The Big Picture
 Capturing the Forest then the Trees
     Sociology is classified as being
     one of the social sciences...
 Science is the study of the material world
  using human reason.
 Science, by definition, limits itself to
  what can b...
Political Science
   The scientific study of how societies govern the
    people;
   Analyzes the role of government in ...
Psychology
   concerned with the behavior, feelings and
    thoughts of individuals as influenced by social
    stimuli a...
Anthropology.
   Anthropology is a broad social science concerned with
    the study of humans from a social, biological ...
Economics
   It is perhaps the oldest of the social sciences,
    with its concern with wealth and poverty, trade
    and...
Sociology
   It is the social science discipline that
    study’s human society and social
    interaction, in group sett...
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
   A cross-disciplinary social scientific
    discipline.
   Social psychologist study the relationshi...
Dimensions Of Comte’s
Positivism
   Methodological - the application of
    scientific knowledge to physical and social
 ...
August Comte
                  The “founder of
                   sociology.”
                  Comte believed objective...
Theory

   A set of logically interrelated statements
    that attempt to describe, explain and
    predict outcomes.
Levels of Sociological Analysis
Class lets begin to identify the
various Sociological Theories
   There are 4 major sociological theories;
   Please som...
Marriage and Family Discussion
   Drawn from the textbook I adopted for my
    marriage and family course;
   Lamanna, M...
Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches
             I . Symbolic Interaction
Levels of Analysis        Micro-Sociologic...
Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches
         II. Social Exchange; aka Post Modernism
Levels of Analysis      Micro-S...
Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches
         III. Structural/Functional
Levels of Analysis     Macro-Sociological


...
IV. CONFLICT THEORY
Levels of     Macro-
Analysis      Sociological
Nature of     A social order characterized by
Society ...
Chapter 2




Sociological Research
       Methods
Chapter Outline
   Why is Sociological Research
    Necessary?
   The Sociological Research Process
   Research Methods...
Sharpening Your Focus
   What is the relationship between theory
    and research?
   What are the steps in the conventi...
Theory and Research Cycle
   A theory is a set of logically interrelated
    statements that attempt to describe, explain...
Conventional Research
Model
1.   Select and define the research problem.
2.   Review previous research.
3.   Formulate the...
Theory and Research Cycle
Deductive Approach
1. Theories generate hypotheses.
2. Hypotheses lead to observations.
3. Observations lead to the format...
Inductive Approach
1. Specific observations suggest
   generalizations.
2. Generalizations produce a tentative
   theory.
...
Sociology and Scientific
Evidence
   Many sociologists believe that two basic
    scientific standards must be met:
    1...
Sociology and Scientific
Evidence
   Sociology involves debunking,
    unmasking false ideas or opinions.
   Two approac...
Hypothesis Defined
 A predict statement derived from a theoretical perspective,
that ascribes how two or more variables re...
Variables
   The independent variable is presumed
    to cause or determine a dependent
    variable.
   The dependent v...
Demonstrating Cause-and-
Effect Relationships
1. You must show that a correlation exists
   between the variables.
2. You ...
Cause and Effect
Relationships
                 Why do older African
                  American men have a
              ...
Variables
   Independent
   Dependent
   Intervening
Hypothesized Relationships
Between Variables
   Causal Relationship
Hypothesized Relationships
Between Variables
   Inverse Causal Relationship
Hypothesized Relationships
Between Variables
   Multiple-cause Explanation
Question
   In a medical study, lung cancer could be
    the _____ variable, while smoking could
    be the ______ variab...
Answer: a
   In a medical study, lung cancer could be
    the dependant variable, while smoking
    could be the independ...
Operational Definition
   An explanation of an
    abstract concept in
    terms of observable
    features that are
    ...
Question
Validity is the extent to which a study or
   research instrument:
  A. accurately measures what it is
       sup...
Answer: A
   Validity is the extent to which a study or
    research instrument accurately measures
    what it is suppos...
Validity
   The extent to which a study or research
    instrument accurately measures what it is
    supposed to measure.
Reliability
   The extent to which a study or research
    instrument yields consistent results when
    applied to diffe...
Sharpening Your Focus
   Why is it important to have a variety of research
    methods available?

   Why is a code of e...
Triangulation
   Combining multiple methods in a given
    study.
   Triangulation refers not only to research
    metho...
ASA Code of Ethics
1.   Disclose research findings in full and
     include all possible interpretations of the
     data....
ASA Code of Ethics
3.   Protect confidential information provided
     by participants.
4.   Acknowledge research collabor...
Sampling
   In random sampling, every member of
    an entire population being studied has the
    same chance of being s...
Research and Social Factors
   Sociological research
    looks at factors that
    motivate suicide
    bombers.
   Some...
Research Methods
   Specific strategies or techniques for
    systematically conducting research.
Qualitative Research Method
1.   Researcher begins with a general
     approach rather than a highly detailed
     plan.
2...
Qualitative Research Method
3.   The study presents a detailed view of
     the topic.
4.   Access to people or other reso...
Survey Research
   Describes a population without
    interviewing each individual.
   Standardized questions force
    ...
Survey Definitions
   Respondents are persons who provide data for
    analysis through interviews or questionnaires.
  ...
Surveys and Polls
   Conducting surveys
    and polls is an
    important means of
    gathering data from
    respondent...
Computer-assisted
Telephone Interviewing




   The widespread use of answering machines, voice mail,
    and caller ID m...
Research Methods:
Field Research
   Study of social life in its natural setting.
   Observing and interviewing people wh...
Field Research




   How might sociologists study the ways in which
    parents and their college-age children cope
    ...
Approaches to Field
    Research
   Participant observation
     Collecting observations while part of the
      activit...
Approaches to Field
Research
   Case Studies - In-depth, multifaceted
    investigation of a single event, person, or
   ...
Ethnographic Research
   Sociologist Elijah
    Anderson’s 14 year study
    of two Philadelphia
    neighborhoods— one
 ...
Research Methods: Secondary
Analysis of Existing Data
   Materials studied may include:
     books, diaries, poems, graf...
Experiments
   Study the impact of certain variables on
    subjects’ attitudes or behavior.
   Designed to create “real...
Non Laboratory Settings




   Natural experiments may be conducted when an
    unforeseen event occurs. What adaptation ...
Effective Research Methods
   Which methods might
    be most effective in
    learning about the
    problems of the
   ...
Strengths and Weaknesses
of Research Methods
  Research
                       Strengths           Weaknesses
   Method
Ex...
Statistics: What We Do and
Don’t Know
               Homelessness
                                     Suicide in the U. S...
Strengths and Weaknesses
of Research Methods
  Research
                     Strengths           Weaknesses
   Method
   S...
Strengths and Weaknesses
of Research Methods
  Research
                   Strengths            Weaknesses
   Method
 Seco...
Strengths and Weaknesses
of Research Methods
 Research
                   Strengths            Weaknesses
  Method
       ...
Quantitative and Qualitative
Research
   Quantitative research focuses on data
    that can be measured numerically.
   ...
Analyzing Content
   Examination of cultural artifacts or forms of
    communication to draw conclusions about
    social...
Correlation Versus Causation
   A study might find that exposure to a suicide hot
    line is associated with a change in...
Hawthorne Effect
   A phenomenon in which changes in a
    subject’s behavior are caused by the
    researcher’s presence...
Understanding Statistical
Data Presentations
1. Read the title.
2. Check the source and explanatory notes.
3. Read the hea...
Statistics: What We Do and
Don’t Know
             Homelessness in
                                   Suicide in the U. S....
U.S. Suicides, by Sex and
Method Used, 1984 and 2004
  Method           Males           Females
                1984     2...
Grounded Theory
   Researchers who use grounded theory
    collect and analyze data simultaneously.
      For example, a...
Zellner Research
   Sociologist William Zellner wondered if
    some automobile “accidents” were
    actually suicides.
...
Zellner Research
   When he recruited respondents, he
    suggested their participation might reduce
    the number of ac...
Quick Quiz
1. The scientific method is based on the
    assumption that knowledge is best
    gained by:
     A. direct observation
 ...
Answer: E
   The scientific method is based on the
    assumption that knowledge is best gained
    by: direct observatio...
2. With _____ research, the goal is
   scientific objectivity, and the focus is on
   data that can be measured numericall...
Answer: C
   With quantitative research, the goal is
    scientific objectivity, and the focus is on
    data that can be...
3. _____ exists when two variable are
    associated more frequently than could
    be expected by chance.
     A. Multipl...
Answer: C
   Correlation exists when two variable
    are associated more frequently than
    could be expected by chance.
4. Reliability is the extent to which a study
    or research instrument:
      A. measures the phenomenon it is
         ...
Answer: B
   Reliability is the extent to which a study
    or research instrument yields
    consistent results.
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
Class 2, Final
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  1. 1. The Big Picture Capturing the Forest then the Trees Sociology is classified as being one of the social sciences. Please name the other social sciences and define these disciplines
  2. 2.  Science is the study of the material world using human reason.  Science, by definition, limits itself to what can be observed, measured and verified, known as empiricism.
  3. 3. Political Science  The scientific study of how societies govern the people;  Analyzes the role of government in regulating people’s behavior, as well as  How and to what degree it serves to protect societal members of threats (i.e., internal and external) as well as influencing/regulating services, goods and resources (i.e., energy, commodities, etc.)
  4. 4. Psychology  concerned with the behavior, feelings and thoughts of individuals as influenced by social stimuli and/or the person’s physiology.  The subfield of abnormal psychology is concerned with mental disorders, ranging from psychoses to neuroses  The applied field of clinical psychology offers direct patient-care mechanisms to treat mental problems in individuals.
  5. 5. Anthropology.  Anthropology is a broad social science concerned with the study of humans from a social, biological and cultural perspective  Physical anthropology divides into two areas, one related to tracing human evolution and the study of primates, and the other concerned with contemporary human characteristics stemming from the mixture of genetic adaptations and culture.  Sociocultural anthropology is concerned with broad aspects of the adaptation of humans to their cultures— with social organization, language, ethnographic details, and, in general, the understanding of culturally mitigated patterns of behavior
  6. 6. Economics  It is perhaps the oldest of the social sciences, with its concern with wealth and poverty, trade and industry  Concerned with understanding how societis distribute, value and produce and/or import goods and services.  Microeconomics is largely concerned with issues such as competitive markets, wage rates, and profit margins. Macroeconomics deals with broader issues, such as national income, employment, and economic systems
  7. 7. Sociology  It is the social science discipline that study’s human society and social interaction, in group settings.
  8. 8. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY  A cross-disciplinary social scientific discipline.  Social psychologist study the relationship between (the) individual(s) in affecting the  Social groups and societal context as well as how social group affiliation and society  Affect (the) individual(s).
  9. 9. Dimensions Of Comte’s Positivism  Methodological - the application of scientific knowledge to physical and social phenomena.  Social and political - the use of such knowledge to predict the likely results of different policies so the best one could be chosen.
  10. 10. August Comte  The “founder of sociology.”  Comte believed objective knowledge was attainable only through science rather than religion.  Positivism is a belief that the world can be understood through scientific inquiry.
  11. 11. Theory  A set of logically interrelated statements that attempt to describe, explain and predict outcomes.
  12. 12. Levels of Sociological Analysis
  13. 13. Class lets begin to identify the various Sociological Theories  There are 4 major sociological theories;  Please someone, identify the most conservative theory among the 4;  We will be talking about each of the theories, comparing and contrasting them in terms of the Marriage and Family Institution, what you indicated is the most popular of all the social institutions.
  14. 14. Marriage and Family Discussion  Drawn from the textbook I adopted for my marriage and family course;  Lamanna, Mary Ann & Agnes Riedmann. 2000. (7th Edition) Marriages and Families: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Wadsworth Thomas Learning Publishing Company. ISBN 0-534-52507-5
  15. 15. Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches I . Symbolic Interaction Levels of Analysis Micro-Sociological Nature of Society A social reality continuously created through social interaction. Basis of Shared symbols and Social interaction meanings Focus of Analysis Individuals of social actors
  16. 16. Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches II. Social Exchange; aka Post Modernism Levels of Analysis Micro-Sociological Nature of Society A social reality continuously created through social interaction. Basis of Social Reciprocity Social interaction Elementary Forms of Social Behavior Focus of Analysis Postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications bring into question assumptions about social life and the nature of reality
  17. 17. Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches III. Structural/Functional Levels of Analysis Macro-Sociological Nature of Society A social system consisting of interdependent units Basis of Consensus deriving from Social interaction shared beliefs and values. Focus of Analysis Social order and the perpetuation of society
  18. 18. IV. CONFLICT THEORY Levels of Macro- Analysis Sociological Nature of A social order characterized by Society competing groups and classes, each pursuing its own interests Basis of Conflict and coercion Social interaction Focus of Competition for control of limited Analysis resources
  19. 19. Chapter 2 Sociological Research Methods
  20. 20. Chapter Outline  Why is Sociological Research Necessary?  The Sociological Research Process  Research Methods  Ethical Issues in Sociological Research
  21. 21. Sharpening Your Focus  What is the relationship between theory and research?  What are the steps in the conventional research process?  What can qualitative methods add to our understanding of human behavior?
  22. 22. Theory and Research Cycle  A theory is a set of logically interrelated statements that attempt to describe, explain, and predict social events.  Research is the process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one.  The theory and research cycle consists of deductive and inductive approaches.
  23. 23. Conventional Research Model 1. Select and define the research problem. 2. Review previous research. 3. Formulate the hypothesis. 4. Develop the research design. 5. Collect and analyze the data. 6. Draw conclusions and report the findings.
  24. 24. Theory and Research Cycle
  25. 25. Deductive Approach 1. Theories generate hypotheses. 2. Hypotheses lead to observations. 3. Observations lead to the formation of generalizations. 4. Generalizations are used to support the theory, suggest modifications to it, or refute it.
  26. 26. Inductive Approach 1. Specific observations suggest generalizations. 2. Generalizations produce a tentative theory. 3. The theory is tested through the formation of hypotheses. 4. Hypotheses may provide suggestions for additional observations.
  27. 27. Sociology and Scientific Evidence  Many sociologists believe that two basic scientific standards must be met: 1. Scientific beliefs should be supported by good evidence or information. 2. These beliefs should be open to public debate and critiques from other scholars, with alternative interpretations being considered.
  28. 28. Sociology and Scientific Evidence  Sociology involves debunking, unmasking false ideas or opinions.  Two approaches:  Normative  Empirical
  29. 29. Hypothesis Defined A predict statement derived from a theoretical perspective, that ascribes how two or more variables relate to each other.
  30. 30. Variables  The independent variable is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.  The dependent variable is assumed to depend on or be caused by the independent variable(s).
  31. 31. Demonstrating Cause-and- Effect Relationships 1. You must show that a correlation exists between the variables. 2. You must ensure that the independent variable preceded the dependent variable. 3. You must make sure that any change in the dependent variable was not due to a variable outside the stated hypothesis.
  32. 32. Cause and Effect Relationships  Why do older African American men have a lower rate of suicide than older white males?  Questions like this are the foundation for study as sociologists try to understand cause-and- effect relationships.
  33. 33. Variables  Independent  Dependent  Intervening
  34. 34. Hypothesized Relationships Between Variables  Causal Relationship
  35. 35. Hypothesized Relationships Between Variables  Inverse Causal Relationship
  36. 36. Hypothesized Relationships Between Variables  Multiple-cause Explanation
  37. 37. Question  In a medical study, lung cancer could be the _____ variable, while smoking could be the ______ variable. a. dependant, independent b. independent, dependant c. valid, reliable d. reliable, valid
  38. 38. Answer: a  In a medical study, lung cancer could be the dependant variable, while smoking could be the independent variable.
  39. 39. Operational Definition  An explanation of an abstract concept in terms of observable features that are specific enough to measure the variable.  The operational definition of an A may be an exam average of 90% or above.
  40. 40. Question Validity is the extent to which a study or research instrument: A. accurately measures what it is supposed to measure. B. yields consistent results. C. approximates a true experiment. D. relies on other variables to preserve validity.
  41. 41. Answer: A  Validity is the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.
  42. 42. Validity  The extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.
  43. 43. Reliability  The extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time.
  44. 44. Sharpening Your Focus  Why is it important to have a variety of research methods available?  Why is a code of ethics for sociological research necessary?
  45. 45. Triangulation  Combining multiple methods in a given study.  Triangulation refers not only to research methods but also to multiple data sources, investigators, and theoretical perspectives in a study.  Multiple data sources include persons, situations, contexts, and time.
  46. 46. ASA Code of Ethics 1. Disclose research findings in full and include all possible interpretations of the data. 2. Safeguard the participants’ right to privacy and dignity while protecting them from harm.
  47. 47. ASA Code of Ethics 3. Protect confidential information provided by participants. 4. Acknowledge research collaboration and disclose all financial support.
  48. 48. Sampling  In random sampling, every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected.  In probability sampling, participants are deliberately chosen because they have specific characteristics, possibly including such factors as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment.
  49. 49. Research and Social Factors  Sociological research looks at factors that motivate suicide bombers.  Some researchers might ask why suicide bomber Raed Abdel-Hameed Mesk would take his own life while committing a terrorist attack.
  50. 50. Research Methods  Specific strategies or techniques for systematically conducting research.
  51. 51. Qualitative Research Method 1. Researcher begins with a general approach rather than a highly detailed plan. 2. Researcher has to decide when the literature review and theory application should take place.
  52. 52. Qualitative Research Method 3. The study presents a detailed view of the topic. 4. Access to people or other resources that can provide necessary data is crucial. 5. Appropriate research method(s) are important for acquiring useful qualitative data.
  53. 53. Survey Research  Describes a population without interviewing each individual.  Standardized questions force respondents into categories.  Relies on self-reported information, and some people may not be truthful.
  54. 54. Survey Definitions  Respondents are persons who provide data for analysis through interviews or questionnaires.  A questionnaire is a printed research instrument containing a series of items to which subjects respond.  An interview is a research method in which an interviewer asks the respondent questions and records the answers.
  55. 55. Surveys and Polls  Conducting surveys and polls is an important means of gathering data from respondents.
  56. 56. Computer-assisted Telephone Interviewing  The widespread use of answering machines, voice mail, and caller ID may make this form of research more difficult in the twenty-first century.
  57. 57. Research Methods: Field Research  Study of social life in its natural setting.  Observing and interviewing people where they live, work, and play.  Generates observations that are best described verbally rather than numerically.
  58. 58. Field Research  How might sociologists study the ways in which parents and their college-age children cope when the students first leave home.
  59. 59. Approaches to Field Research  Participant observation  Collecting observations while part of the activities of the group being studied.  Ethnography  Detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people over a period of years.
  60. 60. Approaches to Field Research  Case Studies - In-depth, multifaceted investigation of a single event, person, or social grouping.  A collective case study involves multiple cases.  An unstructured interview is an extended, open-ended interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee.
  61. 61. Ethnographic Research  Sociologist Elijah Anderson’s 14 year study of two Philadelphia neighborhoods— one populated by low-income African Americans, the other racially mixed but increasingly middle- to upper income and white—is an example of ethnographic research.
  62. 62. Research Methods: Secondary Analysis of Existing Data  Materials studied may include:  books, diaries, poems, graffiti, movies, television shows, advertisements, greeting cards, music, art, and even garbage.
  63. 63. Experiments  Study the impact of certain variables on subjects’ attitudes or behavior.  Designed to create “real-life” situations.  Used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
  64. 64. Non Laboratory Settings  Natural experiments may be conducted when an unforeseen event occurs. What adaptation strategies did these people use during the massive power outage in the northeastern United States?
  65. 65. Effective Research Methods  Which methods might be most effective in learning about the problems of the homeless, such as these street people warming themselves on a warm grate in Moscow, Russia?
  66. 66. Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Methods Research Strengths Weaknesses Method Experiments Control over Artificial (Laboratory, research. Reliance on Field, Natural) Ability to isolate volunteers or experimental captive audiences. factors. Ethical questions of Little time and deception. money required. Replication possible, except for natural experiments.
  67. 67. Statistics: What We Do and Don’t Know Homelessness Suicide in the U. S. in the U.S. Explanation The homeless often Census data places avoid interviews with Latino/as in the census takers. category of whites. Critics assert the Other than African actual number may Americans, people of be 3 million and that color are listed as the government nonwhite—other. intentionally undercounts them.
  68. 68. Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Methods Research Strengths Weaknesses Method Survey Potentially forced Useful in describing Research answers features of a large (Questionnaire, Respondent population without Interview, untruthfulness on interviewing Telephone emotional issues everyone Survey) Data that are not Relatively large always “hard facts” samples possible presented as such Multivariate analysis in statistical possible analyses
  69. 69. Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Methods Research Strengths Weaknesses Method Secondary Difficult to determine Data readily Analysis of accuracy of data. available. Existing Data Failure of data inexpensive to (Existing gathered by others to collect. Statistics, meet goals of current Longitudinal and Content research. comparative Analysis) Questions of privacy studies possible. when using diaries, Replication other personal possible. documents.
  70. 70. Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Methods Research Strengths Weaknesses Method Gain insider’s view. Field Problems Useful for studying Research generalizing results. behaviors in natural (Participant Nonprecise data settings. Observation, measurements. Longitudinal studies Case Study, Inability to test possible. Ethnography, theories. Documentation of Unstructured Difficult to make social problems of Interview) comparisons. groups possible. Not representative.
  71. 71. Quantitative and Qualitative Research  Quantitative research focuses on data that can be measured numerically.  Qualitative research focuses on interpretive description rather than statistics to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships.
  72. 72. Analyzing Content  Examination of cultural artifacts or forms of communication to draw conclusions about social life.  Cultural artifacts are products of individual activity, social organizations, technology, and cultural patterns.  Among the materials studied are diaries, love letters, poems, books, and graffiti, movies, television, advertisements, and greeting cards.
  73. 73. Correlation Versus Causation  A study might find that exposure to a suicide hot line is associated with a change in attitude toward suicide.  If some of the students who were exposed to the hot line also received psychiatric counseling, the counseling may be the “hidden” cause of the observed change in attitude.  Correlations alone do not prove causation.
  74. 74. Hawthorne Effect  A phenomenon in which changes in a subject’s behavior are caused by the researcher’s presence or by the subject’s awareness of being studied.
  75. 75. Understanding Statistical Data Presentations 1. Read the title. 2. Check the source and explanatory notes. 3. Read the headings for each column and row. 4. Examine and compare the data. 5. Draw conclusions.
  76. 76. Statistics: What We Do and Don’t Know Homelessness in Suicide in the U. S. the U.S. At least 250,000 At least 32,439 Research people in the U.S. Americans committed Finding are homeless. suicide in 2004. Possible Does that Are suicide rates Problem underestimate the different for some number of homeless categories of U.S. people? citizens?
  77. 77. U.S. Suicides, by Sex and Method Used, 1984 and 2004 Method Males Females 1984 2000 1984 2000 Total 22,689 25,566 6,597 6,873 Firearm 14,504 14,523 2,609 2,227 Poisoning 3,203 3,200 2,406 2,600 Suffocation 3,478 5,980 863 1,356
  78. 78. Grounded Theory  Researchers who use grounded theory collect and analyze data simultaneously.  For example, after in-depth interviews with 106 suicide attempters, researchers in one study concluded that half of the individuals who attempted suicide wanted both to live and to die at the time of their attempt.
  79. 79. Zellner Research  Sociologist William Zellner wondered if some automobile “accidents” were actually suicides.  By interviewing people who knew the victims, Zellner hoped to obtain information that would help determine if the deaths were accidental or intentional.
  80. 80. Zellner Research  When he recruited respondents, he suggested their participation might reduce the number of accidents in the future; but didn’t mention that he suspected autocide.  From the data he collected, Zellner concluded that at least 12% of the fatal single-occupant crashes were suicides.
  81. 81. Quick Quiz
  82. 82. 1. The scientific method is based on the assumption that knowledge is best gained by: A. direct observation B. systematic observation C. the support of good evidence D. the possibility for public debate E. all of these choices
  83. 83. Answer: E  The scientific method is based on the assumption that knowledge is best gained by: direct observation, systematic observation, the support of good evidence and the possibility for public debate.
  84. 84. 2. With _____ research, the goal is scientific objectivity, and the focus is on data that can be measured numerically. A. inductive B. deductive C. quantitative D. qualitative
  85. 85. Answer: C  With quantitative research, the goal is scientific objectivity, and the focus is on data that can be measured numerically.
  86. 86. 3. _____ exists when two variable are associated more frequently than could be expected by chance. A. Multiple causation B. Regression relation C. Correlation D. Spurious relation
  87. 87. Answer: C  Correlation exists when two variable are associated more frequently than could be expected by chance.
  88. 88. 4. Reliability is the extent to which a study or research instrument: A. measures the phenomenon it is intended to measure. B. yields consistent results. C. approximates a true experiment. D. relies on other variables to preserve validity.
  89. 89. Answer: B  Reliability is the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results.
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