 9 th grade fall semester courses *Earning Fewer than 2 credits; lack of promotion to 10 th grade * <70-80% Attendance (5 weeks or more of missed school)(>10 days in first month of 9 th grade) *Mobility between 8 th and 10 th grade *Retention in elementary or middle grades *Intervention history *Poor final grades in behavior/disengagement *Abuse/neglect Progress-Monitoring Tools : Maze passages, written expression prompts, vocabulary matching, ORF, Test of Contextual Silent Word Reading Fluency (TOCSWRF); Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE); CORE Phonics Survey. CORE Phoneme Segmentation Test
School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model
2010-2011 Work Scope
Where We’ve Been
Middle School RtII Learning Sites
Elementary and Secondary Data-Analysis & Instructional Matching
Role & Function
Colleges and Universities
Middle School Learning Sites
Partners & Research
Largest amount of movement occurs in the earliest grades
Largest amount of movement occurs from the BOY to MOY.
Reinforce the importance of early intervention and the need to attend to improving literacy skills at the youngest grades
Still change possible at higher grades as well as from MOY to EOY, the stabilization of student performance over grades and time is the predominant finding from these data
Background: PA’s Secondary RtII Subgroup
Secondary Subgroup Membership
Listed in the Framework document
Year I – 2007-08
RtII Framework (Guidelines and Recommendations; Initial Training)
Year II – 2008-09
Update/refine the Secondary RtII Framework
Development of Secondary RtII Toolkit
Tier I: High Quality Core Instruction
Year III – 2009-10
Six Learning Sites (middle school level)
Data based decision making, Infrastructure
Tier I (high leverage instructional strategies i.e. active engagement)
Year IV – 2010-11
Five Learning Sites (middle school level)
Training of Trainer of Secondary RtII Overview
Statewide Secondary Training Events
Why do we need RTII at the secondary level?
About 22% of 9 th graders in Pennsylvania fail to graduate from high school in 4 years
Of these, many lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in post-secondary education and careers that pay family sustaining incomes (PDE Ensuring Success for All High School Graduates, 2007).
The RtII Framework at Secondary
The RtII framework allows schools to:
identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes,
monitor student progress,
provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student’s responsiveness (National Center on Response to Intervention, 2008).
RtII Holds Promise…
… for middle and high schools by aligning curriculum, instruction and interventions, assessment, social/emotional and behavioral supports, and infrastructure to increase learning opportunities and improve achievement and outcomes for secondary students.
2010-11 Learning Sites
Five Middle School RtII Learning Sites:
Drexel Hill Middle School – Upper Darby SD
Roosevelt Middle School – Bristol Township SD
Swatara Middle School – Central Dauphin SD
Chartiers Valley Middle School – Chartiers Valley SD
Clairton Middle School – Clairton City SD
Project Objective for MS Learning Sites
Pennsylvania will scale up RtII efforts to include five middle school learning sites. The purpose of the Learning Project is to study the implementation of the RtII Framework in middle schools and to disseminate findings from the learning sites across the state. Schools will customize the RtII Framework to design an assessment and instructional system to provide tiered intervention supports to middle school students prior to academic failure. Increased student achievement and improved student engagement in the learning process are the expected outcomes of this longitudinal project.
Implementing the RTII Framework takes several years to implement. It’s not a “quick fix” or “magic bullet” but rather a process based on evidence-based research and practice.
The infrastructure has to be in place in order for it to be successful (changing the schedule, flexible grouping, time for teachers to meet and collaborate, etc.).
What are two or three things we can target or focus on that will really make an impact on increasing student achievement? This can be a very overwhelming process for all involved and it is easy to get off-track when everything becomes a priority or there isn’t any follow through with administrators.
Focusing on Tier 1 core instruction in which all of the content area teachers consistently use and embed effective instructional practices.
Professional development throughout the year needs to be consist with the priorities and areas of focus.
As Don Deshler says, “Students should leave their Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention classes sweating.” It’s not slowing down but working to close the achievement gap.
Schools have become proficient in having data team meetings, but what is happening in the classroom between data team meetings? Formative assessment and progress monitoring are critical on an ongoing basis.
Leaders come in many forms from the superintendent, the principal, to team leaders of teachers.
Fidelity of SAS and RTII: A Barometer for Inclusive Practices What We’ve Learned? An “all-ed” Standards Aligned Service Delivery Framework
Objective #2: Identify robust instructional strategies and interventions- What We’ve Learned- INSTRUCTION MATTERS MOST!!!!!
Data-Based Instruction and Intervention- Why?
Essential Question #2:
What instructional strategies and interventions do you currently have in place?
Critical Focus Area-Instruction: Identifying Robust Instructional Strategies and Interventions
Successful teaching accounts for up to 45% of the variance in student achievement .
(Brophy, 1986; Hattie, 2003; Rowe, 2003)
Let’s TALK ABOUT A COMMON LANGUAGE FOR INSTRUCTION!!!!!
Effective Instruction and Learning Theory
Instructional Design and Delivery- FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT …..
… The systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. Includes:
development of instructional materials and activities; and
tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities. www.umich.edu/~ed626/define.html
Purposes of Instructional Design
To identify the outcomes of the instruction
To guide the developing the instructional content (scope and sequence)
To establish how instructional effectiveness will be evaluated.
Behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism - what works where and how…we must allow circumstances surrounding the learning situation to help us decide which approach to learning is most appropriate.
It is necessary to realize that some learning problems require highly prescriptive solutions, whereas others are more suited to learner control of the environment. (Schwier, 1995)
A behavioral approach can effectively facilitate mastery of the content of a profession (knowing what)
Cognitive strategies are useful in teaching problem solving tactics where defined facts and rules are applied in unfamiliar situations (knowing how)
Constructivist strategies are especially suited to dealing with ill-defined problems through reflection-in-action. (Ertmer P. & Newby, T., 1993)
Tasks requiring a low degree of processing (e.g., basic paired associations, discriminations, rote memorization) seem to be facilitated by strategies most frequently associated with a behavioral outlook (e.g., stimulus-response, contiguity of feedback/reinforcement).
For example: word reading skills, math computation (basic and advanced), learning facts and terminology in the content areas, social skills, other?
Tasks requiring an increased level of processing (e.g., classifications, rule or procedural executions) are primarily associated with strategies having a stronger cognitive emphasis (e.g., schematic organization, analogical reasoning, algorithmic problem solving).
For example: identifying the main idea, summarizing, problem solving, learning to write (e.g., paragraph writing strategy, writing persuasive text), other?
Tasks demanding high levels of processing (e.g., heuristic problem solving, personal selection and monitoring of cognitive strategies) are frequently learned with strategies advanced by the constructivist perspective (e.g., situated learning, cognitive apprenticeships, social negotiation).
For example: comprehension monitoring, Questioning the Author (Beck & McKeown, 2006), conducting a science experiment, “interviewing” a historic figure, other?
Research-based Components of Effective Teaching
Teach essential skills and strategies.
Provide differentiated instruction based on assessment results
Provide explicit and systematic instruction with lots of practice—with and without teacher support and feedback including cumulative practice
Provide opportunities to apply skills and strategies in reading and writing meaningful text with teacher support.
Don't just "cover" critical content; be sure students learn it—monitor student progress regularly and re-teach as necessary.
High Yield Instructional Strategies Haystead, M.W. &Marzano, R,. J. (2009). Meta-analytic synthesis of studies conducted at Marzano Research Laboratory on instructional strategies. Marzano Research Laboratory. Engelwood, CO. Category Average ES Percentile Gain Identifying similarities and differences .52 20 Summarizing .49 19 Tracking student progress and scoring scales 1.00 34 Building vocabulary .51 20
High Yield Instructional Strategies Category Average ES Percentile Gain Interactive games .53 20 Setting goals/objectives .66 25 Note-taking .44 17 Nonlinguistic representations .44 17 Student discussion/chunking .43 17
Where are We Now?
Where are We Now?
Shawn: “ I used to do a lot of explaining, but now I do a lot of questioning. I used to do a lot of talking, but now I do a lot of listening. I use to think about teaching the curriculum, but now I think about teaching the student.” (Heritage, 2010, p. 4).
A Focus on Instruction
Are the curriculum and supports all focused on the same mission and outcome?
Are all services to students based upon performance data?
Can a parent take a student any building in the district and realistically expect the same positive outcome for their child?
Is the curriculum integrated across the tiers?
Are students engaged?
Clarify Theory-based Instructional Practices/Strategies – What We’ve Learned !
General Education, Special Education, Title I, ESL, Reading Coaches, Leadership exc..
FOCUS ON CORE INSTRUCTION FIRST!
Application and Discussion Activity
Tools for Secondary Response to Instruction and Intervention- Tier 1 Core Instruction
Objective #3: Apply characteristics of successful implementation in order to close the “what-how” gap.
Essential Question #3: Do you think that these are common practices?
Think deeply about the standards students need to meet and what content they need to learn.
Collaborate about how to teach those standards .
Create/use formative assessments to tell whether students have learned the material.
Look at the data to see who didn’t learn.
Collaborate about what they need to do differently in order to intervene with students who didn’t learn.
Please talk with a partner.
Agree on those activities that are usually accomplished when teachers get together.
Critical Focus Areas for Improvement: Continuous Professional Development
A Focus on Instruction
Continuous Professional Development
Joyce, B. & Showers, B. 2002
Reflection Evaluate your school’s current professional development model. Are there any action steps you could take to continue to enhance and positively influence future PD opportunities?
Science to Practice Gap
Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M. & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231).
Rethinking the Implementation Challenge
How do we build organizational and relational trust?
Trust and Organizational Values
Strongest Level Of Trust:
1 in 2 chances of making significant improvements in student learning
Weakest Level of Trust:
1 in 7 chances of making significant improvements in student learning
- Bryk and Schneider
Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement
Science to Service
Closing the What-How Gap: What Doesn’t Work
1. Information dissemination alone (research
literature, mailings, promulgation of practice
guidelines) is an ineffective implementation
2. Training (no matter how well done) by itself is an ineffective implementation method.
What Doesn’t Work
3. Implementation by edict does not work
4. Implementation by “following the money” does not work
5. Implementation without changing supporting roles and functions does not work
(Paul Nutt, 2002)
Core Components of Evidenced Based Practices
Clearly described (who/what)
Practical measure of fidelity
Fully operationalized (do/say)
Field tested (recursive revision)
Contextualized (org./systems fit)
Effective (worth the effort)
Critical Focus Areas: Cross Role Learning
The Power of PLC’s Professional Learning Communities
The most promising strategy for sustained and substantive school improvement is building capacity of school personnel to function as a professional learning community. The path to change in classrooms lies within and through professional learning communities.
Dufour & Eaker
A Learning Community is Characterized by
1. Shared Mission, Vision, and Values
2. Collaborative Teams
3. Collective Inquiry
4. Action Orientation/experimentation
5. Commitment to Continuous school improvement
6. Results Oriented
7. SMART goals
Dufour, Dufour & Eaker
“ Even the best professional
development may fail to create
meaningful and lasting changes in
teaching and learning – unless
teachers engage in ongoing
professional dialogue to develop
a reflective school community.”
Regie Routman, 2002
Spoof on Collaborative-Planning
DuFour - PLCs
Stages of Implementation
Initial Implementation (2-4 Years)
(Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005)
What do we need to know about successful
Implementation is not an event .
“ I knew achievement wouldn’t be a problem once we got the structures in place.” Terri Tomlinson, principal, George Hall Elementary School, 2004
What We’ve Learned….
Alignment, Implementation Capacity and Leadership MATTER (Fixen, 2005)
practitioners are the intervention, new notions of distributed leadership that are challenging historic bureaucratic conceptions of schools
Skills, collaboration, coordination and stamina
“ Some of our children live in pretty dire circumstances. But we can’t dwell on that, because we can’t change it. So when we come here, we have to dwell on that which is going to move our kids.”
--Barbara Adderley, former principal,
M. Hall Stanton Elementary, Philadelphia
Final Essential Question: What resources are available on the Standards Aligned System to close the “what-how” gap?
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Tom Corbett, Governor Pennsylvania Department of Education Ronald J. Tomalis, Secretary Carolyn C. Dumaresq, Ed. D., Deputy Secretary Office of Elementary and Secondary Education John J. Tommasini, Director Bureau of Special Education Patricia Hozella, Assistant Director Bureau of Special Education